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Éored

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An '''Éored''' was a division of the [[Rohirrim]] consisting of mainly one hundred and twenty riders.  The word "''Éored''" actually was used by the [[Anglo-Saxon]]s to denote a division.  Loosely speaking it referred to any subdivision of the Rohirrim cavalry that was functioning under one commander, and the number of riders fluctuated considerably depending on the situationFor example, during the [[Battle of the Pelennor Fields]], the army of the Rohirrim was divided into 3 Éoreds of roughly 2,000 riders each, commanded by [[Éomer]], [[Elfhelm]], and King [[Theoden]] himself.  In the ensuing battle, 2,000 riders, including Theoden, were killed (one Éored was not annihilated, these were combined losses for all 3 Éoreds).  Demonstrating the fluidity of the subdivision, the surviving force was then simply reorganized into 2 Éoreds: one which stayed to aide in the defense of [[Minas Tirith]], and the other which Éomer led in the march to the [[Black Gate]] as part of the combined [[Army of the West]] under [[Aragorn II|Aragorn]]. 
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An '''Éored''' was a division of the [[Rohirrim]] consisting of a considerable body of men, fully trained for war, who might serve for a specific term or sometimes as a permanent groupIn the early history of [[Rohan]] the number could vary, but in the days of King [[Folcwine]] a "full Éored" was defined as 120 men (including its captain) and was one hundredth part of the Full Muster of the Riders of the Mark.<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}, note 36</ref>  In times of war each [[Marshal of the Mark]] had as part of his "household" an Éored ready for battle that he could use as this own discretion.  If the king were riding to war his Éored was called "the King's Company".<ref>{{UT|Isen}}, Appendix (ii)</ref>
  
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In {{TA|1899}} when King [[Calimehtar]] of [[Gondor]] fought the [[Wainriders]]<ref>{{App|TA}}</ref> his cavalry joined with a great Éored led by [[Marhwini]] to attack the enemy in the flank and rear (this was when an Éored did not have a strictly determined size).<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}, ''The Northmen and the Wainriders''</ref>
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In {{TA|3019}} the Éored that [[Éomer]] used to pursue the [[Orcs]] to the border of [[Fangorn Forest]] had 120 men - [[Legolas]] counted 105 and Èomer stated that 15 men had been lost (and 12 horses).<ref>{{TT|III2}}</ref>  Later, when King [[Théoden]] rode to [[Minas Tirith]], [[Elfhelm]] commanded the Éored in which [[Dernhelm]] (and [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Merry]]) rode.<ref>{{RK|V5}}</ref>
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==Etymology==
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The word "''Éored''" actually was used by the [[Old English|Anglo-Saxon]]s to denote a division.
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{{references}}
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{{DEFAULTSORT:Eored}}
 
[[Category:Armies]]
 
[[Category:Armies]]
 
[[Category:Rohirrim]]
 
[[Category:Rohirrim]]

Revision as of 13:09, 1 November 2012

An Éored was a division of the Rohirrim consisting of a considerable body of men, fully trained for war, who might serve for a specific term or sometimes as a permanent group. In the early history of Rohan the number could vary, but in the days of King Folcwine a "full Éored" was defined as 120 men (including its captain) and was one hundredth part of the Full Muster of the Riders of the Mark.[1] In times of war each Marshal of the Mark had as part of his "household" an Éored ready for battle that he could use as this own discretion. If the king were riding to war his Éored was called "the King's Company".[2]

In T.A. 1899 when King Calimehtar of Gondor fought the Wainriders[3] his cavalry joined with a great Éored led by Marhwini to attack the enemy in the flank and rear (this was when an Éored did not have a strictly determined size).[4]

In T.A. 3019 the Éored that Éomer used to pursue the Orcs to the border of Fangorn Forest had 120 men - Legolas counted 105 and Èomer stated that 15 men had been lost (and 12 horses).[5] Later, when King Théoden rode to Minas Tirith, Elfhelm commanded the Éored in which Dernhelm (and Merry) rode.[6]

Etymology

The word "Éored" actually was used by the Anglo-Saxons to denote a division.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", note 36
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen", Appendix (ii)
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", The Northmen and the Wainriders
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Riders of Rohan"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Ride of the Rohirrim"