Tolkien Gateway

Bombur

(Difference between revisions)
m (History: Removed unneeded link)
(33 intermediate revisions by 13 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{dwarves infobox
 
{{dwarves infobox
| image=[[Image:Bombur from The Hobbit.jpg|250px]]
+
| image=[[File:Suzy Almblade - A Heavy Load.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Bombur
 
| name=Bombur
 
| othernames=
 
| othernames=
| life=Late [[Third Age]] - early [[Fourth Age]]
+
| titles=
| realm=[[Thorin's Halls]], [[Erebor]]
+
| position=
 +
| location=[[Thorin's Halls]]<br/>[[Lonely Mountain]]
 +
| affiliation=[[Thorin and Company]]
 +
| language=[[Khuzdul]] and [[Westron]]
 +
| birth=
 +
| birthlocation=
 +
| rule=
 +
| death=
 +
| deathlocation=
 +
| age=
 +
| house=
 
| parentage=
 
| parentage=
| lineage=
+
| siblings=[[Bofur]]
| hood=Green
+
| spouse=
 +
| children=
 
| gender=Male
 
| gender=Male
|}}
+
| height=
 +
| hair=
 +
| eyes=
 +
| clothing=Pale green hood
 +
| weapons=
 +
| steed=
 +
}}
 +
'''Bombur''' was one of the [[Dwarves]] of [[Thorin and Company|Thorin's company]] who journeyed to [[Lonely Mountain|Erebor]] to challenge the [[Dragons|dragon]] [[Smaug]].  Bombur's distinguishing characteristic was his size for he was the fattest of the thirteen Dwarves.<ref name="Party">{{H|Party}}</ref>  After the death of Smaug, Bombur lived at the Lonely Mountain.<ref name="Meetings">{{FR|II1}}</ref>
  
'''Bombur''' is a fat [[Dwarves|Dwarf]] who accompanies [[Thorin Oakenshield]] and [[Bilbo Baggins]] on their journey to [[Erebor]]. His brother [[Bofur]] and cousin [[Bifur]] also joined the quest.
+
==History==
 +
Bombur's parentage is unknown; the only familial connections mentioned are his brother [[Bofur]] and his cousin [[Bifur]].<ref name="Flies">{{H|Flies}}</ref>  Bombur was not of Durin's line although he was descended from Dwarves of [[Moria]].<ref name="Durin">{{App|Durin}}</ref>  His birth year is also unknown.  However, from [[Bilbo Baggins]]' account of the quest to Erebor it is known that the brothers [[Fíli]] and [[Kíli]] were the youngest of the thirteen "by some fifty years"<ref name="Hill">{{H|Hill}}</ref> and that after Thorin had been captured, [[Balin]] was "the eldest left".<ref>{{H|Barrels}}</ref>  Since Fíli was born in {{TA|2859}} and Balin was born in {{TA|2763|n}},<ref name="Durin"/> this would put Bombur's birth between 2809 and {{TA|2763|n}}, and he would have been between 132 and 178 years old during the quest to Erebor.  Prior to the quest Bombur probably lived in the [[Blue Mountains]] with [[Thorin]] after the loss of [[Thráin II]].
  
==The Quest of Erebor==
+
===The Quest of Erebor===
 +
In {{TA|2941}},<ref>{{App|TA}}</ref> Bombur was one of the four Dwarves in the fifth group to arrive at [[Bag End]].  When Bilbo jerked open his door the four fell on top of one another, with Thorin on the bottom and fat Bombur on top.  Bombur wore a pale green hood and asked for pork-pie and salad for his refreshment.  When Thorin later called for music, Bombur played a drum.<ref name="Party"/>
  
"Poor, fat" Bombur was frequently described as foolish and being the last in everything.  Because he counted for two, he was the last to enter [[Beorn]]'s house and the last to cross the enchanted river in [[Mirkwood]].  And he made mistakes when he was last: He tumbled with Bifur and Bofur onto Thorin when they entered [[Bag End]] last.  He chooses to stay and guard the supplies camp while the others move up Erebor because he trusts neither mountain paths nor ropes. Later though, he is forced to use the ropes to escape the rampaging [[Dragons|dragon]] [[Smaug]].
+
Despite his size, before the Trolls could capture Bombur he fought like mad.  Because of the trouble he caused them the Trolls put him near their fire.<ref name="Mutton">{{H|Mutton}}</ref>
  
Bombur slept at several key moments his journey to the mountain.  When he tripped into the Mirkwood river, he fell under a spell that made him sleep for days, burdening the others with his weight as they walked on.  And while he was on a midnight lookout in the fortified Erebor, Bilbo promised to keep watch so that he could sleep in the warmth (Bilbo used this opportunity to sneak the [[Arkenstone]] out of the mountain).  Incidentally, he was asleep when they opened his barrel after escaping the [[Elves of Mirkwood]] and also when Bilbo discovered the secret entrance to Erebor.
+
Running from the [[Orcs|Goblins]] through their tunnels, Bombur carried Bilbo for part of the way, although he grumbled about it as he staggered with sweat dripping from his nose.<ref>{{H|Hill}}</ref>
  
Though a handful, Bombur was a a very friendly dwarf.
+
In the glade of the [[Wargs]] Bombur shared a pine tree with Bifur, Bofur, and Thorin.<ref name="Pan">{{H|Pan}}</ref>
  
== Later Life ==
+
When [[Gandalf]] was telling the story of the company's adventures to [[Beorn]], Bifur, Bofur, and Bombur were the last of the Dwarves to show up.  Gandalf had told Bombur to arrive last and alone because he was the fattest, but the offended Dwarf had refused to wait.<ref name="Queer">{{H|Queer}}</ref>
 +
[[File:Alan Lee - Bombur sleeping.jpg|thumb|right|''Bombur sleeping'' by [[Alan Lee]]]]
 +
Bombur's most notable "adventure" occurred at the [[Enchanted River]].  Beorn had warned them about its water<ref name="Queer"/> and they did try to cross without touching it, but due to the charge of the deer, Bombur fell into the river.  The company threw him a rope and he caught it, but upon landing he fell into an enchanted sleep.  For six days the company took turns carrying the heavy slumbering Dwarf.  When finally awake he had forgotten everything since the quest began and lamented waking up to no food, especially since his dreams had been about a great forest feast.  After a day of walking Bombur had had enough and refused to take another step.
  
Many years later, [[Frodo Baggins]] inquired about Bombur and learned that he had grown so fat it took six Dwarves to lift him.
+
It was then that the first of the feasts of the [[Elves of Mirkwood|Elves]] appeared north of the path.  Bombur was for rushing to it but was restrained by the caution of the others.  When they did attempt to enter the feasts everything vanished and eventually all of the Dwarves except Thorin were captured by the spiders.  After the spiders had strung up the Dwarves, Bombur's fatness was again a problem for it attracted the attention of one of the creatures who bit him on the nose.  Bombur kicked the spider, who would have killed him had Bilbo not intervened.  Despite this activity Bombur was nearly exhausted; when freed he fell off his branch and luckily had his fall cushioned by leaves.<ref name="Flies"/>
  
== Lineage ==
+
After the barrel ride down the [[River Running]] both Bombur was found to be asleep or senseless.<ref>{{H|Welcome}}</ref>
  
Bombur descended from [[Dwarves of Khazad-dum]], but was not among [[Durin's folk]], so he was either from the [[Firebeard|Firebeards]] or [[Broadbeam|Broadbeams]] Houses, since the population of these houses was located in [[Khazad-dûm]] up until [[Durin's Bane]] awoke.
+
While the rest of the company climbed up to the "doorstep" on the side of the Lonely Mountain, Bombur and Bofur remained in the valley to tend to the ponies.  While Bofur was willing to ascend by rope for changes of the guard, Bombur demurred, claiming that he would either grow dizzy or the rope would break.<ref>{{H|Doorstep}}</ref>  However, when Smaug came roaring out to scour the mountainside Bombur's reluctance vanished and he was hauled up the cliff.<ref name="Inside">{{H|Inside}}</ref>
  
{{Template:Thorin and Company}}
+
Although Bombur supported Thorin's decision to defy the Elves and Men and withstand a siege, he felt it was a "sorry business altogether" and deemed Thorin "ever a dwarf with a stiff neck".  Wishing for a strong drink and a soft bed, Bombur was easily convinced when Bilbo offered to take his turn as watchman.  Bombur did sleep and thanked Bilbo later when the Hobbit woke him up after midnight.<ref>{{H|Thief}}</ref>
  
[[Category:Dwarves]]
+
Bombur fought in and survived the [[Battle of Five Armies]].  He was given his share of the treasure by [[Dáin Ironfoot]], and made his home in Erebor.<ref>{{H|Return}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Later life===
 +
At [[Rivendell]] in December, {{TA|3018}}, [[Glóin]] told [[Frodo Baggins]] that Bombur was still alive and living in Erebor.  In fact, Bombur appeared to have used some of his wealth to increase his girth – he was unable to move alone from couch to table and required the aid of six young Dwarves to lift him.<ref name="Meetings"/>  Given his age and immobility it is doubtful that Bombur fought in the [[Battle of Dale]].
 +
 
 +
==Etymology==
 +
Bombur, or ''Bumburr'', is a dwarf from the ''[[Völuspá|Dvergatal]]''. His name most likely means "the Swollen One".<ref>Chester Nathan Gould, "Dwarf-Names: A Study in Old Icelandic Religion", published in ''Publications of the Modern Language Association of America'', Vol 44 (1929), issue #4, pp. 939-967</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Other versions of the legendarium==
 +
In one of the early manuscript fragments of ''The Hobbit'', Bombur produced a drum from ''nowhere'',<ref>{{HH|Bladorthin}}, p. 36</ref> whereas in the published text he just produced it ''from the hall''.<ref name="Party"/>  [[John Rateliff]] (author of ''[[The History of The Hobbit]]'') said that in the earliest phase Tolkien had added fairy tale touches of Dwarven magic to emphasize the uncanny, other-worldly nature of the Dwarves as opposed to Bilbo's ordinariness.<ref>{{HH|Bladorthin}}, (iii) ''Dwarven Magic'', p. 54</ref>
 +
 
 +
On the wet night before meeting the Trolls the prepublication version had Bombur and Bofur failing to light a fire and quarrelling about it, with Dori and Nori getting into a fight.<ref>{{HH|Trolls}}, p. 91</ref>  In the published version Tolkien added a comment that [[Óin]] and [[Glóin]] were especially good at making a fire, made them the two who could not do it that night, and had them start fighting.<ref name="Mutton"/>
 +
 
 +
Originally, when Bombur needed propping up in [[Mirkwood]] after being cut from the spiders' webbing, it was ''his cousins'' Bifur and Bofur who provided support.<ref>{{HH|Mirkwood}}, p. 313</ref>  In the published story this was changed to Bombur's cousin Bifur and brother Bofur.<ref name="Flies"/>  Also, in the earlier version, when [[Smaug]] first came out and the Dwarves in the valley had to be hauled up to the [[Back Door]], Bifur cried out to save Bombur and Bofur, who were both his ''brothers''.<ref>{{HH|Conversations}}</ref>  In the published text Bifur cried out for his two ''cousins''.<ref name="Inside"/>
 +
 
 +
In Tolkien's unfinished [[1960]] rewrite of ''The Hobbit'', Bifur, Bofur and Bombur were Thorin's attendants.<ref>{{HH|5}}, "[[A Well-Planned Party]]", p. 774</ref> [[John D. Rateliff]] assumes this made them either courtiers or honor-guard.<ref>{{HH|5}}, "[[Arrival in Rivendell]]", note 32</ref>  Although this relationship did not appear in the published story, it may be noted that Bifur, Bofur, and Bombur arrived at Bag End with Thorin<ref name="Party"/> and the same three Dwarves climbed the same pine tree with Thorin in the glade of the Wargs.<ref name="Pan"/>
 +
 
 +
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 +
{{Gallery
 +
|title=Bombur in adaptations
 +
|width=165
 +
|height=140
 +
|lines=1
 +
|File:The Hobbit (film series) - Bombur.jpg|Bombur in [[The Hobbit (film series)|''The Hobbit'' (film series)]]
 +
}}
 +
===Films===
 +
'''1966: [[The Hobbit (1966 film)|''The Hobbit'' (1966 film)]]:'''
 +
:Bombur is omitted. [[Thorin Oakenshield]] only travels with an unnamed guard and the princess of Dale.<ref name="Deitch">{{webcite|articleurl=http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=UBnVL1Y2src|articlename=The Hobbit.mp4|dated=5 January 2012|website=YouTube|accessed=10 January 2012}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
'''1977: [[The Hobbit (1977 film)|''The Hobbit'' (1977 film)]]:'''
 +
:Bombur is played by [[Paul Frees]].
 +
 
 +
'''2012-14: [[The Hobbit (film series)|''The Hobbit'' (film series)]]:'''
 +
:Bombur is played by [[Stephen Hunter]].<ref name="PJCasting">{{webcite|author=[[Peter Jackson]]|articleurl=http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=10150168211921558|articlename=Production begins in New Zealand on The Hobbit|dated=20-March-2011|website=[http://www.facebook.com/ Facebook]|accessed=23-Dec-2011}}</ref> A description of Bombur in ''The Hobbit'' films was released by the studio:
 +
 
 +
:{{Blockquote|Brother to Bofur and cousin to Bifur, Bombur is the chief cook amongst The Company of Dwarves. His immense size and voracious appetite causes frequent problems – and laughter – for himself and The Travelling Party. Despite his size he can be surprisingly effective as a fighter – and woe betide anyone who makes him late for dinner!|[[Warner Bros.]]<ref name="HobbitApp">{{webcite|author=[[Warner Bros.]]|articleurl=http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/hobbit-movies/id545808528|articlename=Hobbit Movies|dated=7-September-2012|website=[http://itunes.apple.com/ Apple iPhone/iPad App]|accessed=19-September-2012}}</ref>}}
 +
 
 +
===Radio series===
 +
'''1968: [[The Hobbit (1968 radio series)|''The Hobbit'' (1968 radio series)]]:'''
 +
:Bombur is played by [[Duncan McIntyre]].
 +
 
 +
'''1979: [[The Hobbit (1979 radio series)|''The Hobbit'' (1979 radio series)]]:'''
 +
:No actor is specified for the role of Bombur.
 +
 
 +
===Games===
 +
'''1982: [[The Hobbit (1982 video game)|''The Hobbit'' (1982 video game)]]:'''
 +
:Bombur is omitted; Thorin is the only companion of the player, [[Bilbo Baggins]].<ref>''[http://www.worldofspectrum.org/showmag.cgi?mag=ZXComputing/Issue8304/Pages/ZXComputing830400076.jpg ZX Computing]'', 8304 (April/May 1983), p. 76, accessed [[24 April|April 24]] [[2011]]</ref>
 +
 
 +
'''2003: [[The Hobbit (2003 video game)|''The Hobbit'' (2003 video game)]]:'''
 +
:Bombur is voiced by an uncredited [[Daran Norris]].
 +
 
 +
{{References}}
 +
{{Thorin and Company}}
 
[[Category:Characters in The Hobbit]]
 
[[Category:Characters in The Hobbit]]
 +
[[Category:Dwarves]]
 +
 
[[de:Bombur]]
 
[[de:Bombur]]
 
[[fr:encyclo:personnages:nains:3a:bombur]]
 
[[fr:encyclo:personnages:nains:3a:bombur]]
 
[[fi:Bombur]]
 
[[fi:Bombur]]

Revision as of 05:44, 10 February 2013

Suzy Almblade - A Heavy Load.jpg
Bombur
Dwarf
Biographical Information
LocationThorin's Halls
Lonely Mountain
AffiliationThorin and Company
LanguageKhuzdul and Westron
Family
SiblingsBofur
Physical Description
GenderMale
ClothingPale green hood

Bombur was one of the Dwarves of Thorin's company who journeyed to Erebor to challenge the dragon Smaug. Bombur's distinguishing characteristic was his size for he was the fattest of the thirteen Dwarves.[1] After the death of Smaug, Bombur lived at the Lonely Mountain.[2]

Contents

History

Bombur's parentage is unknown; the only familial connections mentioned are his brother Bofur and his cousin Bifur.[3] Bombur was not of Durin's line although he was descended from Dwarves of Moria.[4] His birth year is also unknown. However, from Bilbo Baggins' account of the quest to Erebor it is known that the brothers Fíli and Kíli were the youngest of the thirteen "by some fifty years"[5] and that after Thorin had been captured, Balin was "the eldest left".[6] Since Fíli was born in T.A. 2859 and Balin was born in 2763,[4] this would put Bombur's birth between 2809 and 2763, and he would have been between 132 and 178 years old during the quest to Erebor. Prior to the quest Bombur probably lived in the Blue Mountains with Thorin after the loss of Thráin II.

The Quest of Erebor

In T.A. 2941,[7] Bombur was one of the four Dwarves in the fifth group to arrive at Bag End. When Bilbo jerked open his door the four fell on top of one another, with Thorin on the bottom and fat Bombur on top. Bombur wore a pale green hood and asked for pork-pie and salad for his refreshment. When Thorin later called for music, Bombur played a drum.[1]

Despite his size, before the Trolls could capture Bombur he fought like mad. Because of the trouble he caused them the Trolls put him near their fire.[8]

Running from the Goblins through their tunnels, Bombur carried Bilbo for part of the way, although he grumbled about it as he staggered with sweat dripping from his nose.[9]

In the glade of the Wargs Bombur shared a pine tree with Bifur, Bofur, and Thorin.[10]

When Gandalf was telling the story of the company's adventures to Beorn, Bifur, Bofur, and Bombur were the last of the Dwarves to show up. Gandalf had told Bombur to arrive last and alone because he was the fattest, but the offended Dwarf had refused to wait.[11]

Bombur sleeping by Alan Lee

Bombur's most notable "adventure" occurred at the Enchanted River. Beorn had warned them about its water[11] and they did try to cross without touching it, but due to the charge of the deer, Bombur fell into the river. The company threw him a rope and he caught it, but upon landing he fell into an enchanted sleep. For six days the company took turns carrying the heavy slumbering Dwarf. When finally awake he had forgotten everything since the quest began and lamented waking up to no food, especially since his dreams had been about a great forest feast. After a day of walking Bombur had had enough and refused to take another step.

It was then that the first of the feasts of the Elves appeared north of the path. Bombur was for rushing to it but was restrained by the caution of the others. When they did attempt to enter the feasts everything vanished and eventually all of the Dwarves except Thorin were captured by the spiders. After the spiders had strung up the Dwarves, Bombur's fatness was again a problem for it attracted the attention of one of the creatures who bit him on the nose. Bombur kicked the spider, who would have killed him had Bilbo not intervened. Despite this activity Bombur was nearly exhausted; when freed he fell off his branch and luckily had his fall cushioned by leaves.[3]

After the barrel ride down the River Running both Bombur was found to be asleep or senseless.[12]

While the rest of the company climbed up to the "doorstep" on the side of the Lonely Mountain, Bombur and Bofur remained in the valley to tend to the ponies. While Bofur was willing to ascend by rope for changes of the guard, Bombur demurred, claiming that he would either grow dizzy or the rope would break.[13] However, when Smaug came roaring out to scour the mountainside Bombur's reluctance vanished and he was hauled up the cliff.[14]

Although Bombur supported Thorin's decision to defy the Elves and Men and withstand a siege, he felt it was a "sorry business altogether" and deemed Thorin "ever a dwarf with a stiff neck". Wishing for a strong drink and a soft bed, Bombur was easily convinced when Bilbo offered to take his turn as watchman. Bombur did sleep and thanked Bilbo later when the Hobbit woke him up after midnight.[15]

Bombur fought in and survived the Battle of Five Armies. He was given his share of the treasure by Dáin Ironfoot, and made his home in Erebor.[16]

Later life

At Rivendell in December, T.A. 3018, Glóin told Frodo Baggins that Bombur was still alive and living in Erebor. In fact, Bombur appeared to have used some of his wealth to increase his girth – he was unable to move alone from couch to table and required the aid of six young Dwarves to lift him.[2] Given his age and immobility it is doubtful that Bombur fought in the Battle of Dale.

Etymology

Bombur, or Bumburr, is a dwarf from the Dvergatal. His name most likely means "the Swollen One".[17]

Other versions of the legendarium

In one of the early manuscript fragments of The Hobbit, Bombur produced a drum from nowhere,[18] whereas in the published text he just produced it from the hall.[1] John Rateliff (author of The History of The Hobbit) said that in the earliest phase Tolkien had added fairy tale touches of Dwarven magic to emphasize the uncanny, other-worldly nature of the Dwarves as opposed to Bilbo's ordinariness.[19]

On the wet night before meeting the Trolls the prepublication version had Bombur and Bofur failing to light a fire and quarrelling about it, with Dori and Nori getting into a fight.[20] In the published version Tolkien added a comment that Óin and Glóin were especially good at making a fire, made them the two who could not do it that night, and had them start fighting.[8]

Originally, when Bombur needed propping up in Mirkwood after being cut from the spiders' webbing, it was his cousins Bifur and Bofur who provided support.[21] In the published story this was changed to Bombur's cousin Bifur and brother Bofur.[3] Also, in the earlier version, when Smaug first came out and the Dwarves in the valley had to be hauled up to the Back Door, Bifur cried out to save Bombur and Bofur, who were both his brothers.[22] In the published text Bifur cried out for his two cousins.[14]

In Tolkien's unfinished 1960 rewrite of The Hobbit, Bifur, Bofur and Bombur were Thorin's attendants.[23] John D. Rateliff assumes this made them either courtiers or honor-guard.[24] Although this relationship did not appear in the published story, it may be noted that Bifur, Bofur, and Bombur arrived at Bag End with Thorin[1] and the same three Dwarves climbed the same pine tree with Thorin in the glade of the Wargs.[10]

Portrayal in adaptations

Bombur in adaptations

Films

1966: The Hobbit (1966 film):

Bombur is omitted. Thorin Oakenshield only travels with an unnamed guard and the princess of Dale.[25]

1977: The Hobbit (1977 film):

Bombur is played by Paul Frees.

2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):

Bombur is played by Stephen Hunter.[26] A description of Bombur in The Hobbit films was released by the studio:
Brother to Bofur and cousin to Bifur, Bombur is the chief cook amongst The Company of Dwarves. His immense size and voracious appetite causes frequent problems – and laughter – for himself and The Travelling Party. Despite his size he can be surprisingly effective as a fighter – and woe betide anyone who makes him late for dinner!
Warner Bros.[27]

Radio series

1968: The Hobbit (1968 radio series):

Bombur is played by Duncan McIntyre.

1979: The Hobbit (1979 radio series):

No actor is specified for the role of Bombur.

Games

1982: The Hobbit (1982 video game):

Bombur is omitted; Thorin is the only companion of the player, Bilbo Baggins.[28]

2003: The Hobbit (2003 video game):

Bombur is voiced by an uncredited Daran Norris.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "An Unexpected Party"
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Many Meetings"
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Flies and Spiders"
  4. 4.0 4.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Over Hill and Under Hill"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Barrels Out of Bond"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  8. 8.0 8.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Roast Mutton"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Over Hill and Under Hill"
  10. 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Out of the Frying-Pan into the Fire"
  11. 11.0 11.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Queer Lodgings"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "A Warm Welcome"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "On the Doorstep"
  14. 14.0 14.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Inside Information"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "A Thief in the Night"
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "The Return Journey"
  17. Chester Nathan Gould, "Dwarf-Names: A Study in Old Icelandic Religion", published in Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, Vol 44 (1929), issue #4, pp. 939-967
  18. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The First Phase, "The Bladorthin Typescript", p. 36
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The First Phase, "The Bladorthin Typescript", (iii) Dwarven Magic, p. 54
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The Second Phase, "Trolls", p. 91
  21. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The Second Phase, "Mirkwood", p. 313
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Mr. Baggins, The Second Phase, "Conversations with Smaug"
  23. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Return to Bag-End, "The Fifth Phase", "A Well-Planned Party", p. 774
  24. J.R.R. Tolkien, John D. Rateliff (ed.), The History of The Hobbit, Return to Bag-End, "The Fifth Phase", "Arrival in Rivendell", note 32
  25. "The Hobbit.mp4" dated 05 January 2012, YouTube (accessed 10 January 2012)
  26. Peter Jackson, "Production begins in New Zealand on The Hobbit" dated 20 March 2011, Facebook (accessed 23 December 2011)
  27. Warner Bros., "Hobbit Movies" dated 07 September 2012, Apple iPhone/iPad App (accessed 19 September 2012)
  28. ZX Computing, 8304 (April/May 1983), p. 76, accessed April 24 2011


Members of Thorin and Company
Thorin · Balin · Dwalin · Fíli · Kíli · Dori · Nori · Ori · Óin · Glóin · Bifur · Bofur · Bombur · Gandalf · Bilbo Baggins