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Angmar War

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{{War
 
{{War
 
| previous=[[War of the Last Alliance]]
 
| previous=[[War of the Last Alliance]]
| next=War of the Ring
+
| next=[[War of the Ring]]
 
| name=Angmar War  
 
| name=Angmar War  
 
| image=
 
| image=
 
| begin={{TA|1409}}
 
| begin={{TA|1409}}
 
| end={{TA|1974}} (fighting finally ended in {{TA|1977}})
 
| end={{TA|1974}} (fighting finally ended in {{TA|1977}})
| place=[[Arnor]], [[Angmar]], [[The Shire]], [[Rivendell]], Northwest [[Wilderland]]
+
| place=[[Arnor]], [[Angmar]], [[The Shire]], [[Rivendell]], Northwest [[Rhovanion|Wilderland]]
+
| result=Destruction of the kingdoms of Arnor and Angmar, decline of the [[Dúnedain of the North]], the Eótheód take the upper Vales of the Anduin as their own from the remnants of Angmar.
| result=destruction of the kingdoms of Arnor and Angmar, decline of the [[Dúnedain of the North]], the Eótheód take the upper Vales of the Anduin as their own from the remnants of Angmar.
+
| battles= First Invasion of Angmar, [[Fall of Cardolan]], [[Fall of Amon Sûl]], Weather Hills skirmishes, [[Second Siege of Imladris]], [[Fall of Fornost]], [[Battle of Fornost]], Eótheód Incursion
| battles=Arnorian Civil War, First Invasion of Angmar, [[Fall of Cardolan]], [[Fall of Amon Sûl]], Weather Hills skirmishes, [[Second Siege of Imladris]], [[Fall of Fornost]], [[Battle of Fornost]], Eótheód Incursion.
+
|side1=[[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]], [[Lindon]], [[Rivendell]], [[Lórien]], [[Gondor]], the [[Eotheod|Eótheód]]
|side1=Arnor, Lindon, Rivendell, Gondor, Shire, Khazad-dûm, the Eótheód.
+
|side2=[[Angmar]], [[Rhudaur|Angmar-occupied Rhudaur]]
|side2=Angmar, Gundabad, Misty Mountains, Rhudaur, Ettenmoors.
+
 
|commanders1=
 
|commanders1=
* King Argeleb I
+
* [[Argeleb I]]†
* King Arvedui
+
* [[Arveleg I]]†
* Eárnur
+
* [[King of Cardolan|Last Prince of Cardolan]]†
* [[Elrond]], [[Círdan]], Princes of Cardolan.
+
* [[Araphor]]
|commanders2=The Witch-king of Angmar, Hill-men lords, orc chieftains.
+
* [[Círdan]]
 +
* [[Elrond]]
 +
* [[Arvedui]]
 +
* [[Eärnur]]
 +
|commanders2=
 +
* [[Witch-king of Angmar]]
 +
* Lord of the [[Hill-men]]
 
|}}
 
|}}
  
 
The '''Angmar War''' was a centuries-long struggle between the Northern [[Dúnedain]] kingdom and the forces of [[Angmar]], led by the [[Witch-king]].   
 
The '''Angmar War''' was a centuries-long struggle between the Northern [[Dúnedain]] kingdom and the forces of [[Angmar]], led by the [[Witch-king]].   
 
==Prelude==
 
==Prelude==
[[Image:Grant Gould - The Witch King.jpg|left|thumb|''The Witch King'' by Eliot Gould]] Arnor's greatest enemy in the north by the middle of the Third Age was Angmar, ruled by the [[Witch-king|Witch King of Angmar]]. During the reign of [[Malvegil]] (c. {{TA|1300}}), this new power arose beyond the [[Ettenmoors]]. This land became populated with the [[Orcs]] and [[Men of Darkness]], and began attacking [[Rhudaur]] and [[Cardolan]].  Eventually this Witch-king was identified as in fact the chief of [[Ringwraiths]]. Years later, [[Argeleb I]] of [[Arthedain]], reasserted control over [[Cardolan]], and fortified a line along the [[Weather Hills]].  Despite this action, Argeleb fell in battle with Angmar and its ally, [[Rhudaur]]. His son [[Arveleg I]], however, counterattacked in conjunction with Cardolan and drove the enemy back.  He held this frontier in force for quite some years successfully.
+
[[Image:Grant Gould - The Witch King.jpg|left|thumb|Eliot Gould - ''The Witch King'']] After the death of King [[Eärendur]], the [[Arnor|Kingdom of Arnor]] was split into three parts: [[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]], each ruled by one of Eärendur's sons. There was often strife between the three kingdoms, usually over control of the [[Weather Hills]] and the ''[[palantíri|palantír]]'' of [[Amon Sûl]]. During the reign of [[Malvegil]] of Arthedain (c. {{TA|1300}}), a new power arose beyond the [[Ettenmoors]]. This new realm of [[Angmar]] was ruled by the [[Witch-king]], though it was not yet known that he was indeed the chief of the [[Nazgûl|Ringwraiths]]. He filled his domain, which extended into the Upper [[Vales of Anduin|Anduin Vale]], with Orcs and other fell creatures, but also Men, most likely drawn from the local population of [[Hill-men]]. In Rhudaur, the Dúnedain there being few, a lord of the Hill-men seized power.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
By {{TA|1409}}, the [[Witch-king]] of [[Angmar]] had realised that [[Cardolan]] was [[Arthedain]]'s strongest ally and as long as it stood, so would Arthedain. A direct assault on Cardolan would probably result in disaster as Arthedain would have probably issued from the [[Weather Hills]] and struck Angmar's army in the rear or flank.
+
==The Early Wars==
 +
[[Argeleb I]] of Arthedain claimed the kingship of all Arnor, the line of [[Isildur]] having failed in Cardolan and Rhudaur. In Cardolan Argeleb was recognised as king, though it also kept its own princes. Rhudaur however resisted the claim, and openly allied with Angmar. Argeleb fortified the [[Weather Hills]],<ref>{{App|A}}</ref> but was killed in battle with Rhudaur and Angmar in {{TA|1356}}.<ref>{{App|B}}</ref> His son [[Arveleg I]] received help from Cardolan and [[Lindon]], and was able to drive the enemy back from the Weather Hills. After this the men of Arthedain and Cardolan held, for many years, a frontier along the Weather Hills, the [[East Road| Great East Road]] and the lower [[Hoarwell]]. During this period the Witch-king [[Second Siege of Imladris|besieged]] [[Rivendell]], but failed to take it.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
Therefore, Angmar was forced to launch an all out assault against the remnants of Arnor, using several forces, one to [[Second Siege of Imladris|besiege]] [[Rivendell]] to prevent it from sending aid to Arnor, and through blocking Rivendell, also blocking reinforcements from [[Lothlórien|Lórien]]. An army to tie up Arthedain along the Weather Hills and Amon Sul, and a final army to destroy Cardolan.  
+
In {{TA|1409}}, the Witch-king launched a massive assault upon Arnor, circling around the Dúnedain defences to invade Cardolan from the south. Causing huge destruction, the host of Angmar marched north to Amon Sûl. The great watchtower was taken and destroyed, although its ''palantír'' was saved and brought to [[Fornost]]. In this war both Arveleg and the Last Prince of Cardolan perished. The remaining Dúnedain of Rhudaur were slain or driven west, while those of Cardolan held out only in [[Barrow-downs|Tyrn Gorthad]] and the [[Old Forest]]. Fornost meanwhile was beset by the armies of Angmar, but Cirdan brought reinforcements out of Lindon, enabling the young king [[Araphor]] to repel his foes from the [[North Downs]].<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
Angmar's attack was highly successful. Rivendell was successfully besieged, and Arthedain was hard pressed along the length of the hills.  
+
Arnor had been weakened hugely but the Witch-king was unable to press home his advantage because, at this point, the Elves unleashed their remaining strength upon Angmar. [[Elrond]] persuaded King [[Amroth]] to send a force of [[Galadhrim]] over the [[High Pass]] to Rivendell. Together with their kinsfolk of Lindon, they dealt such a blow to Angmar that it was left in a weakened state for centuries.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
==History==
+
In 1409 the Witch-King led a great host across the river [[Hoarwell]] against land of [[Cardolan]], after being beaten back out of the lands of the [[Dúnedain]] many years before.  
+
  
When the forces of Angmar reached [[Weathertop]], the main defensive outpost in the [[Weather Hills]] and northern Cardolan, they besieged it, until they broke through.  The attackers subsequently burned and razed the fortress to the ground.  King [[Arveleg I]] was killed, and some of the Dúnedain retreated and escaped to Fornost with the [[Amon Sûl-stone|Palantír of Amon Sûl]] that was stationed there.
+
Arnor, however, was unable to recover its former strength. Much of its territory was already deserted, prompting [[Argeleb II]] to grant [[The Shire]] to the [[Hobbits]] in {{TA|1601}}.<ref>{{App|B}}</ref> In the seventeenth century a [[Great Plague]] came from out of the East, devastating [[Rhovanion]] and [[Gondor]]. While Arthedain was relatively unaffected, Cardolan suffered greatly and the remaining Dúnedain in Tyrn Gorthad perished. The Hobbits of the Shire also saw great loss,but their numbers recovered in time. In the wake of the Plague, evil spirits came down out of Angmar and Rhudaur and reanimated the corpses of the Dúnedain of the Barrow-downs.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
With it gone the Witch-King was able to take and ravage Cardolan, as well as consolidate his new conquests in [[Rhudaur]], which his [[Hill Men]] allies and subjects had taken, as well as launch attacks against the whole of [[Arthedain]]. With Arthedain's forces pinned down or routing towards [[Fornost]], Angmar's last army moved into Cardolan, which was a wide and open land, with little to no natural barriers.  
+
==The Fall of Arnor==
 +
The North-Kingdom nonetheless had peace for a time, but in the nineteenth century Angmar renewed its attacks. King [[Araval]] was slain fighting in Cardolan in {{TA|1851}}<ref>{{PM|Elendil}}, pp. 195, 209-210</ref> and, in the same year, Gondor was attacked by the [[Wainriders]] for the first time.<ref>{{App|B}}</ref> Suspecting that these attacks might be being coordinated by a single power, the two kingdoms finally brought to an end their years of estrangement. In {{TA|1940}}, [[Arvedui]] heir to the sceptre of Arnor, wedded [[Fíriel]], the daughter of King [[Ondoher]] of Gondor. Ondoher would prove to be last in a direct line of kings since [[Meneldil]] when he was slain in battle with the Wainriders four years later. Hoping to save Arnor from Angmar, Arvedui staked his claim to Gondor, by right of his descent from Elendil and by that of his wife. The lords of Gondor however were not for reunification, and instead gave the crown to [[Eärnil II|Eärnil]] the commander who had defeated the Wainriders. Arvedui did not press his claim, and Eärnil maintained good relations with Arnor, promising them aid against the continuing attacks of Angmar. Arvedui succeeded his father in {{TA|1964}}, but Arnor's strength was fast dwindling. In {{TA|1973}} he sent a message to Eärnil that they were in great straits, and that Angmar was preparing it final assault. Eärnil accordingly mustered a great army, including many horsemen from Vales of Anduin, under the command of his son Prince [[Eärnur]]. The Gondorian force put to sea, but would not arrive in Lindon before Angmar struck.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
It is probable that the Prince of Cardolan gathered what men he could quickly, rather than mustering his entire army, so Angmar's advance could be stopped and Cardolan's agricultural needs would not be laid waste. The Prince attacked, failed and was killed in the process. However, he did enough damage to Angmar so that it lacked the strength to capture [[Tyrn Gorthad]], Cardolan's capital in the [[Barrow Downs]].
+
In {{TA|1974}} the Witch-king amassed his forces and launched a final assault on Arthedain. The Witch-king attacked during the harsh winter weather and [[Fall of Fornost|took]] Fornost. The remnants of the Arnorian forces fled west over the river Lune but Arvedui held out for a short time in the North Downs. He and a few surviving companions were eventually forced to flee to the abandoned mines of the northern [[Ered Luin]]. With their food running our, they sought refuge with the [[Lossoth]] of [[Forochel]]. Receiving word of the King's whereabouts, Cirdan sent a ship to the [[Icebay of Forochel|Icebay]] to rescue him. Against the advice of the Lossoth chieftain, Arvedui boarded the ship, which that night was wrecked by a storm from the North. Arvedui drowned, and with him were lost the ''palantíti'' of Fornost and Amon Sûl.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
However despite permanently ending the threat that was Cardolan, Angmar was unable to ride its momentum, and was driven away from the city of [[Fornost]] and the [[North Downs]] by the forces of the new King [[Araphor]] and Lord [[Círdan]] of [[Lindon]].
+
==The End of the War==
 +
[[File:Earnur RotWK.png|thumb|Earnur of Gondor]]
 +
The Witch-king now sat the throne in the king's palace, but it was not long before Eärnur arrived in much joy and wonder among Elves and Men. There were so many ships that the fleet filled [[Forlond]], [[Harlond (Lindon)|Harlond]], and the [[Grey Havens]]; amazing the people of the North, even though this was but a small part of Gondor's strength. Círdan summoned the Noldor, Sindar and what remained of the Men of Arnor then the allied host marched across the [[Lune]], to challenge the occupiers of Fornost.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
  
Overall, the Campaign was a huge success for Angmar. No longer was Arnor an unbreakable wall of defenses. Although the [[Second Siege of Imladris]] was broken and Arthedain routed Angmar with the help of [[Lindon]], Angmar had destroyed Amon Sül, Arthedain's chief defence in the Weather Hills, and Cardolan was on the verge of destruction and highly vulnerable.
+
The Witch-king, confident and proud after his recent victories, did not prepare for a siege, but sent his army out to face the Host of the West. The Men and Elves came down from Hills of [[Evendim]] and engaged the forces of Angmar in the plains between [[Nenuial]] and Fornost. The Host of the West had the better of the [[Battle of Fornost|fighting]], and the Angmarim began to retreat back to Fornost. Suddenly, out of the north, came the main body of the Gondorian cavalry, which had passed around the Hills and outflanked the enemy. They fell upon the Angmarim and scattered them in a great rout. The Witch-king gathered what troops he could and tried to lead them back to Angmar but was overtaken by the cavalry of Gondor led by Prince Eärnur. At the same time a force of Elves led by [[Glorfindel]] came up out from Rivendell and the remnants of Angmar's army were utterly destroyed. Near the end of the battle, the Witch-king attempted to slay Eärnur, but fled upon the appearance of Glorfindel. Angmar was obliterated and all its people west of the Mountains were killed or driven off, but the Witch-king himself fled east, to resurface in [[Mordor]] in T.A. 2002. Two years after the [[Battle of Fornost]], [[Frumgar]] led the [[Éothéod]] into the northern Vales of Anduin, and drove away what remained of the people of Angmar on the east side of the Mountains, this being the final act of the conflict.<ref>{{App|A}}</ref>
===The Plague===
+
Another threat appeared to the northern successor kingdoms, a [[Great Plague|major plague]] from the east, in the vicinity of the [[Sea of Rhûn]], northeast of [[Mordor]]. This plague, which affected [[Rhovanion]] and barely western Gondor, spread northwards to [[Cardolan]].
+
  
In Cardolan, it struck severely, wiping out the last of Dúnedain at the [[Barrow-downs]]. The Witch-king, exploiting the tragedy, sent evil spirits, the [[Barrow-wights]], to infest the area. The Hobbits of the Shire were damaged by it, but not heavilyThe plague lost its strength, however, at this point, so that most of [[Arthedain]] was unaffected.
+
The destruction brought about by this final war left Arnor unable to function as a kingdom, and Arvedui's son [[Aranarth]] would be known as merely the [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain|Chieftain of the Dúnedain]]. Arthedain and Cardolan were both heavily depopulated while Rhudaur was deserted, its population having been killed or driven away at the end of the war.<ref name=ford>{{FR|I12}}</ref> [[Mount Gundabad]] however continued to be used as a capital by the Orcs.<ref>{{H|17}}</ref> Fornost was not resettled after the war and stayed a lonely ruin, feared by the Men of [[Bree]], who called it Deadmen's DikeNot until a thousand years later after the [[War of the Ring]] under King [[Aragorn|Elessar]] was it re-established.<ref>{{RK|VI7}}</ref>
  
Since Rhudaur had fallen under Angmar's control, this left Arthedain without any allies that could aid them to a great extent. In {{TA|1973}} Arnor sent a message to King [[Eärnil II]] of [[Gondor]] that they were in great straits, and that Angmar was preparing it final assault. The King sent his son Prince [[Eärnur]], with a fleet of ships to [[Lindon]] to aid Arnor but would not arrive in time.  
+
Later in the Third Age, Gandalf believed that Sauron wished to re-establish control over Angmar and the northern passes, but was unable to do so because of the [[Durin's Folk|Dwarves]] and the [[Men of Dale]]. Without them (according to Gandalf), there would have been war in Eriador again.<ref>{{UT|9}}</ref>
  
In {{TA|1974}} Angmar amassed its forces and launched a final assault on Arthedain. The Witch-king attacked during the harsh winter weather and [[Fall of Fornost|took]] Arthedain's capital [[Fornost]]. The remnants of it's forces fled west over the river Lune to the realm of Lindon and Arvedui was lost in the [[Icebay of Forochel]] and then he died when his ship sank in a storm.
 
  
==Aftermath==
+
== Portrayal in adaptations ==
[[File:Earnur RotWK.png|thumb|Earnur of Gondor]]
+
'''2012: ''[[The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey]]'':'''
The Witch-king took the throne in the king's palace, until a year later in {{TA|1975}} when Eärnur arrived in much joy and wonder among Elves and Men. There were so many ships that the fleet filled [[Forlond]], [[Harlond]], and the [[Grey Havens]]; and from them came a large host of Gondor and [[Rhovanion (realm)|Rhovanion]]. Círdan summoned Elves and the remnants of the Dúnedain of the North and marched north across the [[Lune]], to challenge the Witch-king in Fornost.
+
:During the [[White Council]], [[Galadriel]] indirectly mentions this war and its aftermath.  
  
The Allies passed of over the southern Hills of [[Evendim]] when they were met by the forces of Angmar in the plains between [[Nenuial]] and Fornost. A [[Battle of Fornost|great battle]] began, and when Angmar forces began to retreat back to Fornost when out of the north came the main body of the Allies' horsemen (which had passed around the hills) and scattered in a rout. The Witch-king fled north to the lands of Angmar nut was overtaken by the cavalry of Gondor led by Prince Eärnur and a force from Rivendell led by [[Glorfindel]]. No Man or Orc of that realm remained west of the [[Misty Mountains]]. Angmar was obliterated but the Witch-King fled east over the [[Misty Mountains]].
+
{{references}}
  
Arnor was destroyed as a kingdom, though the [[Dúnedain of Arnor]] continued through the [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain|Chieftains]]
+
{{seq-start}}
 +
{{seq
 +
| prev=[[War of the Last Alliance]]
 +
| list=Major events of [[Middle-earth]]
 +
| dates={{TA|1409}} - {{TA|1974}}
 +
| next=[[Watchful Peace]]
 +
}}
 +
{{seq-end}}
  
Fornost was not resettled after the war.  It became a deserted place, feared by the men of [[Bree]], who called it Deadman's Dike.  Not until a thousand years later after the [[War of the Ring]] under King [[Aragorn|Elessar]] was it refounded.
 
  
{{references}}
 
* {{App|A}}
 
* {{App|B}}
 
  
 
[[Category:Conflicts of the Third Age]]
 
[[Category:Conflicts of the Third Age]]
 +
[[Category:Wars]]

Latest revision as of 21:29, 17 May 2018

"Tell me, who are you, alone, yourself and nameless?" - Tom Bombadil
This article describes a concept which is mentioned in J.R.R. Tolkien's works, but was never given a definite name.
Previous war: War of the Last Alliance
Next war: War of the Ring
Angmar War
Beginning: T.A. 1409End: T.A. 1974 (fighting finally ended in T.A. 1977)
Place: Arnor, Angmar, The Shire, Rivendell, Northwest Wilderland
Outcome: Destruction of the kingdoms of Arnor and Angmar, decline of the Dúnedain of the North, the Eótheód take the upper Vales of the Anduin as their own from the remnants of Angmar.
Major battles: First Invasion of Angmar, Fall of Cardolan, Fall of Amon Sûl, Weather Hills skirmishes, Second Siege of Imladris, Fall of Fornost, Battle of Fornost, Eótheód Incursion
Combatants
Arthedain, Cardolan, Lindon, Rivendell, Lórien, Gondor, the EótheódAngmar, Angmar-occupied Rhudaur
Commanders
* Argeleb I* Witch-king of Angmar
  • Lord of the Hill-men
  • The Angmar War was a centuries-long struggle between the Northern Dúnedain kingdom and the forces of Angmar, led by the Witch-king.

    Contents

    [edit] Prelude

    Eliot Gould - The Witch King
    After the death of King Eärendur, the Kingdom of Arnor was split into three parts: Arthedain, Cardolan and Rhudaur, each ruled by one of Eärendur's sons. There was often strife between the three kingdoms, usually over control of the Weather Hills and the palantír of Amon Sûl. During the reign of Malvegil of Arthedain (c. T.A. 1300), a new power arose beyond the Ettenmoors. This new realm of Angmar was ruled by the Witch-king, though it was not yet known that he was indeed the chief of the Ringwraiths. He filled his domain, which extended into the Upper Anduin Vale, with Orcs and other fell creatures, but also Men, most likely drawn from the local population of Hill-men. In Rhudaur, the Dúnedain there being few, a lord of the Hill-men seized power.[1]

    [edit] The Early Wars

    Argeleb I of Arthedain claimed the kingship of all Arnor, the line of Isildur having failed in Cardolan and Rhudaur. In Cardolan Argeleb was recognised as king, though it also kept its own princes. Rhudaur however resisted the claim, and openly allied with Angmar. Argeleb fortified the Weather Hills,[2] but was killed in battle with Rhudaur and Angmar in T.A. 1356.[3] His son Arveleg I received help from Cardolan and Lindon, and was able to drive the enemy back from the Weather Hills. After this the men of Arthedain and Cardolan held, for many years, a frontier along the Weather Hills, the Great East Road and the lower Hoarwell. During this period the Witch-king besieged Rivendell, but failed to take it.[4]

    In T.A. 1409, the Witch-king launched a massive assault upon Arnor, circling around the Dúnedain defences to invade Cardolan from the south. Causing huge destruction, the host of Angmar marched north to Amon Sûl. The great watchtower was taken and destroyed, although its palantír was saved and brought to Fornost. In this war both Arveleg and the Last Prince of Cardolan perished. The remaining Dúnedain of Rhudaur were slain or driven west, while those of Cardolan held out only in Tyrn Gorthad and the Old Forest. Fornost meanwhile was beset by the armies of Angmar, but Cirdan brought reinforcements out of Lindon, enabling the young king Araphor to repel his foes from the North Downs.[5]

    Arnor had been weakened hugely but the Witch-king was unable to press home his advantage because, at this point, the Elves unleashed their remaining strength upon Angmar. Elrond persuaded King Amroth to send a force of Galadhrim over the High Pass to Rivendell. Together with their kinsfolk of Lindon, they dealt such a blow to Angmar that it was left in a weakened state for centuries.[6]

    Arnor, however, was unable to recover its former strength. Much of its territory was already deserted, prompting Argeleb II to grant The Shire to the Hobbits in T.A. 1601.[7] In the seventeenth century a Great Plague came from out of the East, devastating Rhovanion and Gondor. While Arthedain was relatively unaffected, Cardolan suffered greatly and the remaining Dúnedain in Tyrn Gorthad perished. The Hobbits of the Shire also saw great loss,but their numbers recovered in time. In the wake of the Plague, evil spirits came down out of Angmar and Rhudaur and reanimated the corpses of the Dúnedain of the Barrow-downs.[8]

    [edit] The Fall of Arnor

    The North-Kingdom nonetheless had peace for a time, but in the nineteenth century Angmar renewed its attacks. King Araval was slain fighting in Cardolan in T.A. 1851[9] and, in the same year, Gondor was attacked by the Wainriders for the first time.[10] Suspecting that these attacks might be being coordinated by a single power, the two kingdoms finally brought to an end their years of estrangement. In T.A. 1940, Arvedui heir to the sceptre of Arnor, wedded Fíriel, the daughter of King Ondoher of Gondor. Ondoher would prove to be last in a direct line of kings since Meneldil when he was slain in battle with the Wainriders four years later. Hoping to save Arnor from Angmar, Arvedui staked his claim to Gondor, by right of his descent from Elendil and by that of his wife. The lords of Gondor however were not for reunification, and instead gave the crown to Eärnil the commander who had defeated the Wainriders. Arvedui did not press his claim, and Eärnil maintained good relations with Arnor, promising them aid against the continuing attacks of Angmar. Arvedui succeeded his father in T.A. 1964, but Arnor's strength was fast dwindling. In T.A. 1973 he sent a message to Eärnil that they were in great straits, and that Angmar was preparing it final assault. Eärnil accordingly mustered a great army, including many horsemen from Vales of Anduin, under the command of his son Prince Eärnur. The Gondorian force put to sea, but would not arrive in Lindon before Angmar struck.[11]

    In T.A. 1974 the Witch-king amassed his forces and launched a final assault on Arthedain. The Witch-king attacked during the harsh winter weather and took Fornost. The remnants of the Arnorian forces fled west over the river Lune but Arvedui held out for a short time in the North Downs. He and a few surviving companions were eventually forced to flee to the abandoned mines of the northern Ered Luin. With their food running our, they sought refuge with the Lossoth of Forochel. Receiving word of the King's whereabouts, Cirdan sent a ship to the Icebay to rescue him. Against the advice of the Lossoth chieftain, Arvedui boarded the ship, which that night was wrecked by a storm from the North. Arvedui drowned, and with him were lost the palantíti of Fornost and Amon Sûl.[12]

    [edit] The End of the War

    Earnur of Gondor

    The Witch-king now sat the throne in the king's palace, but it was not long before Eärnur arrived in much joy and wonder among Elves and Men. There were so many ships that the fleet filled Forlond, Harlond, and the Grey Havens; amazing the people of the North, even though this was but a small part of Gondor's strength. Círdan summoned the Noldor, Sindar and what remained of the Men of Arnor then the allied host marched across the Lune, to challenge the occupiers of Fornost.[13]

    The Witch-king, confident and proud after his recent victories, did not prepare for a siege, but sent his army out to face the Host of the West. The Men and Elves came down from Hills of Evendim and engaged the forces of Angmar in the plains between Nenuial and Fornost. The Host of the West had the better of the fighting, and the Angmarim began to retreat back to Fornost. Suddenly, out of the north, came the main body of the Gondorian cavalry, which had passed around the Hills and outflanked the enemy. They fell upon the Angmarim and scattered them in a great rout. The Witch-king gathered what troops he could and tried to lead them back to Angmar but was overtaken by the cavalry of Gondor led by Prince Eärnur. At the same time a force of Elves led by Glorfindel came up out from Rivendell and the remnants of Angmar's army were utterly destroyed. Near the end of the battle, the Witch-king attempted to slay Eärnur, but fled upon the appearance of Glorfindel. Angmar was obliterated and all its people west of the Mountains were killed or driven off, but the Witch-king himself fled east, to resurface in Mordor in T.A. 2002. Two years after the Battle of Fornost, Frumgar led the Éothéod into the northern Vales of Anduin, and drove away what remained of the people of Angmar on the east side of the Mountains, this being the final act of the conflict.[14]

    The destruction brought about by this final war left Arnor unable to function as a kingdom, and Arvedui's son Aranarth would be known as merely the Chieftain of the Dúnedain. Arthedain and Cardolan were both heavily depopulated while Rhudaur was deserted, its population having been killed or driven away at the end of the war.[15] Mount Gundabad however continued to be used as a capital by the Orcs.[16] Fornost was not resettled after the war and stayed a lonely ruin, feared by the Men of Bree, who called it Deadmen's Dike. Not until a thousand years later after the War of the Ring under King Elessar was it re-established.[17]

    Later in the Third Age, Gandalf believed that Sauron wished to re-establish control over Angmar and the northern passes, but was unable to do so because of the Dwarves and the Men of Dale. Without them (according to Gandalf), there would have been war in Eriador again.[18]


    [edit] Portrayal in adaptations

    2012: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey:

    During the White Council, Galadriel indirectly mentions this war and its aftermath.

    References

    1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B
    4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B
    8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil", pp. 195, 209-210
    10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B
    11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    13. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    14. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A
    15. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Flight to the Ford"
    16. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "The Clouds Burst"
    17. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound"
    18. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Quest of Erebor"
    Preceded by:
    War of the Last Alliance
    Major events of Middle-earth
    T.A. 1409 - T.A. 1974
    Followed by:
    Watchful Peace