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Adûnaic

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'''Adûnaic''' ("Language of the West") was the language of the [[Men]] of [[Númenor]] during the [[Second Age]].
 
'''Adûnaic''' ("Language of the West") was the language of the [[Men]] of [[Númenor]] during the [[Second Age]].
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==Origins and family==
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Adûnaic was derived from the [[House of Hador|Hadorian]] tongue, related to the [[House of Bëor|Bëorian]]—collectively called [[Taliska]].
  
Adûnaic was derived from the related [[House of Bëor|Bëorian]] and [[House of Hador|Hadorian]] tongues—collectively called [[Taliska]]—and during the Second Age a Bëorian accent still survived in parts of Númenor, most notably in [[Emerië]] and around the harbour of [[Andúnië]]. Most of the House of Bëor had been killed after the [[Dagor Bragollach]], and therefore the Hadorian accent had become most prevalent. Adûnaic seems not to have been influenced by the language of the Second House of Men, the [[Haladin]] tongue, at all: when the Númenóreans returned to [[Middle-earth]] in the Second Age, they did not recognise the peoples of [[Enedwaith]] and [[Minhiriath]] as their distant kin, because these spoke Haladin languages.
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Taliska was not related to the [[Haladin]] tongue at all, therefore when the Númenóreans returned to [[Middle-earth]] in the Second Age, they did not recognise the peoples of [[Enedwaith]] and [[Minhiriath]] as their distant kin, who spoke [[Pre-Númenórean|unrelated]] languages.
  
Those Men who survived the [[War of Wrath]] and sailed to Númenor took their language with them, and in Númenor it became known as Adûnaic. Before the [[Shadow]] fell upon the isle, Adûnaic was generally considered to be a language of less prestige than the [[Elven tongues]]. Thus most important documents and maps of Númenor, and most of the lords and ladies of the [[Dúnedain]], used [[Quenya]] or [[Sindarin]] names instead of Adûnaic ones. Even most commoners knew Sindarin to some degree. However, about 2,000 years into the Second Age, the Númenóreans' feelings toward the Elves changed: they began to envy the immortality of the [[Firstborn]]. These cold feelings extended to the languages of the Elves, and thus the Kings and their followers, the [[King's Men]], used the Elven tongues less and less. Though the Kings and Queens had all taken their names in Quenya, after some time their supporters used Adûnaic translations of these names to refer to them. Eventually, the twentieth King ([[Ar-Adûnakhôr]]) took his name in Adûnaic and forbade anyone to speak the Elven tongues in his presence. However, the supremacy of Adûnaic was most strongly enforced by [[Ar-Gimilzôr]] the twenty-third King: he outlawed the use of Elvish anywhere in Númenor, which antagonized the few [[Faithful]] Númenóreans still living in the land.
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==On Numenor==
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Adûnaic was generally considered to be a language of less prestige than the [[Elvish|Elven tongues]]. Thus most important documents and maps of Númenor, and most of the lords and ladies of the [[Dúnedain]], used [[Quenya]] or [[Sindarin]] names instead of Adûnaic ones. Even most commoners knew Sindarin to some degree.  
  
However, his son Inziladûn turned from the rebellion of the Kings before him and took a Quenya name again: [[Tar-Palantir]]. Tar-Palantir repealed the ban on the Elven tongues and gave peace to the Faithful. His daughter [[Tar-Míriel|Míriel]] would probably have continued his reforms, but her cousin [[Ar-Pharazôn|Pharazôn]] seized power and, in addition, gave her an Adûnaic name (Ar-Zimraphel). Ar-Pharazôn was the last of the Kings of Númenor, for when he felt the end of his life drawing near, he took a great army to [[Aman]] in an attempt to gain immortality. As a result of this action, Númenor itself was destroyed.
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Most of the House of Bëor had been killed after the [[Dagor Bragollach]], but even during the Second Age a Bëorian accent of Adûnaic still survived in parts of Númenor, most notably in [[Emerië]] and around the harbour of [[Andúnië]].
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===Days of Pride===
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About 2,000 years into the Second Age, the Númenóreans began to envy the immortality of the [[Firstborn]], which extended to the languages of the Elves; the Kings their [[King's Men|followers]], used the Elven tongues less and less. Though the Kings and Queens had all taken their names in Quenya, after some time their supporters used their Adûnaic names to refer to them.  
  
With the Downfall of Númenor came the end of classical Adûnaic. The study and preservation of the language was neglected by the Exiles of Númenor, because they associated it with the rebellious and repressive Númenórean Kings. However, the [[Westron]] tongue or [[Common Speech]], widely spoken in [[Middle-earth]] during the [[Third Age]], was largely derived from Adûnaic.
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Eventually [[Ar-Adûnakhôr]] took his name in Adûnaic and forbade anyone to speak the Elven tongues in his presence. The supremacy of Adûnaic was most strongly enforced by [[Ar-Gimilzôr]]: he outlawed the use of Elvish anywhere in Númenor, which antagonized the few [[Faithful]] Númenóreans still living in the land.
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However, his son Inziladûn took a Quenya name again, [[Tar-Palantir]], repealed the ban on the Elven tongues and gave peace to the Faithful. His daughter [[Tar-Míriel|Míriel]] would probably have continued his reforms, but her cousin [[Ar-Pharazôn|Pharazôn]] seized power and, in addition, gave her an Adûnaic name (Ar-Zimraphel).
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==Decline==
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With the Downfall of Númenor came the end of classical Adûnaic. The study and preservation of the language was neglected by the Exiles of Númenor, because they associated it with the rebellious and repressive Númenórean Kings.  
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However, the Men of [[Middle-earth]] who descended from the early Númenórean sailors and colonists still spoke it as a [[Westron|Common Speech]]. This language eventually evolved into the [[Westron]] tongue widely spoken during the [[Third Age]].
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==Etymology==
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Adûnaic is an Anglicized name of the language. The natives probably called in its own term *"Adûnayê" which would later become [[Adûni]].{{fact}}
  
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
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*[http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Grammar.html Lalaith's Guide to Adûnaic Grammar]
 
*[http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Grammar.html Lalaith's Guide to Adûnaic Grammar]
 
*[http://www.phy.duke.edu/~trenk/elvish/index.html#course_adunaic Ni-bitha Adûnâyê] - an Adûnâic course
 
*[http://www.phy.duke.edu/~trenk/elvish/index.html#course_adunaic Ni-bitha Adûnâyê] - an Adûnâic course
[[Category:Languages]]
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*[http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dc25cq9n_6gvtpq26p Wordlist]
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[[Category:Adûnaic| ]]
 
[[de:Adûnaïsch]]
 
[[de:Adûnaïsch]]
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[[fr:encyclo/langues/adunaique]]
 
[[fi:Adûnaic]]
 
[[fi:Adûnaic]]

Revision as of 08:14, 30 November 2012

"I shan't call it the end, till we've cleared up the mess." — Sam
This article or section needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of article quality.

Adûnaic ("Language of the West") was the language of the Men of Númenor during the Second Age.

Contents

Origins and family

Adûnaic was derived from the Hadorian tongue, related to the Bëorian—collectively called Taliska.

Taliska was not related to the Haladin tongue at all, therefore when the Númenóreans returned to Middle-earth in the Second Age, they did not recognise the peoples of Enedwaith and Minhiriath as their distant kin, who spoke unrelated languages.

On Numenor

Adûnaic was generally considered to be a language of less prestige than the Elven tongues. Thus most important documents and maps of Númenor, and most of the lords and ladies of the Dúnedain, used Quenya or Sindarin names instead of Adûnaic ones. Even most commoners knew Sindarin to some degree.

Most of the House of Bëor had been killed after the Dagor Bragollach, but even during the Second Age a Bëorian accent of Adûnaic still survived in parts of Númenor, most notably in Emerië and around the harbour of Andúnië.

Days of Pride

About 2,000 years into the Second Age, the Númenóreans began to envy the immortality of the Firstborn, which extended to the languages of the Elves; the Kings their followers, used the Elven tongues less and less. Though the Kings and Queens had all taken their names in Quenya, after some time their supporters used their Adûnaic names to refer to them.

Eventually Ar-Adûnakhôr took his name in Adûnaic and forbade anyone to speak the Elven tongues in his presence. The supremacy of Adûnaic was most strongly enforced by Ar-Gimilzôr: he outlawed the use of Elvish anywhere in Númenor, which antagonized the few Faithful Númenóreans still living in the land.

However, his son Inziladûn took a Quenya name again, Tar-Palantir, repealed the ban on the Elven tongues and gave peace to the Faithful. His daughter Míriel would probably have continued his reforms, but her cousin Pharazôn seized power and, in addition, gave her an Adûnaic name (Ar-Zimraphel).

Decline

With the Downfall of Númenor came the end of classical Adûnaic. The study and preservation of the language was neglected by the Exiles of Númenor, because they associated it with the rebellious and repressive Númenórean Kings.

However, the Men of Middle-earth who descended from the early Númenórean sailors and colonists still spoke it as a Common Speech. This language eventually evolved into the Westron tongue widely spoken during the Third Age.

Etymology

Adûnaic is an Anglicized name of the language. The natives probably called in its own term *"Adûnayê" which would later become Adûni.[source?]

External Links