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Arda

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{{disambig-two|the mythological world created by [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]|annual published by [[Forodrim|Arda-sällskapet/Forodrim]]|[[Arda (annual)]]}}
 
{{location
 
{{location
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| name=Arda
 
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| etymology=[[Valarin|V.]] ''[[Aþâraphelûn]]''
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| type=World
 
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'''Arda''' ([[Quenya|Q]]: "Realm", pronounced {{IPA|[ˈarda]}}) was the [[Quenya]] name for the world as a whole, containing the continental masses of [[Middle-earth]] and [[Aman]] in particular.  It lay within [[Eä]] as a creation of [[Eru Ilúvatar]].   
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'''Arda''' ([[Quenya|Q]]: "Realm", pronounced {{IPA|[ˈarda]}}) was the [[Quenya]] name for the world as a whole, containing the continental masses of [[Middle-earth]] and [[Aman]] in particular.  It lay within [[Eä]] as a creation of [[Ilúvatar|Eru Ilúvatar]].   
  
 
==Beginnings==
 
==Beginnings==
 
:''Main article: [[Years of the Lamps]]''
 
:''Main article: [[Years of the Lamps]]''
 
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[[File:Jacek Kopalski - Creation of Arda.jpg|thumb|''Creation of Arda'' by Jacek Kopalski|left]]
[[Image:Ted Nasmith - Illuin, Lamp of the Valar.jpg|thumb|left|150px|''Illuin, Lamp of the Valar'' by [[Ted Nasmith]] (actually [[Ormal]])]]
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Arda was first brought into existence with the [[Music of the Ainur]], for the purpose of creating a home for the [[Children of Ilúvatar]].  Ilúvatar appointed the [[Valar]] as its masters, and they invented its geography, for at the time it was largely without feature.  They gave it symmetry and form.
 
Arda was first brought into existence with the [[Music of the Ainur]], for the purpose of creating a home for the [[Children of Ilúvatar]].  Ilúvatar appointed the [[Valar]] as its masters, and they invented its geography, for at the time it was largely without feature.  They gave it symmetry and form.
  
 
As for light source, the Valar decided upon [[two lamps]].  One, a blue light, was placed at the north, and it was called [[Illuin]].  The other, a golden light, was placed at the very southernmost point, and was called [[Ormal]].  [[Aulë]], craftsman of the Valar, forged two towers: [[Helcar]] and [[Ringil]], placed at the north and south  respectively.  The Valar chose as their own home the green isle [[Almaren]].
 
As for light source, the Valar decided upon [[two lamps]].  One, a blue light, was placed at the north, and it was called [[Illuin]].  The other, a golden light, was placed at the very southernmost point, and was called [[Ormal]].  [[Aulë]], craftsman of the Valar, forged two towers: [[Helcar]] and [[Ringil]], placed at the north and south  respectively.  The Valar chose as their own home the green isle [[Almaren]].
  
It was at that time that [[Melkor]] made his first attempt, spreading chaos across Arda.  He destroyed the Lamps and the Towers, ruining the symmetry of the world.  Continents formed: especially [[Aman]], [[Endor]], the [[Dark Land]], the [[Hither Lands]], and the [[Land of the Sun]].  So Arda was created.
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It was at that time that [[Morgoth|Melkor]] made his first attempt, spreading chaos across Arda.  He destroyed the Lamps and the Towers, ruining the symmetry of the world.  Continents formed: especially [[Aman]], [[Endor]], the [[Dark Land]], the [[Hither Lands]], and the [[Land of the Sun]].  So Arda was created.
  
 
==Geography==
 
==Geography==
  
 
===Before the Shifting===
 
===Before the Shifting===
[[Image:Almaren.png|thumb|Original symmetric shape of Arda with [[Almaren]] in the middle. The [[Iron Mountains]] can be seen on the North, created by [[Melkor]] to protect himself from the Valar.]]
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[[File:Almaren.png|thumb|Original symmetric shape of Arda with [[Almaren]] in the middle. The [[Iron Mountains]] can be seen on the North, created by [[Morgoth|Melkor]] to protect himself from the Valar.]]
 
Arda was originally flat, like a plate.  Encircling the continents was [[Ekkaia]], the Encircling Sea.  Farthest to the West was the great continent of [[Aman]], composed primarily of two geographical features: the [[Plain of Valinor]], and the [[Pelóri]] Mountains.  [[Taniquetil]] was the highest mountain in this range, and in the world.  To the east was the great sea of [[Belegaer]].
 
Arda was originally flat, like a plate.  Encircling the continents was [[Ekkaia]], the Encircling Sea.  Farthest to the West was the great continent of [[Aman]], composed primarily of two geographical features: the [[Plain of Valinor]], and the [[Pelóri]] Mountains.  [[Taniquetil]] was the highest mountain in this range, and in the world.  To the east was the great sea of [[Belegaer]].
  
Across Belegaer, to the north, was [[Endor]], or [[Middle-earth]].  The west side of this land mass was called [[Beleriand]], the north [[Dor Daidelos]], and the east [[Palisor]].  According to [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]’s earlier maps, it was in Palisor that there was the great inland [[Sea of Helcar]], and the shores of [[Cuiviénen]].  Middle-earth was dominated by many mountain ranges and forests.
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Across Belegaer, to the north, was [[Endor]], or [[Middle-earth]].  The west side of this land mass was called [[Beleriand]], the north [[Dor Daidelos]], and the east [[Palisor]].  According to [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]'s earlier maps, it was in Palisor that there was the great inland [[Sea of Helcar]], and the shores of [[Cuiviénen]].  Middle-earth was dominated by many mountain ranges and forests.
  
To the south of Endor, connected by the [[Straits of the World]], was the [[Hither Lands]] according to Tolkien’s earlier maps, corresponding closely with Africa.
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To the south of Endor, connected by the [[Straits of the World]], was the [[Hither Lands]] according to Tolkien's earlier maps.
  
Across the great [[East Sea]]  was the [[Dark Land]], also known as the South Land.  No-one lived there, [[elf]] or [[dwarf]], except for perhaps some wild men.
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Across the great [[East Sea]]  was the [[Dark Land]], also known as the South Land.
  
To the farthest east possible was the [[Land of the Sun]], with a great curved mountain range called the [[Wall of the Sun]].  In the ''[[Ambarkanta]]'' it is called the “''Dark Land of the Sun''”.  Corresponding to Taniquetil was the mountain [[Kalórmë]].
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To the farthest east possible was the [[Uttermost East]], with a great curved mountain range called the [[Wall of the Sun]].  In the ''[[Ambarkanta]]'' it is called the “''Dark Land of the Sun''”.  Corresponding to Taniquetil was the mountain [[Kalormë]].
 
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===2nd Age and Beyond===
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===Second Age and Beyond===
 
During the tumultuous [[War of Wrath]], the Valar broke and reshaped much of the world.  The most prominent change was the drowning of Beleriand.  Also [[Ossë]] raised [[Andor]] – a large, star-shaped isle – out of Belegaer.  The world was stretched and made into the shape of a sphere.  The continents shifted.
 
During the tumultuous [[War of Wrath]], the Valar broke and reshaped much of the world.  The most prominent change was the drowning of Beleriand.  Also [[Ossë]] raised [[Andor]] – a large, star-shaped isle – out of Belegaer.  The world was stretched and made into the shape of a sphere.  The continents shifted.
  
[[Image:Darrell Sweet - The Fall of Numenor.jpg|thumb|left|200px|''The Fall of Númenor'' by [[Darrell Sweet]]]]The second great change was the [[Akallabêth|Drowning of Númenor]].  The most significant changes were that Andor sank and Aman was removed from the [[Circles of the World]] – Arda, inaccessible save by the [[Straight Way]].
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[[File:Darrell Sweet - The Fall of Numenor.jpg|thumb|left|200px|''The Fall of Númenor'' by [[Darrell Sweet]]]]The second great change was the [[Akallabêth|Drowning of Númenor]].  The most significant changes were that Andor sank and Aman was removed from the [[Circles of the World]] – Arda, inaccessible save by the [[Straight Way]].
 
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The Númenóreans were great sailors and explorers.  They may have been the ones to discover the [[Dark Land]] and the [[Land of the Sun]].  Otherwise, Tolkien tells us little about the lands beyond Aman and Middle-earth.
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==Eschatology==
 
==Eschatology==
 
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The [[Elves]] held to the concept of [[Arda Marred]].  In the beginning, at the time of the Music of the Ainur, was [[Arda Unmarred]].  According to the idea of Arda Unmarred, the world was originally “unstained” by evil.  It became Arda Marred after Melkor entered and introduced chaos.  They also clung to the idea that one day the world would become [[Arda Healed]].  According to this belief, Arda Healed will not come about until the [[Dagor Dagorath]], the Last Battle.
The [[Elves]] held to the concept of [[Arda Marred]] (Quenya: ''[[Arda Hastaina]]'').  In the beginning, at the time of the Music of the Ainur, was [[Arda Unmarred]].  According to the idea of Arda Unmarred, the world was originally “unstained” by evil.  It became Arda Marred after Melkor entered and introduced chaos.  They also clung to the idea that one day the world would become [[Arda Healed]] (Quenya: ''[[Arda Envinyanta]]'').  According to this belief, Arda Healed will not come about until the [[Dagor Dagorath]], the Last Battle.
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==Other names==
 
==Other names==
Arda is the [[Quenya]] name of the World, with its atmosphere and the celestial objects. The term [[Ambar]] is roughly equivalent and it probably refers to Earth without the celestial objects. It was also called Kingdom of Earth/Arda/Manwë and Little Kingdom.  
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''Arda'' is the [[Quenya]] name of the World, with its atmosphere and the celestial objects. The term [[Ambar]] is roughly equivalent and it probably refers to Earth without the celestial objects. It was also called Kingdom of Earth/Arda/Manwë and Little Kingdom.  
  
In [[Adûnaic]] the world was called [[Kamât]], [[Daira]] or [[Aban]] (as in [[Ar-Abattârik]]).  
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In [[Adûnaic]] the world was called [[Kamât]], [[Daira]] or [[Aban]] (as in [[Ar-Abattârik]]).{{fact}}
  
In [[Valarin]] it was [[Aþâraphelûn]] from which Arda is linguistically a derivation from.
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The [[Valarin]] name, from which Quenya ''Arda'' derived, was '''''Aþāraphelūn''''' ("appointed dwelling").<ref>{{WJ|AD1}}, p. 401</ref>
  
Though not found in Tolkien's writings, the [[Sindarin]] name would likely have been '''Ardhon'''.
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==Tengwa==
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[[File:Arda (tengwa).gif|left]]''Arda'' is also the name in Quenya of the twenty-sixth letter of the [[Tengwar]] alphabet.<ref>{{App|Letters}}, Note, ''The names of the letters''</ref>  It is a modification of ''[[Rómen]]'' (letter 25).  In written Quenya ''Arda'' is used for '''RD'''.  In other modes this letter represents voiceless '''R''' (or '''RH''').<ref>{{App|Letters}}, Note, ''The additional letters''</ref>  The Westron name for this letter is '''''Rhó'''''.<ref>See [[Westron Tengwar]]</ref>
  
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==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
Arda comes from the [[Primitive Quendian]] word ''[[gardâ]]'' meaning "bounded or defined place, region", itself from [[Sundocarmë|Root]] [[GAR]]/[[ƷAR]].<ref>{{HM|WJ}}, pp. 402, 413</ref>
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''Arda'' derives from the [[Primitive Quendian]] word ''gardā'' meaning "bounded or defined place, region".<ref>{{WJ|Quendi}}, pp. 402, 413</ref>
 
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As the name of the world, it refers to the Earth as the Kingdom of Manwë.
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==Theories==
 
==Theories==
According to the measurements of [[Karen Wynn Fonstad]], flat Arda's diameter was probably about 6,800 miles.
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According to the measurements of [[Karen Wynn Fonstad]], flat Arda's diameter was probably about 6,800 miles.<ref>[[Karen Wynn Fonstad]], ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]''</ref>
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
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* [[:Category:Arda]]
 
* [[:Category:Arda]]
 
* [[:Category:Images of Arda]]
 
* [[:Category:Images of Arda]]
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{{References}}
 
{{cosmology}}
 
{{cosmology}}
  
 
[[Category:Arda| Arda]]
 
[[Category:Arda| Arda]]
[[Category:Quenya Locations]]
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[[Category:Quenya locations]]
 
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[[Category:Quenya nouns]]
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[[Category:Tengwar letters]]
 
[[de:Arda]]
 
[[de:Arda]]
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[[fa:آردا]]
 
[[fi:Arda]]
 
[[fi:Arda]]
 
[[fr:/encyclo/geographie/astronomie/arda]]
 
[[fr:/encyclo/geographie/astronomie/arda]]

Revision as of 20:19, 29 October 2012

This article is about the mythological world created by Tolkien. For the annual published by Arda-sällskapet/Forodrim, see Arda (annual).
Steven White Jr. - Arda001.gif
Arda
Physical Description
TypeWorld
Location
InhabitantsValar, Maiar, Elves, Men, Dwarves, etc.
DescriptionThe World

Arda (Q: "Realm", pronounced [ˈarda]) was the Quenya name for the world as a whole, containing the continental masses of Middle-earth and Aman in particular. It lay within as a creation of Eru Ilúvatar.

Contents

Beginnings

Main article: Years of the Lamps
Creation of Arda by Jacek Kopalski

Arda was first brought into existence with the Music of the Ainur, for the purpose of creating a home for the Children of Ilúvatar. Ilúvatar appointed the Valar as its masters, and they invented its geography, for at the time it was largely without feature. They gave it symmetry and form.

As for light source, the Valar decided upon two lamps. One, a blue light, was placed at the north, and it was called Illuin. The other, a golden light, was placed at the very southernmost point, and was called Ormal. Aulë, craftsman of the Valar, forged two towers: Helcar and Ringil, placed at the north and south respectively. The Valar chose as their own home the green isle Almaren.

It was at that time that Melkor made his first attempt, spreading chaos across Arda. He destroyed the Lamps and the Towers, ruining the symmetry of the world. Continents formed: especially Aman, Endor, the Dark Land, the Hither Lands, and the Land of the Sun. So Arda was created.

Geography

Before the Shifting

Original symmetric shape of Arda with Almaren in the middle. The Iron Mountains can be seen on the North, created by Melkor to protect himself from the Valar.

Arda was originally flat, like a plate. Encircling the continents was Ekkaia, the Encircling Sea. Farthest to the West was the great continent of Aman, composed primarily of two geographical features: the Plain of Valinor, and the Pelóri Mountains. Taniquetil was the highest mountain in this range, and in the world. To the east was the great sea of Belegaer.

Across Belegaer, to the north, was Endor, or Middle-earth. The west side of this land mass was called Beleriand, the north Dor Daidelos, and the east Palisor. According to Tolkien's earlier maps, it was in Palisor that there was the great inland Sea of Helcar, and the shores of Cuiviénen. Middle-earth was dominated by many mountain ranges and forests.

To the south of Endor, connected by the Straits of the World, was the Hither Lands according to Tolkien's earlier maps.

Across the great East Sea was the Dark Land, also known as the South Land.

To the farthest east possible was the Uttermost East, with a great curved mountain range called the Wall of the Sun. In the Ambarkanta it is called the “Dark Land of the Sun”. Corresponding to Taniquetil was the mountain Kalormë.

Second Age and Beyond

During the tumultuous War of Wrath, the Valar broke and reshaped much of the world. The most prominent change was the drowning of Beleriand. Also Ossë raised Andor – a large, star-shaped isle – out of Belegaer. The world was stretched and made into the shape of a sphere. The continents shifted.

The Fall of Númenor by Darrell Sweet
The second great change was the Drowning of Númenor. The most significant changes were that Andor sank and Aman was removed from the Circles of the World – Arda, inaccessible save by the Straight Way.

Eschatology

The Elves held to the concept of Arda Marred. In the beginning, at the time of the Music of the Ainur, was Arda Unmarred. According to the idea of Arda Unmarred, the world was originally “unstained” by evil. It became Arda Marred after Melkor entered and introduced chaos. They also clung to the idea that one day the world would become Arda Healed. According to this belief, Arda Healed will not come about until the Dagor Dagorath, the Last Battle.

Other names

Arda is the Quenya name of the World, with its atmosphere and the celestial objects. The term Ambar is roughly equivalent and it probably refers to Earth without the celestial objects. It was also called Kingdom of Earth/Arda/Manwë and Little Kingdom.

In Adûnaic the world was called Kamât, Daira or Aban (as in Ar-Abattârik).[source?]

The Valarin name, from which Quenya Arda derived, was Aþāraphelūn ("appointed dwelling").[1]

Tengwa

Arda (tengwa).gif
Arda is also the name in Quenya of the twenty-sixth letter of the Tengwar alphabet.[2] It is a modification of Rómen (letter 25). In written Quenya Arda is used for RD. In other modes this letter represents voiceless R (or RH).[3] The Westron name for this letter is Rhó.[4]


Etymology

Arda derives from the Primitive Quendian word gardā meaning "bounded or defined place, region".[5]

Theories

According to the measurements of Karen Wynn Fonstad, flat Arda's diameter was probably about 6,800 miles.[6]

See Also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Four. Quendi and Eldar: Appendix D. *Kwen, Quenya, and the Elvish (especially Ñoldorin) words for 'Language': Note on the 'Language of the Valar'", p. 401
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Writing", "The Fëanorian Letters", Note, The names of the letters
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Writing", "The Fëanorian Letters", Note, The additional letters
  4. See Westron Tengwar
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Four. Quendi and Eldar", pp. 402, 413
  6. Karen Wynn Fonstad, The Atlas of Middle-earth
Middle-earth Cosmology
 Constellations  Anarríma · Durin's Crown · Menelmacar · Remmirath · Soronúmë · Telumendil · Valacirca · Wilwarin
Stars  Alcarinquë · Borgil · Carnil · Elemmírë · Helluin · Luinil · Lumbar · Morwinyon · Nénar · Star of Eärendil · Til 
The Airs  Aiwenórë · Fanyamar · Ilmen · Menel · Vaiya · Veil of Arda · Vista
Narsilion  Arien · Moon (Isil, Ithil, Rána) · Sun (Anar, Anor, Vása) · Tilion
See Also  Abyss · Arda · Circles of the World · · Timeless Halls · Two Lamps · Two Trees · Void