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|Location||Central Eriador, borders the Old Forest|
|Inhabitants||Men, then Barrow-wights|
|Events||War of the Elves and Sauron|
Barrow-downs or Tyrn Gorthad were a series of low hills east of the Shire, behind the Old Forest, and west of the village of Bree. Many of the hills were crowned with megaliths and barrows, whence their name.
The Barrow-downs were first inhabited by Men related to the Edain in the First Age, together with the Hills of Evendim to the north. They fled east as Easterlings invaded Eriador and passed on to Beleriand, but after these had left or been killed in the War of Wrath the Edain returned to their old homes.
During the Second Age they were fairly numerous, and when they met with the Númenóreans the Barrow-downs were the first places where the Dúnedain emigrees from Númenor settled. When Elendil returned to Middle-earth, the Barrow-downs were incorporated in the kingdom of Arnor.
After the split of Arnor the Barrow-downs became the capital of Cardolan. After Rhudaur fell to Angmar, the Dúnedain of Cardolan entrenched themselves here, but eventually the realm fell. The Barrow-wights were now sent there by the Witch-king. After Arthedain once again claimed the kingship over all of Arnor the Dúnedain tried to recolonize Cardolan, but this failed because of the Barrow-wights.
During the War of the Ring Frodo Baggins and company were trapped in the downs by a wight, probably in the same cairn which held the grave of the last prince of Cardolan. They were rescued by Tom Bombadil, and there got their swords.
In topography, a "down" is a low-lying hill, from the Anglo-Saxon dún meaning "hill". In the United Kingdom, a down is a gently-rolling chalk hill in Southern England (seen especially in the North and South Downs).
A "barrow" (or "berrow"; from English beorg, berg, 'hill, mound') not to be confused with the wheeled vehicle, is a tumulus or other prehistoric grave-mound.
Tyrn Gorthad was the Sindarin name of the Barrow-downs. Tyrn Gorthad is a compound of torn ("burial mound") and gorthad ("of buried"). In one manuscript, the name Tyrn Goerthaid was used by Tolkien.
Portrayal in adaptations
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- The barrow-downs are a series of mounds crowned with megaliths. The region is inhabited by wraiths. The largest and oldest barrow is Othrongroth.
- After Halbarad sent Eradan, Andriel and Farin to warn Aragorn in Bree, the three heroes travel through the Barrow-downs as a short cut. In the whole level fog hangs above the ground.
- ↑ Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller, "DÚN" at An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (accessed 12 October 2010)
- ↑ Oxford Dictionaries, "down" (accessed 12 October 2010)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, "Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings" in Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 766
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), p. 116
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil"
- ↑ Offical Xbox Magazine Online, The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, dated 28 April, 2011 (accessed at 7 July, 2011)
- ↑ The Lord of the Rings: War in the North's Official Site, Videos, The Lord of the Rings: War in the North - Dev video: Art Direction Process, dated 11 May, 2011 (accessed 14 September, 2011)