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Barrow-downs

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{{Sources}}
 
 
{{disambig-two|the location in [[Middle-earth]]|website|[[barrowdowns.com]]}}
 
{{disambig-two|the location in [[Middle-earth]]|website|[[barrowdowns.com]]}}
 
{{Location
 
{{Location
 
| image=[[Image:Paul_Raymond_Gregory_-_Fog_on_the_Barrow_Downs.jpg|250px]]
 
| image=[[Image:Paul_Raymond_Gregory_-_Fog_on_the_Barrow_Downs.jpg|250px]]
| name=Barrow Downs
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| name=The Barrow Downs
 
| type=Hills
 
| type=Hills
 
| location=Central [[Eriador]], borders the Old Forest
 
| location=Central [[Eriador]], borders the Old Forest
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| realms=[[Arnor]]<br/>[[Cardolan]]<br/>[[Reunited Kingdom]]
 
| realms=[[Arnor]]<br/>[[Cardolan]]<br/>[[Reunited Kingdom]]
 
| description=
 
| description=
| othernames=
+
| othernames=''Tyrn Gorthad''
 
| etymology=
 
| etymology=
 
| events=[[War of the Elves and Sauron]]
 
| events=[[War of the Elves and Sauron]]
 
| references=
 
| references=
 
}}
 
}}
'''Barrow-downs''' or '''''Tyrn Gorthad''''' were a series of low hills east of [[the Shire]], behind the [[Old Forest]], and west of the village of [[Bree]]. Many of the hills were crowned with megaliths and [[barrows]], whence their name.
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The '''Barrow-downs''' or '''''Tyrn Gorthad''''' were a series of low hills east of [[the Shire]], behind the [[Old Forest]], and southwest of the village of [[Bree]].<ref>{{UT|Map}}</ref> Many of the hills were crowned with megaliths and [[barrows]], whence their name.
 +
 
 
==History==
 
==History==
The Barrow-downs were first inhabited by [[Men]] related to the [[Edain]] in the [[First Age]], together with the [[Hills of Evendim]] to the north. They fled east as [[Easterlings]] invaded [[Eriador]] and passed on to [[Beleriand]], but after these had left or been killed in the [[War of Wrath]] the Edain returned to their old homes.
+
The Barrow-downs were first inhabited by [[Men]] related to the [[Edain]] in the [[First Age]],<ref>{{UT|Index}}, ''Barrow-downs''</ref> together with the [[Hills of Evendim]] to the north. They fled east as [[Easterlings]] invaded [[Eriador]] and passed on to [[Beleriand]], but after these had left or been killed in the [[War of Wrath]] the Edain returned to their old homes.
  
During the [[Second Age]] they were fairly numerous, and when they met with the [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]]s the Barrow-downs were the first places where the [[Dúnedain]] emigrees from [[Númenor]] settled. When [[Elendil]] returned to [[Middle-earth]], the Barrow-downs were incorporated in the kingdom of [[Arnor]].
+
During the [[Second Age]] they were fairly numerous, and when they met with the [[Númenóreans|Númenórean]]s the Barrow-downs were the first places where the [[Dúnedain]] emigrees from [[Númenor]] settled.<ref>{{PM|Atani}}</ref> The Downs were revered because of theιρ Great Barrows. When [[Elendil]] returned to [[Middle-earth]], the Barrow-downs were incorporated in the kingdom of [[Arnor]].  
  
After the split of Arnor the Barrow-downs became the capital of [[Cardolan]]. After [[Rhudaur]] fell to [[Angmar]], the Dúnedain of Cardolan entrenched themselves here, but eventually the realm fell. The [[Barrow-wights]] were now sent there by the [[Witch-king]]. After [[Arthedain]] once again claimed the kingship over all of Arnor the Dúnedain tried to recolonize Cardolan, but this failed because of the Barrow-wights.
+
After the split of Arnor in {{TA|861}} the Barrow-downs became the capital of [[Cardolan]]. After [[Rhudaur]] fell to [[Angmar]] in {{TA|1409|n}}, the Dúnedain of Cardolan entrenched themselves here, but eventually the realm fell. Around {{TA|1636}}<ref name=TA>{{App|TA}}</ref> the [[Witch-king]] sent the [[Barrow-wights]] that haunted the hills,<ref>{{App|Eriador}}</ref> preventing any resettlement; after [[Arthedain]] once again claimed the kingship over all of Arnor the Dúnedain tried to recolonize Cardolan, but this failed because of the Barrow-wights.
  
During the [[War of the Ring]] [[Frodo Baggins]] and company were trapped in the downs by a wight, probably in the same [[uncommon words|cairn]] which held the grave of the last prince of [[Cardolan]]. They were rescued by [[Tom Bombadil]], and there got their [[Daggers_of_Westernesse|swords]].
+
When the [[Nazgûl|Black Riders]] came north in their hunt for [[the One Ring]], the [[Witch-king|Lord of the Nazgûl]] stayed in the Barrow-downs for a few days, rousing the Barrow-wights.<ref>{{UT|Hunt}}</ref>  On [[28 September]] {{TA|3018|n}}<ref>{{App|Great}}</ref> [[Frodo Baggins]] and company were trapped in the downs by a wight, probably in the same [[uncommon words|cairn]] which held the grave of the last prince of [[Cardolan]]. They were rescued by [[Tom Bombadil]], and there got their [[Daggers_of_Westernesse|swords]].<ref>{{FR|I8}}</ref>
  
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
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A "barrow" (or "berrow"; from English beorg, berg, 'hill, mound') not to be confused with the wheeled vehicle, is a tumulus or other prehistoric grave-mound.<ref name="Nomen">{{HM|N}}, p. 766</ref>
 
A "barrow" (or "berrow"; from English beorg, berg, 'hill, mound') not to be confused with the wheeled vehicle, is a tumulus or other prehistoric grave-mound.<ref name="Nomen">{{HM|N}}, p. 766</ref>
  
'''''Tyrn Gorthad''''' was the [[Sindarin]] name of the Barrow-downs. ''Tyrn Gorthad'' is a compound of  ''[[torn]]'' ("burial mound") and ''[[gorthad]]'' ("of buried").<ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 116</ref> In one manuscript, the name ''Tyrn Goerthaid'' was used by [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]].<ref>{{PM|VII}}</ref>
+
The name therefore would represent an earlier [[Old English]] form ''Beorga Dune'' "downs of barrows".<ref name=etym>{{webcite|author=[[David Salo]]|articleurl=http://groups.yahoo.com/group/elfling/message/121|articlename=Hobbitish Place-names|dated=23 November 1998|website=[[Elfling]]}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
'''''Tyrn Gorthad''''' was the [[Sindarin]] name of the Barrow-downs. ''Tyrn Gorthad'' is a compound of  ''[[torn]]'' ("down") and ''[[gorthad]]'' ("of buried").<ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 116</ref> In one manuscript, the name ''Tyrn Goerthaid'' was used by [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]].<ref>{{PM|VII}}</ref> ''Goerthaid'' seems to be the [[Sindarin#Plural|plural]] of ''gorthad'' with [[lenition|lenited]] vowels.
  
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
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{{references}}
 
{{references}}
*<small>{{HM|FR}}</small>
 
 
[[Category:Arnor]]
 
[[Category:Arnor]]
 
[[Category:Eriador]]
 
[[Category:Eriador]]

Latest revision as of 12:35, 5 June 2015

This article is about the location in Middle-earth. For the website, see barrowdowns.com.
Paul Raymond Gregory - Fog on the Barrow Downs.jpg
The Barrow Downs
Physical Description
TypeHills
LocationCentral Eriador, borders the Old Forest
RealmsArnor
Cardolan
Reunited Kingdom
InhabitantsMen, then Barrow-wights
General Information
Other namesTyrn Gorthad
EventsWar of the Elves and Sauron

The Barrow-downs or Tyrn Gorthad were a series of low hills east of the Shire, behind the Old Forest, and southwest of the village of Bree.[1] Many of the hills were crowned with megaliths and barrows, whence their name.

Contents

[edit] History

The Barrow-downs were first inhabited by Men related to the Edain in the First Age,[2] together with the Hills of Evendim to the north. They fled east as Easterlings invaded Eriador and passed on to Beleriand, but after these had left or been killed in the War of Wrath the Edain returned to their old homes.

During the Second Age they were fairly numerous, and when they met with the Númenóreans the Barrow-downs were the first places where the Dúnedain emigrees from Númenor settled.[3] The Downs were revered because of theιρ Great Barrows. When Elendil returned to Middle-earth, the Barrow-downs were incorporated in the kingdom of Arnor.

After the split of Arnor in T.A. 861 the Barrow-downs became the capital of Cardolan. After Rhudaur fell to Angmar in 1409, the Dúnedain of Cardolan entrenched themselves here, but eventually the realm fell. Around T.A. 1636[4] the Witch-king sent the Barrow-wights that haunted the hills,[5] preventing any resettlement; after Arthedain once again claimed the kingship over all of Arnor the Dúnedain tried to recolonize Cardolan, but this failed because of the Barrow-wights.

When the Black Riders came north in their hunt for the One Ring, the Lord of the Nazgûl stayed in the Barrow-downs for a few days, rousing the Barrow-wights.[6] On 28 September 3018[7] Frodo Baggins and company were trapped in the downs by a wight, probably in the same cairn which held the grave of the last prince of Cardolan. They were rescued by Tom Bombadil, and there got their swords.[8]

[edit] Etymology

In topography, a "down" is a low-lying hill, from the Anglo-Saxon dún meaning "hill".[9] In the United Kingdom, a down is a gently-rolling chalk hill in Southern England (seen especially in the North and South Downs).[10]

A "barrow" (or "berrow"; from English beorg, berg, 'hill, mound') not to be confused with the wheeled vehicle, is a tumulus or other prehistoric grave-mound.[11]

The name therefore would represent an earlier Old English form Beorga Dune "downs of barrows".[12]

Tyrn Gorthad was the Sindarin name of the Barrow-downs. Tyrn Gorthad is a compound of torn ("down") and gorthad ("of buried").[13] In one manuscript, the name Tyrn Goerthaid was used by Tolkien.[14] Goerthaid seems to be the plural of gorthad with lenited vowels.

[edit] Portrayal in adaptations

2002: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (video game):

Hobbits' passage through the Barrow-downs is represented by a respective level.
View of the Barrow-downs at night (The Lord of the Rings Online).

2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:

The Barrow-downs are a divided into North and South Barrows, depicted as a series of mounds crowned with megaliths. The region is inhabited by wights, recently stirred by the passage of the Nazgul. The largest and oldest barrow is called Othrongroth.

2011: The Lord of the Rings: War in the North:

After Halbarad sends Eradan, Andriel and Farin to warn Aragorn in Bree, the three heroes travel through the Barrow-downs as a short cut.[15] On their way, they have to save two Dunedain Rangers named Luin and Kilaran. In the whole level fog hangs above the ground.[16]

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, Index, Barrow-downs
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men", "The Atani and their Languages"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Great Years"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Fog on the Barrow-downs"
  9. Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller, "DÚN" at An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (accessed 12 October 2010)
  10. Oxford Dictionaries, "down" (accessed 12 October 2010)
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 766
  12. David Salo, "Hobbitish Place-names" dated 23 November 1998, Elfling (accessed 4 August 2015)
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 116
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil"
  15. Offical Xbox Magazine Online, The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, dated 28 April, 2011 (accessed at 7 July, 2011)
  16. The Lord of the Rings: War in the North's Official Site, Videos, The Lord of the Rings: War in the North - Dev video: Art Direction Process, dated 11 May, 2011 (accessed 14 September, 2011)