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The Riders of Rohan by Ted Nasmith.

Calenardhon was a wide green landscape in the north of Gondor, but it became depopulated during the Third Age. It was devastated by the Great Plague of Third Age 1636 but some Dunlendings settled some of its lands.

During the rule of the Steward Cirion, Gondor faced a series of attacks by the Balchoth, and Calenardhon was overrun by these evil people. Cirion sent messages for help to Gondor's old allies, including the Éothéod, to help defend Gondor.

Eorl the Young answered the call, and helped Gondor defeat the Balchoth at the Field of Celebrant. In gratitude, Cirion granted all Calenardhon, except for Anórien, to the Éothéod.

After the Éothéod settled in Calenardhon, the land became known as Rohan or the Riddermark.


Calenardhon is Sindarin, meaning Green Province (calen "green" + ardhon "province, great region").

The hypothetical Old Sindarin would likely be *Kalinarda.[source?]

Direct translations given by J.R.R. Tolkien for Calenardhon are "green province"[1] and "the (great) green region"[2].

Earlier names used by Tolkien for this region were Elenarda > Kalen(arda) > Kalinarda > Calenardan > Calenardon.[3][4]


  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Nancy Smith, "Index questions". Cf. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (HarperCollinsPublishers 2008), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 477
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 297, (dated August 1967)
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Ring, "Part Two: The Ring Goes East", "Faramir"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil"