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Black Speech

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Sauron created the '''Black Speech''', as an artificial language, to be the sole language of all the servants of Mordor, replacing the many different varieties of [[Orkish]] and other languages used by his servants. Tolkien describes the language as existing in two forms, the ancient "pure" forms used by Sauron himself, the [[Nazgûl]], and the [[Olog-hai]], and the more "debased" form used by the soldiery of the [[Barad-dûr]] at the end of the [[Third Age]]. The only example given of "pure" Black Speech is the inscription upon the [[One Ring]]:
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__NOTOC__
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The '''Black Speech''' was created by [[Sauron]] during the [[Dark Years]] to be the sole language of all the servants of Mordor, replacing the many different varieties of [[Orkish]] and other languages used by his servants. When Sauron was overthrown at the end of the [[Second Age]] the ancient "pure" form was forgotten by all but the [[Nazgûl]].  When Sauron returned it was once again made the official language of [[Barad-dûr]].  However, a more "debased" form was used by the soldiery of [[Barad-dûr]] at the end of the [[Third Age]].<ref name="Trans">{{App|Translation}}</ref> The only example given of "pure" Black Speech is the inscription upon [[the One Ring]]<ref>{{FR|II2}}</ref>:
  
:''Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul,''
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<poem style="font-style:italic; margin-left:20px;">
:''ash nazg thrakatulûk, agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.''
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Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul,
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ash nazg thrakatulûk, agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.
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</poem>
  
 
When translated into English, these words form the lines:
 
When translated into English, these words form the lines:
  
:''One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,''
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<poem style="font-style:italic; margin-left:20px;">
:''One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.''
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One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
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One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.
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</poem>
  
 
These are the first two lines from the end of a verse about the [[Rings of Power]].
 
These are the first two lines from the end of a verse about the [[Rings of Power]].
  
Many Orkish dialects had adopted words from it. The Black Speech was at least in part based on [[Valarin]].
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Many Orkish dialects had adopted words from it.<ref name="Trans"/> The Black Speech was at least in part based on [[Valarin]].
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==Inspiration==
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In real life, [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] created this language with the intention of making it harsh and ugly,{{fact}} although people who speak the European languages that he emulated may disagree with his methods.  The Black Speech is unfortunately one of the more incomplete languages in Tolkien's novels, because the forces of good refuse to utter it, as it attracts the attention of the [[Eye of Sauron]].  Unlike [[Elvish]], there are no poems or songs written in it (apart from the Ring's inscription), and because Tolkien designed it to be unpleasant, he did not enjoy writing it. The result is a random collection of words that are hard to actually use in day-to-day conversation. We learn from the text in the ring and its translation that the Black Speech is a strongly [[Wikipedia:Agglutination|agglutinating]] language.
  
In real life, [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] created this language with the intention of making it harsh and ugly, although people who speak the European languages that he emulated may disagree with his methods.  The Black Speech is unfortunately one of the more incomplete languages in Tolkien's novels, because the forces of good refuse to utter it, as it attracts the attention of the [[Eye of Sauron]]. Unlike [[Elvish]], there are no poems or songs written in it (apart from the Ring's inscription), and because Tolkien designed it to be unpleasant, he did not enjoy writing it. The result is a random collection of words that are hard to actually use in day-to-day conversation. We learn from the text in the ring and its translation that the Black Speech is a strongly agglutinating language.
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Tolkien linguist [[Helge Fauskanger]] has noted a theory proposed by Russian historian Alexander Nemirovski, that the Black Speech, according to the shape of words, agglutination and grammar, shares many similarities with the ancient Mesopotamian language [[Wikipedia:Hurrian language|Hurrian]].<ref>{{webcite|author=[[Helge Fauskanger]]|articleurl=http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/orkish.htm|articlename=Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes|dated=|website=Arda|accessed=12 January 2013}}</ref>
  
For [[Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings]], the linguist [[David Salo]] used what little is known of the Black Speech to create enough of a language for use in the movies. This is usually referred to by [[Tolkienists]] as neo-Black Speech.
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==Portrayal in adaptations==
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'''2001-03: [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]]:'''
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: Linguist [[David Salo]] used what little is known of the Black Speech to create enough of a language for use in the films.<ref>[http://www.elvish.org/gwaith/movie_archives_4.htm Language in The Lord of the Rings Movie (August 12, 2003)] at [http://www.elvish.org/ Elvish.org] (accessed 26 December 2010)</ref> This is usually referred to by [[Tolkienists]] as neo-Black Speech.
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==See also==
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*[[:Category:Black Speech words|Category: Black Speech words]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/orkish.htm Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes]
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*[http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/orkish.htm Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes] ([[Ardalambion]])
 
*[http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/blackspeech.htm Black Speech analysis by Craig Daniel]
 
*[http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/blackspeech.htm Black Speech analysis by Craig Daniel]
*[http://www.redhandorcs.org/html/contentid-9.html Orcs of the Red Hand Black Speech]
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{{references}}
*[http://darktongue.cjb.net/ Land of Shadows Black Speech]
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[[Category:Black Speech| ]]
 
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[[Category:Languages]]
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[[de:Schwarze Sprache]]
 
[[de:Schwarze Sprache]]
 
[[fi:Musta kieli]]
 
[[fi:Musta kieli]]
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[[fr:encyclo/langues/parler noir]]

Revision as of 11:30, 17 January 2013

The Black Speech was created by Sauron during the Dark Years to be the sole language of all the servants of Mordor, replacing the many different varieties of Orkish and other languages used by his servants. When Sauron was overthrown at the end of the Second Age the ancient "pure" form was forgotten by all but the Nazgûl. When Sauron returned it was once again made the official language of Barad-dûr. However, a more "debased" form was used by the soldiery of Barad-dûr at the end of the Third Age.[1] The only example given of "pure" Black Speech is the inscription upon the One Ring[2]:

Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul,
ash nazg thrakatulûk, agh burzum-ishi krimpatul.

When translated into English, these words form the lines:

One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.

These are the first two lines from the end of a verse about the Rings of Power.

Many Orkish dialects had adopted words from it.[1] The Black Speech was at least in part based on Valarin.

Inspiration

In real life, J.R.R. Tolkien created this language with the intention of making it harsh and ugly,[source?] although people who speak the European languages that he emulated may disagree with his methods. The Black Speech is unfortunately one of the more incomplete languages in Tolkien's novels, because the forces of good refuse to utter it, as it attracts the attention of the Eye of Sauron. Unlike Elvish, there are no poems or songs written in it (apart from the Ring's inscription), and because Tolkien designed it to be unpleasant, he did not enjoy writing it. The result is a random collection of words that are hard to actually use in day-to-day conversation. We learn from the text in the ring and its translation that the Black Speech is a strongly agglutinating language.

Tolkien linguist Helge Fauskanger has noted a theory proposed by Russian historian Alexander Nemirovski, that the Black Speech, according to the shape of words, agglutination and grammar, shares many similarities with the ancient Mesopotamian language Hurrian.[3]

Portrayal in adaptations

2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):

Linguist David Salo used what little is known of the Black Speech to create enough of a language for use in the films.[4] This is usually referred to by Tolkienists as neo-Black Speech.

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  3. Helge Fauskanger, "Orkish and the Black Speech - base language for base purposes" , Ardalambion (accessed 12 January 2013)
  4. Language in The Lord of the Rings Movie (August 12, 2003) at Elvish.org (accessed 26 December 2010)