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Arnor

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{{sources}}
 
 
{{kingdom
 
{{kingdom
 
| image=
 
| image=
 
| name=Arnor
 
| name=Arnor
 
| pronun=
 
| pronun=
| othernames=Kingdom of the North, The Lost Realm, The North-kingdom, The North-realm, The Northern Kingdom
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| othernames=Kingdom of the North, the Lost Realm, the North-kingdom, the North-realm
 
| location=Most of [[Eriador]]
 
| location=Most of [[Eriador]]
 
| capital=[[Annúminas]], later [[Fornost Erain]]
 
| capital=[[Annúminas]], later [[Fornost Erain]]
 
| towns=[[Lond Daer]], [[Tharbad]], [[Bree]], [[Hobbiton]]
 
| towns=[[Lond Daer]], [[Tharbad]], [[Bree]], [[Hobbiton]]
 
| regions=[[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]], [[Rhudaur]]
 
| regions=[[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]], [[Rhudaur]]
| population=Primarily [[Men of Arnor]] (many [[Hobbits]] in [[the Shire]] and [[Bree-land]])
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| population=[[Arnorians]]<br>[[Middle Men]]<br>[[Hobbits|Hobbits]]<br>Few [[Elves]]
| language=[[Westron]], [[Númenórean Sindarin]], [[Quenya]], [[Hobbitish]]
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| language=[[Westron]], [[Sindarin]], [[Quenya]], [[Hobbitish]]
 
| govern1=[[Kings of Arnor|King of Arnor]]/[[High King of the Dúnedain|High King]]
 
| govern1=[[Kings of Arnor|King of Arnor]]/[[High King of the Dúnedain|High King]]
| govern2=
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| govern2=Council of Arnor
 
| govern3=
 
| govern3=
 
| currency=
 
| currency=
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| event1=Founded
 
| event1=Founded
 
| event1date={{SA|3320}}
 
| event1date={{SA|3320}}
| event2=Independence
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| event2=Divided
| event2date={{TA|2}}
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| event2date={{TA|861}}
| event3=Divided
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| event3=Abandoned
| event3date={{TA|861}}
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| event3date={{TA|1974}}
| event4=Destroyed
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| event4=Re-formed
| event4date={{TA|1974}}
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| event4date={{FoA|1}}
| event5=Re-formed
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| event5=
| event5date=[[1 May]], {{TA|3019}}
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| event5date=
 
| followedby=[[Reunited Kingdom]]
 
| followedby=[[Reunited Kingdom]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Pronounce|Arnor.mp3|Ardamir}}
 
{{Pronounce|Arnor.mp3|Ardamir}}
  
'''Arnor''', or the '''North-kingdom''', was one of the two [[Kingdoms of the Dúnedain]] (the other being [[Gondor]] in the south) in the land of [[Eriador]] in [[Middle-earth]].  It was the original seat of the [[High King (Dúnedain)|High King]] who ruled over both Arnor and [[Gondor]].
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'''Arnor''', or the '''Northern Kingdom''', was a kingdom of the [[Dúnedain]] in the land of [[Eriador]] in [[Middle-earth]].  It was the original seat of the [[Kings of Arnor|High King of Arnor]] who ruled over both Arnor and [[Gondor]].
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==Geography==
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Arnor included most of [[Eriador]], extending from the gulf of [[Lune]] (west of which was [[Lindon]]) to the river [[Greyflood]] and its tributary, the river [[Loudwater]] (east of which was [[Rivendell]]).<ref>{{App|Eriador}}</ref>
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The Dunedain of Arnor dwelt in many places in Eriador, but most of the population centered around the region of [[Arthedain]].  The Dunedain mainly inhabited the cities of [[Fornost]] and the capital city of [[Annúminas]], as well as along the [[Baranduin]] and the gulf of [[Lune]].  By the later [[Third Age]], the settlements of the Dúnedain of [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]] had decayed and become ruins and [[barrows]].<ref name=rings/>
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=== Regions ===
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* [[Arthedain]], the core of the north-kingdom bordering the Lune
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* [[Cardolan]], the lands south of the [[East Road]], east of the Brandywine
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* [[Rhudaur]], the region between the Weather Hills and the [[Misty Mountains]]
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=== Cities, Fortresses and Watchtowers ===
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* [[Annúminas]], the old capital on the shore of Lake Evendim
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* [[Fornost]], the new capital of the successor state of Arthedain
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* [[Bree]], a trading centre located on the East Road
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* [[Lond Daer]], an old harbour town founded by Númenóreans
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* [[Weathertop|Amon Sûl]], also called Weathertop, a watchtower on the highest of the Weather Hills
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* [[Elostirion]], an elven watchtower in the [[Tower Hills]]
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* [[Tharbad]], a fortified town and port on each side of the River Greyflood on the southern border of Arnor
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=== The ''[[Palantíri]]'' ===
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The '''[[Palantíri]]''' or 'seeing stones' were spherical stones that could communicate with each other and give visual impressions to a skilled remote user.  [[Elendil]] and his two sons originally divided these stones between themselves.  They were usually heavily guarded and under the control of the kings.  There were seven of these stones in total.  The northern kingdom possessed three, and the southern kingdom held the other four.<ref name=rings/>{{rp|362}} They were:
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* The [[Elostirion-stone]], kept in the tower of [[Elostirion]]. This was used to communicate with The Master Stone in [[Tol Eressëa]], the Lonely Isle of the Elves, along the [[Straight Road]].  It could not contact the other Middle-Earth stones.
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* The [[Amon Sûl-stone]], kept in the watchtower of [[Weathertop|Amon Sûl]].  The [[Amon Sûl-stone]] was a large stone, and the northern kings often used it to contact its corresponding large stone in Gondor, at the great dome of [[Osgiliath]].
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* The [[Annúminas-stone]], kept in Arnor's capital city of [[Annúminas]].  Though one of the lesser stones, it was the stone most often used by the [[Kings of Arnor]].
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
 
<!--"Events" in Eriador infobox links here-->
 
<!--"Events" in Eriador infobox links here-->
===Second Age===
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=== Early History ===
==== Foundation ====
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Before the foundation of Arnor, [[Eriador]] was home to [[Middle Men]] of [[Edain]] stock. As a result of the slow emigration that started under the [[Númenórean]]  kings [[Tar-Meneldur]] and [[Tar-Aldarion]], a sizable [[Númenórean]] formed. These early colonists soon interbred with the indigenous population of Eriador.  The [[Faithful]] favored [[Eriador]] over the more southern regions (Gondor) because the [[Elves of Lindon]] under their high king [[Gil-galad]] lived very near across the river [[Lhûn]].<ref name=rings>{{S|Rings}}</ref>{{rp|360}} Conversely, the [[King's Men]] settled more to the south in the later days. Thus, [[Elendil]] arrived in an area populated by people who were mainly still [[Faithful]] and [[Elf-friends]], where much of the knowledge of the [[Elder Days]] was preserved.
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[[File:Steven White Jr. -  Ann18.jpg|left|220px|thumb|Steven White, Jr. - ''Palace Complex at Annúminas'']]
 
[[File:Steven White Jr. -  Ann18.jpg|left|220px|thumb|Steven White, Jr. - ''Palace Complex at Annúminas'']]
After the [[Downfall of Númenor]], [[Elendil]] and his followers reached [[Eriador]] by sailing through the [[Gulf of Lune]] and into the lands of [[Lindon]]. There, he befriended the [[High King of the Noldor]] [[Gil-galad]].<ref name=rings>{{S|Rings}}</ref> [[Elendil]] founded Arnor at the end of the [[Second Age]] ({{SA|3320}}), while his sons founded the southern realm of [[Gondor]]. He established the city of [[Annúminas]] as his capital.  Both kingdoms of the [[Númenóreans]] were known as the [[Realms in Exile|Realms in-Exile]], and their histories are intertwined.
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Elendil and his people reached Eriador by sailing through the [[Gulf of Lune]]and up the [[Lune]] river. The [[High King of the Noldor]] [[Gil-galad]] and his people aided the fledgling realm.  [[Gil-galad]] even built the [[Emyn Beraid]] for Elendil.<ref name=rings/> Elendil established the city of [[Annúminas]] as his capital. [[Elendil]] founded Arnor at the end of the [[Second Age]] ({{SA|3320}}), while his sons founded the southern realm of [[Gondor]].  Both kingdoms of the [[Númenóreans]] were known as the realms in Exile, and their history is intertwined.
  
The [[Númenóreans]] in Arnor dwelt in many places in [[Eriador]], especially along the courses of the [[Lhûn]] and the [[Baranduin]]; but their greatest city was at [[Annúminas]] beside Lake [[Nenuial]] where was the seat of their king.<ref name=rings/>  They also dwelt at [[Fornost Erain]]  upon  the  [[North  Downs]],  in  [[Cardolan]],  and  in  the  hills  of  [[Rhudaur]]. The [[Númenóreans]] also raised a great watchtower upon  [[Amon  Sûl]].<ref name=rings/> Arnor was, from the beginnning of their history, always less powerful and less populous than its southern counterpart, [[Gondor]], despite its presendence over the South-kingdom as the seat of the [[High King (Dúnedain)|High King]].<ref>{{PM|Atani}}</ref>
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=== [[War of the Last Alliance]] ===
  
In the region of Arnor, many already dwelt who were in whole or part of [[Númenorean]] blood who welcomed Elendil.<ref name=rings/><ref name=languages>{{App|Men}}</ref> In fact, the native [[Men of Eriador]] accepted the new rule of [[Elendil]] and helped to people and maintain the many places that the [[Númenóreans]] built.<ref name=rings/> When [[Elendil]] led his people into the south to battle against [[Sauron]], these [[Men of Eriador]] marched alongside the [[Dúnedain]].<ref name=rings/> The [[Men of Bree]] also became subjects of Arnor.<ref name=languages/>
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[[File:The Lord of the Rings - The Motion Picture Trilogy - Isildur 2.jpg|right|220px|thumb|''Isildur'' in Peter Jackson's ''Fellowship of the Ring'']]<br> At the end of the Second Age, Arnor allied itself with Noldorin High King [[Gil-galad]] in a great alliance opposing Sauron, the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]. In conjunction with southern forces from Gondor, they confronted Sauron's armies in the [[War of the Last Alliance]].  This war was fought over a period of several years on the [[Battle of Dagorlad|Dagorlad plain]] and in Mordor itself, at the [[Siege of Barad-dûr]]. Both [[Elendil]] and his son [[Anárion]] were slain in this conflict, but [[Isildur]] cut the One Ring from Sauron's finger and prevailed.  [[Elrond]], Gil-galad's herald, urged Isildur to cast it into Mount Doom and destroy it, but Isildur refused, and the Ring survived.  Arnor suffered heavy casualties in the war, and some parts of the land were partially depopulated.<ref>''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1018.</ref>  
  
==== War of the Last Alliance ====
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Arnor's second king was [[Isildur]] (who was also King of [[Gondor]]). He was killed in {{TA|2}} by [[Orcs]] in the disastrous [[Disaster of the Gladden Fields]]. His three eldest sons were killed with him, but the fourth and youngest, [[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]], who had remained at [[Rivendell]] due to his youth, became king of Arnor. [[Isildur]] also lost [[the One Ring]] at this time, when it slipped off his finger as he tried to escape pursuing Orcs. Arnor never fully recovered from the devastating loss of manpower it suffered in the war against Sauron.
[[File:The Lord of the Rings - The Motion Picture Trilogy - Isildur 2.jpg|right|220px|thumb|''Isildur'' in Peter Jackson's ''Fellowship of the Ring'']]
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In {{SA|3430}}, Arnor allied itself with [[Gil-galad]] in a great alliance opposing Sauron, the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]. In conjunction with southern forces from Gondor, they confronted Sauron's armies in the [[War of the Last Alliance]]. [[Elendil]], [[King of Arnor]] was slain in this conflict, but [[Isildur]], his eldest son, cut the One Ring from Sauron's finger and prevailed.
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Because [[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]] and his heirs did not claim the throne of [[Gondor]] the realms were split, but Arnor's ruler kept the title [[High King of the Dúnedain|High King]], whereas in the south the ruler was 'just' King.
  
===Third Age===
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=== Decline and Breakup ===
==== Decline and Breakup ====
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Isildur, the second [[King of Arnor]], was killed in {{TA|2}} in the [[Disaster of the Gladden Fields]].<ref name=ta>{{App|TA}}</ref> His three eldest sons were killed with him, but the fourth and youngest, [[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]], who had remained at [[Rivendell]] due to his youth, became the first [[King of Arnor|King of an independent Arnor]] in {{TA|10}}.<ref name=ta/> [[Valandil (King of Arnor)|Valandil]], [[Isildur]]'s youngest son, took up his rule in [[Annúminas]], but his people were diminished and there were too few people to maintain the places Elendil built; many of the [[Men of Arnor]] (both [[Númenóreans]] and the native [[Men of Eriador]])  had died in the [[War of the Last Alliance]] and at the [[Disaster of the Gladden Fields]].<ref name=rings/>
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After the reign of [[Eärendur]] in {{TA|861}}, the seventh king that followed [[Valandil]], Arnor became divided into the kingdoms of [[Arthedain]], [[Cardolan]], and [[Rhudaur]], owing to dissensions and strife among his sons.<ref name=rings/><ref name=eriador>{{App|Eriador}}</ref>
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{{Transcribed|Tengwar Arnor.png|Arnor|Tengwar, Sindarin mode}}
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Arnor's capital was [[Annúminas]] on [[Lake Evendim]], but by {{TA|861}} [[Fornost Erain]] had taken its place. No longer a site of such importance, Annúminas became depopulated and was slowly abandoned.
  
==== Conflicts with Angmar====
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<br>After the death of its tenth king, [[Eärendur (King of Arnor)|Eärendur]], in {{TA|861}}, Arnor was shaken by civil war between his three sons. The eldest, [[Amlaith]], claimed Kingship over all Arnor but was reduced to only ruling the region of Arthedain as his kingdom, while the other sons founded the breakaway kingdoms of [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]].<ref name=ta>{{App|TA}}</ref>
{{main|Angmar War}}
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[[File:Grant Gould - The Witch King.jpg|right|thumb|220px|Eliot Gould - ''The Witch King'']]  
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There was often strife between the three kingdoms, usually over control of the [[Weather Hills]] and the [[palantíri|palantír]] of [[Amon Sûl]].<ref name=eriador/> Seeing the disunion in Arnor, Arnor's greatest enemy in the north by the middle of the Third Age (c. {{TA|1300}}) was [[Angmar]], ruled by the [[Witch-king|Witch King of Angmar]].<ref name=eriador/>  
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Years later, Arnor was refounded ''de jure'' by the seventh [[King of Arthedain]], [[Argeleb I]], when [[Cardolan]] placed itself under the suzerainty of [[Arthedain]] as the line of [[Isildur]] had failed in the other kingdoms.<ref name=eriador/> This claim was resisted in [[Rhudaur]], where the [[Dúnedain]] there were few, and a lord of the [[Hill-men]], whose allegiance lay with [[Angmar]] in secret, seized power.<ref name=eriador/>
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Arnor was refounded ''de jure'' by [[Arthedain]]'s king [[Argeleb I]], when [[Cardolan]] placed itself under the suzerainty of Arthedain. However, even Arthedain was eventually destroyed. The people of Arnor were mostly wiped out by the continuing wars, but the [[Hobbits]] survived in [[the Shire]], Men survived in [[Bree]] and probably other villages, and the [[Dúnedain]] of Arnor created new homes in the [[Angle of Eriador|Angle]] south of [[Rivendell]], where some of them became known as the [[Rangers of the North]].<ref name="lotr1018">{{App|Arnor}}</ref>
  
Although the northern parts of [[Arthedain]] were little affected, Arnor was heavily affected by the [[Great Plague]]; the joint garrison (of Arnor and Gondor) at [[Tharbad]] ceased to exist<ref>{{UT|6d}}</ref> and the last of the Dúnedain of [[Cardolan]] died on the [[Barrow-downs]].<ref name=eriador/>
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=== Conflict with Angmar ===
  
In spite of the North-kingdom variously and periodically allying with [[Cardolan]], [[Lindon]], [[Imladris]], and [[Lothlórien]], the forces of [[Angmar]] proved too powerful as it systematically destroyed the remnants of Arnor. It was only in {{TA|1974}} that the [[Witch-king]] invaded [[Arthedain]] and captured [[Fornost Erain]], thus ending the dominion of the North-kingdom. Although the [[Host of the West (Arnor)|Host of the West]] destroyed Angmar in the following year, the people of Arnor had become too diminished to restore their kingdom.<ref name="eriador"/><ref name=gondor>{{App|Gondor}}</ref>
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[[File:Grant Gould - The Witch King.jpg|right|thumb|220px|Eliot Gould - ''The Witch King'']] Arnor's greatest enemy in the north by the middle of the Third Age was Angmar, ruled by the [[Witch-king|Witch King of Angmar]].  During the reign of Malvegil (c. {{TA|1300}}), this new power arose beyond the [[Ettenmoors]].  This land became populated with the Orcs and men of Sauron, and began attacking Rhudaur and Cardolan.  This Witch-king was later identified as in fact the chief of Sauron's Ringwraiths.
  
[[The Shire]] was a fertile and well-tilled part of Arnor, but deserted during the waning days of the Kingdom when it was known as the splinter-realm of [[Arthedain]]; it had been the hunting grounds of the [[King of Arnor]]. The [[Hobbits]] (who lived in [[Dunland]] and parts of depopulated [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]]) got official permission from King [[Argeleb II]] at [[Fornost]] to settle the lands. This was finally done in {{TA|1601}} by [[Bree-hobbits]] led by the brothers [[Marcho]] and [[Blanco]]. By 30 years later, almost all of the [[Hobbits]] of Middle-earth could be found in [[the Shire]]. The [[Shire-hobbits]] considered themselves as subjects of the [[Kings of Arthedain|King]], at least nominally, considering the isolation of their country. Nevertheless, the [[Hobbits]] sent some support troops to the great battles Arnor fought against [[Angmar]].<ref name=eriador/> After the fall of Arnor, [[the Shire]] remained a minor but independent political unit and the title of [[Thain]] was established to fill the absence of a Kingship.<ref name=eriador/>
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Years later, Argeleb I of [[Arthedain]], reasserted control over [[Cardolan]], and fortified a line along the [[Weather Hills]].  At this time the line of Isildur had failed in [[Cardolan]] and [[Rhudaur]], and an evil Hillman had seized control of [[Rhudaur]]. The chieftain swore allegiance to [[Angmar]], and together they attacked the newly fortified Weather Hills, killing Argeleb. His son Arveleg, however, counterattacked in conjunction with Cardolan and drove the enemy back. Arveleg successfully held the frontier along the Weather Hils in force for quite some years.
  
==== Chieftains of the Dúnedain ====
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[[File:BFME2 - Weathertop.jpg|left|220px|thumb|''Weathertop'' from BFME2]] Then in {{TA|1409}}, Angmar crossed the Hoarwell river into Cardolan and attacked againThis time, Weathertop was captured and Arveleg fell in battle.  While Amon Sûl fell, the ''palantír'' was recovered and taken to Fornost. With Amon Sûl lost, Angmar had free reign over the all the lands of Cardolan, and the population was forced to hold out in the Barrow Downs. The Dunedain did not have the strength to drive away the forces of Angmar, so the elves of [[Lindon]], [[Rivendell]], and [[Lorien]] defeated the armies of Angmar.
{{main|Chieftains of the Dúnedain}}
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[[Aranarth]], son of [[Arvedui Last-king]], perceived that the Northern Dúnedain had become too few to reestablish the North-kingdom. Instead of calling himself a king or prince, he assumed the title [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain|Chieftain]].  Through them the royal line of Arnor was maintained successfully for a thousand years until the refounding of Arnor on [[1 May]], {{TA|3019}}.  Aranarth brought his son, [[Arahael]], to [[Rivendell]] and gave him to [[Elrond]] for safekeeping until he was grown. This became a tradition that was followed through the rest of the Third Age. Thus, the [[Dúnedain of Arnor]] were reduced to a few [[Ranger of the North|Rangers]] wandering secretly in the wild. It was only in [[Imladris]] where they were remembered; there, the [[Heir of Isildur|Heirs of Isildur]] were harboured and their line, from father to son, remained unbroken.<ref name=rings/><ref name=eriador/>
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==== War of the Ring ====
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=== The [[Great Plague]] ===
{{main|War of the Ring}}
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Although the North-kingdom had been fallen for a thousand years by the time the [[War of the Ring]] broke out, northern forces did participate in the War. [[Aragorn|Aragorn II]], the [[Chieftain of the Dúnedain]] at the time, was a [[Rangers of the North|Ranger of the North]], and there were several hundred of them operating during the conflict. 
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===Later History===
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Another threat appeared to the northern successor kingdoms, this time one that swords and spears could not deter. A [[Great Plague|major plague]] began in the east, in the vicinity of the [[Sea of Rhûn]], northeast of [[Mordor]].  After doing great damage in  [[Rhovanion]], it struck [[Osgiliath]] in Gondor in {{TA|1636}}, killing [[Telemnar|King Telemnar]] and his family. In seriously affected areas, the plague killed 50% or more of the populace. This plague, which barely affected western Gondor, spread northwards to [[Cardolan]].
[[File:Rowena Morrill - The Last Steward of Gondor.jpg|right|220px|thumb|Rowena Morrill - ''The Last Steward of Gondor'']]
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[[Aragorn|Aragorn II]] was crowned by [[Gandalf]] as King Elessar, as refounded Arnor as part of the greater [[Reunited Kingdom]]. The Reunited Kingdom included all the lands of Arnor in the North; all of [[Eriador]], except the [[Lindon|regions]] beyond the [[Lune]], and the lands east of [[Greyflood]] and [[Loudwater]], in which lay [[Rivendell]] and [[Eregion]].<ref name="eriador"/> [[The Shire]] was an exception to this, and though it lay within Arnor, Elessar made a law that Men should not enter it, not even himself,<ref name="eriador"/> making it a free land under the protection of the North Sceptre. Furthermore the three offices of the [[Shire-hobbits]] ([[Thain]], [[Master of Buckland]] and [[Mayor of Michel Delving|Mayor]]) became Councellors of the North-kingdom.<ref name=later>{{App|Later}}</ref>
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He rebuilt [[Annúminas]] and when he went north, would rule from there.<ref name="eriador"/> He also had the ruins of [[Fornost Erain]] rebuilt and made into a great city once again.<ref name="Bound">{{RK|VI7}}</ref>
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In Cardolan, it struck severely, wiping out the last of Dúnedain of [[Cardolan]] at the [[Barrow-downs]].  The Witch-king, exploiting the tragedy, sent evil spirits, the [[Barrow-wights]], to infest the area. The Hobbits of the Shire were damaged by it, but not heavily.  The plague lost its strength, however, at this point, so that most of [[Arthedain]] was unaffected.<ref name="lotr1023">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1023.</ref>
  
==Politics==
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=== The Fall of Arthedain ===
The [[Númenórean]] monarch of Arnor governed the realm and its people with the frame of ancient law, of which he was administrator (and interpreter) but not the maker.<ref name="politics">{{L|244}}</ref>
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<!--"See also" in Eriador#Destruction of Arnor links here-->
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In {{TA|1974}}, the final chapter in [[Arthedain|Arthedain's]] history began.  The Witch-king attacked during the harsh winter weather.  The capital of [[Fornost]] fell, and the remaining Arnorian forces were driven over the Lune river into Lindon.  King [[Arvedui]] was compelled to flee to [[Forochel]], and ask aid of the Snowmen there.  His son, [[Aranarth]], journeyed to [[Círdan]] at the Havens to inform him of Arthedain's fall.  Círdan responded by sending a ship north to rescue Arvedui.  When the [[Snowmen of Forochel]] saw the ship arrive, they were uncomfortable and nervous about the escape plan.<ref name="lotr1018">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1018.</ref>  Their chief replied to Arvedui:
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{{quote|Do not mount on this sea-monster!  If they have them, let the seamen bring us food and other things that we need, and you may stay here till the Witch-king goes home.  For in summer his power wanes; but now his breath is deadly, and his cold arm is long.|''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1018}}
  
After his accession, [[Aragorn]] also established a council in Arnor, because in {{FoA|13}}, he chose three [[Counsellor of the North-kingdom|Counsellors of the North-kingdom]] from the people of [[the Shire]] and [[Buckland]].<ref name="AppBLater">{{App|B5}}</ref> These Counsellors were those appointed to the positions of the [[Thain]] and [[Mayor of the Shire]], and the [[Master of Buckland]].<ref name="AppBLater"/>
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It turned out that the Snowmen were right.  A storm blew in that night and drove the ice towards the shore, and the ship was crushed and sank, with great loss of life, including King Arvedui.  He unfortunately fulfilled [[Malbeth|Malbeth the Seer's]] prophecy about him at his birth that he would be the 'Last king' of Arthedain.  So the North-kingdom ended, but the [[Hobbits]] survived in the Shire. They eventually chose a [[Thain]] from among themselves to replace the King, and the first of these was [[Bucca of the Marish]], in {{TA|1979}}.
  
==Geography==
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=== Showdown with Angmar ===
=== Regions===
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Arnor included all of [[Eriador]] at its greatest, except the [[Lindon|regions]] beyond the [[Lune]], and the lands east of [[Greyflood]] and [[Loudwater]], in which lay [[Rivendell]] and [[Eregion]].<ref name="eriador"/> Arnor also seemed to have claimed the coasts as far north as the icy [[Forochel|Bay of Forochel]] as part of its dominion.<ref name=languages/>
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* [[Arthedain]], the westernmost region of the North-kingdom bordering the [[Lune]].
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Envoys from Arthedain had journeyed to Gondor to ask assistance from the southern Dúnedain in fighting the Witch-king's forces.  Gondor, however, was preoccupied with its own threats from the [[Easterlings]], and so could not respond immediately.  Gondor had been in a weakened condition since the death of King Ondoher and his two sons in the [[Battle of the Camp]] fighting the Easterlings in {{TA|1944}}.  [[Arvedui]] of Arnor tried to claim the southern throne  but this claim was rejected by Gondor. [[Eärnil II|Eärnil]], the victorious commander in the above battle and a member of the royal house, claimed the throne, and was confirmed by the Gondorian royal council.<ref name="lotr1023">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1023.</ref>
* [[Cardolan]], the lands south of the [[East Road]], east of the [[Brandywine]].
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* [[Rhudaur]], the region between the [[Weather Hills]] and the [[Misty Mountains]].
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=== Cities, Fortresses, and Watchtowers===
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[[File:Amir Salehi - Servant of Death.jpg|right|220px|thumb|Amir Salehi - ''Servant of Death'']]King Arvedui sent increasingly urgent messages to Gondor about the crisis he faced from Angmar's continuing assaults.  [[Eärnil II]] was unable to react quickly due to his need to order Gondor after succeeding to the throne, however.  The king sent his son and heir [[Eärnur]] north to the Havens with a powerful fleet.  Unfortunately, it was not in time to save [[Arthedain]], and the northern kingdom perished.  When Eärnur's naval forces landed in the [[Grey Havens]], they dazzled both Men and Elves with their size and majesty.  From these ships debarked the most powerful army seen in the north of Middle-earth in centuries.  Círdan's people were quite impressed with the strength of Gondor's army, particularly its [[Gondorian Military Forces#Gondorian Knights and Cavalry Forces|cavalry forces]], dominated by riders from the [[Vales of Anduin]].  [[Círdan]] and Eärnur combined their forces, along with the remnant of Arnor's army, in the greatest joint Elf-Man army since the [[War of the Last Alliance]]; this great [[Host of the West (Arnor)|Host of the West]] re-crossed the River Lune and marched northward.<ref name="lotr1026">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', p. 1026.</ref>  These allies drove relentlessly toward the Arnorian capital of [[Fornost]], where the Witch-king had occupied the palace complex there.
  
* [[Annúminas]], the old seat of the [[Kings of Arnor]] on the shore of [[Lake Evendim]].
+
=== Angmar is Vanquished ===
* [[Fornost]], the later seat of the [[Kings of Arnor]] and [[Kings of Arthedain|Arthedain]] on the southern end of the [[North Downs]].
+
* [[Bree]], an ancient township on the [[East Road]].
+
* [[Lond Daer]], the [[Númenórean]] port on the [[Gwathló]].
+
* [[Weathertop|Amon Sûl]], also called Weathertop, the highest of the [[Weather Hills]].
+
* [[Tharbad]], the city at the crossings of [[Greyflood]].
+
  
=== The Palantíri===
+
When the Witch-king saw the invading [[Host of the West (Arnor)|Host]], he failed to take it for the serious threat that it in fact was.  Instead of awaiting the invaders in the fortress city of Fornost, he confidently marched his forces out to meet them in the open.  He expected to defeat them as easily as Arvedui's forces the previous year.  But there was an appreciable difference this time-- the ground and naval might of Gondor.  The allied Host continued to advance, and instead of establishing a merely defensive position, they attacked him from the [[Hills of Evendim]], and a [[Battle of Fornost|large battle]] broke out.  The Witch-king's army could not stand before the allies, however, and began to retreat back towards their capital. Any hopes for an orderly withdrawal were in vain, however. 
{{main|Palantíri}}
+
There were seven [[palantíri]] in total.  The northern kingdom possessed three, and the southern kingdom held the other four.<ref name=rings/>{{rp|362}} They were:
+
  
* The [[Elostirion-stone]], kept in the tower of [[Elostirion]]. This was used to communicate with The Master Stone in [[Tol Eressëa]], the Lonely Isle of the Elves, along the [[Straight Road]].  It could not contact the other Middle-Earth stones.
+
[[Gondorian Military Forces#Gondorian Knights and Cavalry Forces|Gondorian cavalry forces]], attacking from the north, routed the forces of Angmar, and put them to flight signalling an end to what became known as the [[Battle of Fornost]].  The Witch-king, in full flight, forsook his new conquests, and made for Angmar. But the cavalry under [[Eärnur]] continued the pursuit and rode down what remained of his forces.  To add to his difficulties, an Elven force under [[Glorfindel]] also attacked from [[Rivendell]], and completed his forces' destruction.  At the last, the Witch-king charged Eärnur in frustration, but his horse shied away from the evil wraith. As Eärnur once again mastered his horse, Glorfindel uttered his famous prophecy:
* The [[Amon Sûl-stone]], kept in the watchtower of [[Weathertop|Amon Sûl]].  The [[Amon Sûl-stone]] was a large stone, and the northern kings often used it to contact its corresponding large stone in Gondor, at the great dome of [[Osgiliath]].
+
{{quote|Do not pursue him! He will not return to this land.  Far off yet is his doom, and not by the hand of man will he fall.|''The Lord of the Rings'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1027.}}
* The [[Annúminas-stone]], kept in Arnor's capital city of [[Annúminas]]. Though one of the lesser stones, it was the stone most often used by the [[Kings of Arnor]].
+
This prophecy would not be fulfilled until a thousand years later, at the [[Battle of the Pelennor Fields]].
  
==Languages==
+
=== [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain]] ===
[[Westron]], or the Common Speech, was the native language of the people of Arnor.<ref name=lang>{{App|F1}}</ref> Among  the [[Dúnedain]] however, including those of Arnor, the  kings and  high lords, and  indeed  all  those  of  [[Númenorean]]  blood  in any  degree, for long  used [[Númenórean Sindarin]].<ref>{{PM|Languages}}</ref> [[Quenya]] was known to the learned of Arnor, a tradition which has continued from the loremasters of [[Númenor]], to be used for places of fame and reverence in addition to the names of royalty and men of great renown.<ref name=languages/> All the royal names of the [[Kings of Arnor]] were [[Quenya]] names.<ref name=North>{{App|North}}</ref> The [[Kings of Arthedain]] and later the [[Chieftain of the Dúnedain|Chieftains of the Dúnedain]], however, took [[Sindarin]] names.<ref name=North/>
+
  
==Etymology==
+
After the death of King Arvedui, his son, [[Aranarth]], perceived that the northern Dúnedain had become too few to reestablish the realm of [[Arthedain]].  He took his dwindling people and turned them into wanderers who traveled from place to place in [[Eriador]].  Instead of calling himself a king or prince, he assumed the title [[Chieftains of the Dúnedain|Chieftain]].  Through them the royal line of Arnor was maintained successfully for a thousand years until the refounding of Arnor in {{FoA|1}}.  Aranarth brought his son [[Arahael]] to [[Rivendell]] and gave him to [[Elrond]] for safekeeping until he was grown.  This became a tradition that was followed through the rest of the Third Age.  Also brought to Elrond were the heirlooms of the House of Elendil: the [[Sceptre of Annúminas]], the [[Ring of Barahir]], the shards of [[Narsil]], and the [[Star of Elendil]].<ref name="lotr1018">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1018.</ref>
{{Transcribed|Tengwar Arnor.png|Arnor|Tengwar, Sindarin mode}}
+
 
'''''Arnor''''' was the colloquial name for the '''North-kingdom'''. The North-kingdom, as the land was called at its conception, was also known as ''Turmen Follondiéva'' in [[Quenya]] and ''Arthor na Forlonnas'' in [[Sindarin]]. These names quickly fell out of use, in favour of ''Arnor'': the ''Land of the King'', so called for the kingship of [[Elendil]], and to seal its precedence over the [[Gondor|southern realm]]. In full, poetic Sindarin, it was called ''Arannor'', which mirrored its Quenya name, '''''Arandórë'''''.<ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 28</ref> Though technically ''Arandórë'' would have a Sindarin form ''Ardor'', [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] chose ''Arnor'' because it sounded better. This linguistic change was ascribed to a later, Mannish development of Sindarin.<ref name="L347">{{L|347}}</ref><ref>{{HM|RC}}, p. 17</ref> The form '''''Arnanórë''''' is also seen.<ref name="L347" />
+
So the Dúnedain survived in the shadows, waiting for a better day when the kingdom of Arnor would be reborn.  There were sixteen Chieftains in direct descent, with [[Aragorn|Aragorn Elessar]] being the last.  There were many perils in Eriador in that time, and many of the Chieftains died premature deaths.  One of these was Aragorn II's father, [[Arathorn II]], who was slain by Orcs raiding the area.
 +
 
 +
=== [[War of the Ring]] ===
 +
 
 +
The Kingdom of Arnor had been fallen for a thousand years by the time the [[War of the Ring]] broke out, but northern forces did participate in the War.  [[Aragorn|Aragorn II]] was a [[Rangers of the North|Dúnedain Ranger of the North]], and there were several hundred of them operating during the conflict.  A company of this group accompanied Aragorn through the [[Paths of the Dead]] and during the attack on [[Umbar]] which captured the Corsair fleet.  They participated at the last battle, fighting under his banner, at the [[Battle of the Morannon]], where [[Sauron]] was finally thrown down.
 +
 
 +
There was conflict in other areas of the North.  There were three different invasions of [[Lothlórien]], which were thrown back by the Elven army under [[Celeborn]] and [[Thranduil]].  Finally, Celeborn led an attack resulting in the [[Fall of Dol Guldur|capture of Dol Guldur]] and put an end to Sauron's northern threat.
 +
 
 +
There was also a battle fought in [[the Shire]], between Saruman's [[Ruffians]] and [[Hobbits|Hobbit]] militia forces.  This was the last battle fought in the [[War of the Ring]], and resulted in the death of Saruman and the death or capture of his followers.  This became known as the [[Battle of Bywater]], and represents the Hobbit contribution to the War.<ref name="lotr992-996">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[The Scouring of the Shire]], pp. 992-996.</ref>
 +
 
 +
== Restoration and the [[Reunited Kingdom]] ==
 +
 
 +
[[File:Rowena Morrill - The Last Steward of Gondor.jpg|left|220px|thumb|Rowena Morrill - ''The Last Steward of Gondor'']]Faramir, son of Denethor II the last Ruling Steward, presented his rod of office to the new king, and received it back from him.  [[Aragorn|Aragorn II]] then was crowned by [[Gandalf]] as [[Aragorn|King Elessar]], refounded the Kingdom of Arnor as part of the [[Reunited Kingdom]], and made [[Annúminas]] his new capital city.<ref name="lotr1019">''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]], p. 1019.</ref> He was wed to the Elven princess Arwen, who became [[Arwen|Queen Evenstar]] of Arnor and Gondor.  After the fall of [[Sauron]] Arnor was safe again for resettlement of Men, and although it remained less populated than [[Gondor]] to the south, in time Arnor became a more densely populated region again, even if it had dwindled in size due to the independence of [[the Shire]].  The area encompassed by the Reunited Kingdom now encompassed the territory of the [[Two Kingdoms]] at their greatest extent.  In the North, this included all the land between the [[Lune|River Lune]] and the [[Misty Mountains]], and in the South included all the land between Dunland in the west, to the [[Far Harad]] southwards, to [[Rhûn]] in the east.  The reborn kingdom continued on into the Fourth Age, with [[Eldarion]] eventually succeeding his father to the throne of this now empire-sized state.
 +
 
 +
== Languages ==
 +
 
 +
Many people in Arnor were of Númenórean stock. However, aside from the Exiles, most had long since mingled with non-Númenórean peoples; the predominant language spoken by them was [[Westron]].<ref>{{App|F}}</ref> At least some of the population, especially the upper classes, were fluent in [[Sindarin]], while [[Quenya]] was studied as a language of lore. Many early place names and the names of the [[House of Isildur|royal house]] were Quenya, but by the 8th century of the [[Third Age]], Quenya had given way to Sindarin.
 +
 
 +
== Etymology ==
 +
 
 +
'''''Arnor''''' was the colloquial name for the '''North Kingdom'''. The North Kingdom, as the land was called at its conception, was also known as ''Turmen Follondiéva'' in [[Quenya]] and ''Arthor na Forlonnas'' in [[Sindarin]]. These names quickly fell out of use, in favour of ''Arnor'': the ''Land of the King'', so called for the kingship of [[Elendil]], and to seal its precedence over the [[Gondor|southern realm]]. In full, poetic Sindarin, it was called ''Arannor'', which mirrored its Quenya name, '''''Arandórë'''''.<ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 28</ref> Though technically ''Arandórë'' would have a Sindarin form ''Ardor'', [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] chose ''Arnor'' because it sounded better. This linguistic change was ascribed to a later, Mannish development of Sindarin.<ref name="L347">{{L|347}}</ref><ref>{{HM|RC}}, p. 17</ref> The form '''''Arnanórë''''' is also seen.<ref name="L347" />
  
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==

Latest revision as of 18:55, 18 October 2020

Arnor
General information
Other namesKingdom of the North, the Lost Realm, the North-kingdom, the North-realm
LocationMost of Eriador
CapitalAnnúminas, later Fornost Erain
Major townsLond Daer, Tharbad, Bree, Hobbiton
RegionsArthedain, Cardolan, Rhudaur
People
PopulationArnorians
Middle Men
Hobbits
Few Elves
LanguageWestron, Sindarin, Quenya, Hobbitish
GovernanceKing of Arnor/High King
Council of Arnor
History
Preceded byNúmenor
FoundedS.A. 3320
DividedT.A. 861
AbandonedT.A. 1974
Re-formedFo.A. 1
Followed byReunited Kingdom

Arnor, or the Northern Kingdom, was a kingdom of the Dúnedain in the land of Eriador in Middle-earth. It was the original seat of the High King of Arnor who ruled over both Arnor and Gondor.

Contents

[edit] Geography

Arnor included most of Eriador, extending from the gulf of Lune (west of which was Lindon) to the river Greyflood and its tributary, the river Loudwater (east of which was Rivendell).[1]

The Dunedain of Arnor dwelt in many places in Eriador, but most of the population centered around the region of Arthedain. The Dunedain mainly inhabited the cities of Fornost and the capital city of Annúminas, as well as along the Baranduin and the gulf of Lune. By the later Third Age, the settlements of the Dúnedain of Cardolan and Rhudaur had decayed and become ruins and barrows.[2]

[edit] Regions

[edit] Cities, Fortresses and Watchtowers

  • Annúminas, the old capital on the shore of Lake Evendim
  • Fornost, the new capital of the successor state of Arthedain
  • Bree, a trading centre located on the East Road
  • Lond Daer, an old harbour town founded by Númenóreans
  • Amon Sûl, also called Weathertop, a watchtower on the highest of the Weather Hills
  • Elostirion, an elven watchtower in the Tower Hills
  • Tharbad, a fortified town and port on each side of the River Greyflood on the southern border of Arnor

[edit] The Palantíri

The Palantíri or 'seeing stones' were spherical stones that could communicate with each other and give visual impressions to a skilled remote user. Elendil and his two sons originally divided these stones between themselves. They were usually heavily guarded and under the control of the kings. There were seven of these stones in total. The northern kingdom possessed three, and the southern kingdom held the other four.[2]:362 They were:

[edit] History

[edit] Early History

Before the foundation of Arnor, Eriador was home to Middle Men of Edain stock. As a result of the slow emigration that started under the Númenórean kings Tar-Meneldur and Tar-Aldarion, a sizable Númenórean formed. These early colonists soon interbred with the indigenous population of Eriador. The Faithful favored Eriador over the more southern regions (Gondor) because the Elves of Lindon under their high king Gil-galad lived very near across the river Lhûn.[2]:360 Conversely, the King's Men settled more to the south in the later days. Thus, Elendil arrived in an area populated by people who were mainly still Faithful and Elf-friends, where much of the knowledge of the Elder Days was preserved.

Steven White, Jr. - Palace Complex at Annúminas

Elendil and his people reached Eriador by sailing through the Gulf of Luneand up the Lune river. The High King of the Noldor Gil-galad and his people aided the fledgling realm. Gil-galad even built the Emyn Beraid for Elendil.[2] Elendil established the city of Annúminas as his capital. Elendil founded Arnor at the end of the Second Age (S.A. 3320), while his sons founded the southern realm of Gondor. Both kingdoms of the Númenóreans were known as the realms in Exile, and their history is intertwined.

[edit] War of the Last Alliance

Isildur in Peter Jackson's Fellowship of the Ring

At the end of the Second Age, Arnor allied itself with Noldorin High King Gil-galad in a great alliance opposing Sauron, the Last Alliance of Elves and Men. In conjunction with southern forces from Gondor, they confronted Sauron's armies in the War of the Last Alliance. This war was fought over a period of several years on the Dagorlad plain and in Mordor itself, at the Siege of Barad-dûr. Both Elendil and his son Anárion were slain in this conflict, but Isildur cut the One Ring from Sauron's finger and prevailed. Elrond, Gil-galad's herald, urged Isildur to cast it into Mount Doom and destroy it, but Isildur refused, and the Ring survived. Arnor suffered heavy casualties in the war, and some parts of the land were partially depopulated.[3]

Arnor's second king was Isildur (who was also King of Gondor). He was killed in T.A. 2 by Orcs in the disastrous Disaster of the Gladden Fields. His three eldest sons were killed with him, but the fourth and youngest, Valandil, who had remained at Rivendell due to his youth, became king of Arnor. Isildur also lost the One Ring at this time, when it slipped off his finger as he tried to escape pursuing Orcs. Arnor never fully recovered from the devastating loss of manpower it suffered in the war against Sauron.

Because Valandil and his heirs did not claim the throne of Gondor the realms were split, but Arnor's ruler kept the title High King, whereas in the south the ruler was 'just' King.

[edit] Decline and Breakup

Arnor
Arnor
Tengwar, Sindarin mode

Arnor's capital was Annúminas on Lake Evendim, but by T.A. 861 Fornost Erain had taken its place. No longer a site of such importance, Annúminas became depopulated and was slowly abandoned.


After the death of its tenth king, Eärendur, in T.A. 861, Arnor was shaken by civil war between his three sons. The eldest, Amlaith, claimed Kingship over all Arnor but was reduced to only ruling the region of Arthedain as his kingdom, while the other sons founded the breakaway kingdoms of Cardolan and Rhudaur.[4]

Arnor was refounded de jure by Arthedain's king Argeleb I, when Cardolan placed itself under the suzerainty of Arthedain. However, even Arthedain was eventually destroyed. The people of Arnor were mostly wiped out by the continuing wars, but the Hobbits survived in the Shire, Men survived in Bree and probably other villages, and the Dúnedain of Arnor created new homes in the Angle south of Rivendell, where some of them became known as the Rangers of the North.[5]

[edit] Conflict with Angmar

Eliot Gould - The Witch King
Arnor's greatest enemy in the north by the middle of the Third Age was Angmar, ruled by the Witch King of Angmar. During the reign of Malvegil (c. T.A. 1300), this new power arose beyond the Ettenmoors. This land became populated with the Orcs and men of Sauron, and began attacking Rhudaur and Cardolan. This Witch-king was later identified as in fact the chief of Sauron's Ringwraiths.

Years later, Argeleb I of Arthedain, reasserted control over Cardolan, and fortified a line along the Weather Hills. At this time the line of Isildur had failed in Cardolan and Rhudaur, and an evil Hillman had seized control of Rhudaur. The chieftain swore allegiance to Angmar, and together they attacked the newly fortified Weather Hills, killing Argeleb. His son Arveleg, however, counterattacked in conjunction with Cardolan and drove the enemy back. Arveleg successfully held the frontier along the Weather Hils in force for quite some years.

Weathertop from BFME2
Then in T.A. 1409, Angmar crossed the Hoarwell river into Cardolan and attacked again. This time, Weathertop was captured and Arveleg fell in battle. While Amon Sûl fell, the palantír was recovered and taken to Fornost. With Amon Sûl lost, Angmar had free reign over the all the lands of Cardolan, and the population was forced to hold out in the Barrow Downs. The Dunedain did not have the strength to drive away the forces of Angmar, so the elves of Lindon, Rivendell, and Lorien defeated the armies of Angmar.

[edit] The Great Plague

Another threat appeared to the northern successor kingdoms, this time one that swords and spears could not deter. A major plague began in the east, in the vicinity of the Sea of Rhûn, northeast of Mordor. After doing great damage in Rhovanion, it struck Osgiliath in Gondor in T.A. 1636, killing King Telemnar and his family. In seriously affected areas, the plague killed 50% or more of the populace. This plague, which barely affected western Gondor, spread northwards to Cardolan.

In Cardolan, it struck severely, wiping out the last of Dúnedain of Cardolan at the Barrow-downs. The Witch-king, exploiting the tragedy, sent evil spirits, the Barrow-wights, to infest the area. The Hobbits of the Shire were damaged by it, but not heavily. The plague lost its strength, however, at this point, so that most of Arthedain was unaffected.[6]

[edit] The Fall of Arthedain

In T.A. 1974, the final chapter in Arthedain's history began. The Witch-king attacked during the harsh winter weather. The capital of Fornost fell, and the remaining Arnorian forces were driven over the Lune river into Lindon. King Arvedui was compelled to flee to Forochel, and ask aid of the Snowmen there. His son, Aranarth, journeyed to Círdan at the Havens to inform him of Arthedain's fall. Círdan responded by sending a ship north to rescue Arvedui. When the Snowmen of Forochel saw the ship arrive, they were uncomfortable and nervous about the escape plan.[5] Their chief replied to Arvedui:

"Do not mount on this sea-monster! If they have them, let the seamen bring us food and other things that we need, and you may stay here till the Witch-king goes home. For in summer his power wanes; but now his breath is deadly, and his cold arm is long."
The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, p. 1018

It turned out that the Snowmen were right. A storm blew in that night and drove the ice towards the shore, and the ship was crushed and sank, with great loss of life, including King Arvedui. He unfortunately fulfilled Malbeth the Seer's prophecy about him at his birth that he would be the 'Last king' of Arthedain. So the North-kingdom ended, but the Hobbits survived in the Shire. They eventually chose a Thain from among themselves to replace the King, and the first of these was Bucca of the Marish, in T.A. 1979.

[edit] Showdown with Angmar

Envoys from Arthedain had journeyed to Gondor to ask assistance from the southern Dúnedain in fighting the Witch-king's forces. Gondor, however, was preoccupied with its own threats from the Easterlings, and so could not respond immediately. Gondor had been in a weakened condition since the death of King Ondoher and his two sons in the Battle of the Camp fighting the Easterlings in T.A. 1944. Arvedui of Arnor tried to claim the southern throne but this claim was rejected by Gondor. Eärnil, the victorious commander in the above battle and a member of the royal house, claimed the throne, and was confirmed by the Gondorian royal council.[6]

Amir Salehi - Servant of Death
King Arvedui sent increasingly urgent messages to Gondor about the crisis he faced from Angmar's continuing assaults. Eärnil II was unable to react quickly due to his need to order Gondor after succeeding to the throne, however. The king sent his son and heir Eärnur north to the Havens with a powerful fleet. Unfortunately, it was not in time to save Arthedain, and the northern kingdom perished. When Eärnur's naval forces landed in the Grey Havens, they dazzled both Men and Elves with their size and majesty. From these ships debarked the most powerful army seen in the north of Middle-earth in centuries. Círdan's people were quite impressed with the strength of Gondor's army, particularly its cavalry forces, dominated by riders from the Vales of Anduin. Círdan and Eärnur combined their forces, along with the remnant of Arnor's army, in the greatest joint Elf-Man army since the War of the Last Alliance; this great Host of the West re-crossed the River Lune and marched northward.[7] These allies drove relentlessly toward the Arnorian capital of Fornost, where the Witch-king had occupied the palace complex there.

[edit] Angmar is Vanquished

When the Witch-king saw the invading Host, he failed to take it for the serious threat that it in fact was. Instead of awaiting the invaders in the fortress city of Fornost, he confidently marched his forces out to meet them in the open. He expected to defeat them as easily as Arvedui's forces the previous year. But there was an appreciable difference this time-- the ground and naval might of Gondor. The allied Host continued to advance, and instead of establishing a merely defensive position, they attacked him from the Hills of Evendim, and a large battle broke out. The Witch-king's army could not stand before the allies, however, and began to retreat back towards their capital. Any hopes for an orderly withdrawal were in vain, however.

Gondorian cavalry forces, attacking from the north, routed the forces of Angmar, and put them to flight signalling an end to what became known as the Battle of Fornost. The Witch-king, in full flight, forsook his new conquests, and made for Angmar. But the cavalry under Eärnur continued the pursuit and rode down what remained of his forces. To add to his difficulties, an Elven force under Glorfindel also attacked from Rivendell, and completed his forces' destruction. At the last, the Witch-king charged Eärnur in frustration, but his horse shied away from the evil wraith. As Eärnur once again mastered his horse, Glorfindel uttered his famous prophecy:

"Do not pursue him! He will not return to this land. Far off yet is his doom, and not by the hand of man will he fall."
The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, p. 1027.

This prophecy would not be fulfilled until a thousand years later, at the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.

[edit] Chieftains of the Dúnedain

After the death of King Arvedui, his son, Aranarth, perceived that the northern Dúnedain had become too few to reestablish the realm of Arthedain. He took his dwindling people and turned them into wanderers who traveled from place to place in Eriador. Instead of calling himself a king or prince, he assumed the title Chieftain. Through them the royal line of Arnor was maintained successfully for a thousand years until the refounding of Arnor in Fo.A. 1. Aranarth brought his son Arahael to Rivendell and gave him to Elrond for safekeeping until he was grown. This became a tradition that was followed through the rest of the Third Age. Also brought to Elrond were the heirlooms of the House of Elendil: the Sceptre of Annúminas, the Ring of Barahir, the shards of Narsil, and the Star of Elendil.[5]

So the Dúnedain survived in the shadows, waiting for a better day when the kingdom of Arnor would be reborn. There were sixteen Chieftains in direct descent, with Aragorn Elessar being the last. There were many perils in Eriador in that time, and many of the Chieftains died premature deaths. One of these was Aragorn II's father, Arathorn II, who was slain by Orcs raiding the area.

[edit] War of the Ring

The Kingdom of Arnor had been fallen for a thousand years by the time the War of the Ring broke out, but northern forces did participate in the War. Aragorn II was a Dúnedain Ranger of the North, and there were several hundred of them operating during the conflict. A company of this group accompanied Aragorn through the Paths of the Dead and during the attack on Umbar which captured the Corsair fleet. They participated at the last battle, fighting under his banner, at the Battle of the Morannon, where Sauron was finally thrown down.

There was conflict in other areas of the North. There were three different invasions of Lothlórien, which were thrown back by the Elven army under Celeborn and Thranduil. Finally, Celeborn led an attack resulting in the capture of Dol Guldur and put an end to Sauron's northern threat.

There was also a battle fought in the Shire, between Saruman's Ruffians and Hobbit militia forces. This was the last battle fought in the War of the Ring, and resulted in the death of Saruman and the death or capture of his followers. This became known as the Battle of Bywater, and represents the Hobbit contribution to the War.[8]

[edit] Restoration and the Reunited Kingdom

Rowena Morrill - The Last Steward of Gondor
Faramir, son of Denethor II the last Ruling Steward, presented his rod of office to the new king, and received it back from him. Aragorn II then was crowned by Gandalf as King Elessar, refounded the Kingdom of Arnor as part of the Reunited Kingdom, and made Annúminas his new capital city.[9] He was wed to the Elven princess Arwen, who became Queen Evenstar of Arnor and Gondor. After the fall of Sauron Arnor was safe again for resettlement of Men, and although it remained less populated than Gondor to the south, in time Arnor became a more densely populated region again, even if it had dwindled in size due to the independence of the Shire. The area encompassed by the Reunited Kingdom now encompassed the territory of the Two Kingdoms at their greatest extent. In the North, this included all the land between the River Lune and the Misty Mountains, and in the South included all the land between Dunland in the west, to the Far Harad southwards, to Rhûn in the east. The reborn kingdom continued on into the Fourth Age, with Eldarion eventually succeeding his father to the throne of this now empire-sized state.

[edit] Languages

Many people in Arnor were of Númenórean stock. However, aside from the Exiles, most had long since mingled with non-Númenórean peoples; the predominant language spoken by them was Westron.[10] At least some of the population, especially the upper classes, were fluent in Sindarin, while Quenya was studied as a language of lore. Many early place names and the names of the royal house were Quenya, but by the 8th century of the Third Age, Quenya had given way to Sindarin.

[edit] Etymology

Arnor was the colloquial name for the North Kingdom. The North Kingdom, as the land was called at its conception, was also known as Turmen Follondiéva in Quenya and Arthor na Forlonnas in Sindarin. These names quickly fell out of use, in favour of Arnor: the Land of the King, so called for the kingship of Elendil, and to seal its precedence over the southern realm. In full, poetic Sindarin, it was called Arannor, which mirrored its Quenya name, Arandórë.[11] Though technically Arandórë would have a Sindarin form Ardor, Tolkien chose Arnor because it sounded better. This linguistic change was ascribed to a later, Mannish development of Sindarin.[12][13] The form Arnanórë is also seen.[12]

[edit] Portrayal in adaptations

2002: The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (Extended Edition)

Peter Jackson's movies do not mention the long history of how Arnor and Gondor diverged, nor do they mention Arnor by name. The one passing reference to it is in a scene from the Extended Edition, when Aragorn reveals to Éowyn that he is actually eighty-seven years old. She realises that he must be one of the Dúnedain, a descendant of Númenor blessed with long life, but says that she thought his race had passed into legend. Aragorn acknowledges that he is one of the Dúnedain, and explains that there are not many of his people left, because "the Northern kingdom was destroyed long ago".

[edit] See also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  3. The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, p. 1018.
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2
  6. 6.0 6.1 The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, p. 1023.
  7. The Lord of the Rings, p. 1026.
  8. The Lord of the Rings, The Scouring of the Shire, pp. 992-996.
  9. The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, p. 1019.
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 28
  12. 12.0 12.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 347, (dated 17 December 1972)
  13. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 17