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Cardolan

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[[Cardolan]] was a breakaway realm of the [[Dúnedain]] kingdom of [[Arnor]]. After the death of its tenth King [[Eärendur, King ofArnor|Eärendur]], his sons divided the kingdom into the kingdoms of [[Arthedain]], [[Rhudaur]] and Cardolan.
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{{kingdom
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| image =[[Image:Cardolanrotwk.jpg|250px]]
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| name =Cardolan
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| meaning =
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| type =Monarchy
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| hidep=yes
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| headofstate =[[King of Cardolan]]
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| executive =
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| legislative =
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| judicial =
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| capital =
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| language =[[Westron]]
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| location =Northern[[Eriador]] between the [[Gwathló]] and the [[Baranduin]]
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| populace=[[Men]] and [[Hobbits]]
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| currency =
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| religious =Belief in [[Ilúvatar|Eru Ilúvatar]]
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| holiday =
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| anthem =
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| formed =Disolution of Arnor
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| established ={{TA|861}}
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| reorganized ={{TA|1349}}
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| fragmented =
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| dissolved ={{TA|1636}}
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| restored =
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}}
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{{Pronounce|Cardolan.mp3|Ardamir}}
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'''Cardolan''' was a breakaway realm of the [[Dúnedain]] kingdom of [[Arnor]]. After the death of Arnor's King [[Eärendur (King ofArnor)|Eärendur]], his sons divided the realm into the kingdoms of [[Arthedain]], [[Rhudaur]] and Cardolan.
  
Cardolan stretched from the river [[Baranduin]] (Brandywine) to the [[Mitheithel]] (Hoarwell). Its northern border was the [[Great East Road]], but Cardolan also claimed the Weather Hills, which contained the fortress of [[Amon Sûl]] (Weathertop). Amon Sûl housed a [[palantíri|palantír]]), and for this reason it was also claimed by Rhudaur. This lead to a bitter conflict which continued until Rhudaur became a vassal of Angmar after the line of the [[Dúnedain]] failed there.
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==Description==
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The southeastern border of Cardolan followed the [[Gwathló]] and the [[Mitheithel]] to the [[Last Bridge]]. From there its boundary followed the [[Great East Road]] westward to the [[Brandywine Bridge]], and then down the [[Baranduin]] to the [[Belegear|Sea]] and thence to the mouth of the Gwathló. However, Cardolan also claimed the land between [[Bree]] and the [[Weather Hills]].<ref name="Eriador">{{App|Eriador}}</ref>  Notable features within Cardolan were the [[Old Forest]], the [[Barrow-downs]], the [[South Downs]], and the [[Greenway]].<ref>{{UT|Map}}</ref>
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==History==
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In {{TA|861}} Arnor's tenth King, Eärendur, died.<ref name="TA">{{App|TA}}</ref>  Due to dissensions between his sons the realm was split into [[Arthedain]], [[Rhudaur]] and Cardolan.  While the line of [[Isildur]] continued in Arthedain, in both Rhudaur and Cardolan the line soon failed. Arthedain held Weatherop and possessed its ''[[Amon Sûl-stone|Palantír]]'' as well as two others, which led to strife between the three kingdoms.<ref name="Eriador"/>
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In {{TA|1050|n}} the [[Harfoots]] came into Eriador and in {{TA|1150|n}} they were joined by the [[Fallohides]].<ref name="TA"/>  It is likely that some of these [[Hobbits]] settled in Cardolan.
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When [[Malvegil]] of Arthedain began his reign (in {{TA|1272|n}}<ref name="North">{{App|North}}</ref>) [[Orcs]] began to trouble the region.<ref>{{PM|Elendil}}</ref>  Later, around {{TA|1300}}, the [[Witch-king]] came north and founded the kingdom of [[Angmar]] north of the [[Ettenmoors]]. This event caused many Hobbits to move to [[Bree]].<ref name="TA"/>
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After Malvegil, his son [[Argeleb I]] claimed lordship over all of Arnor since no descendants of Isildur remained in the other two kingdoms.  Rhudaur resisted this claim and made league with Angmar.<ref name="Eriador"/>  Argeleb I fell in battle with Rhudaur in {{TA|1356|n}}.<ref name="TA"/> His son, [[Arveleg I]], avenged his father by pushing the enemy from the Weather Hills.  In this effort he had the aid of [[Lindon]] and Cardolan.
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However, in {{TA|1409}} a great host issued from Angmar.  It invaded Cardolan and took Weathertop, and King Arveleg I was killed.  Rhudar was occupied by Angmar and Cardolan was ravaged.  A remnant of the [[Dúnedain]] of Cardolan held out in the Barrow-downs and the Old Forest.  The last prince of Cardolan was interred in the Barrow-downs in this year.
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In {{TA|1636}} those people who remained in the Barrow-downs died from the [[Great Plague]].  Angmar then sent [[Barrow-wights]] to infest and haunt the downs. Arthedain managed to reconquer the land briefly, but few people wished to live there on account of the Barrow-wights, and Cardolan was soon lost again.<ref name="Eriador"/>
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In {{TA|1974|n}}<ref name="TA"/> after the final fall of Arnor, and the destruction of Angmar at the [[Battle of Fornost]], Cardolan remained an unpopulated area until the reestablishment of the northern kingdom under king [[Aragorn|Elessar]] at the end of the Third Age.
  
When the kingdom of [[Angmar]] appeared in northern [[Eriador]], Cardolan became the most important ally of Arthedain. It had to fight the combined armies of both Angmar and Rhudaur. It soon became apparent that Cardolan could not hold back the forces of Angmar, and in its last years the people became entrenched in their capital region, Tyrn Gorthad (the [[Barrow-downs]]). This position became unholdable after Angmar sent evil spirits to inhabit the downs (the [[barrow-wights]]). Arthedain could provide little aid, as it was itself under attack. Around T.A. 1409 Cardolan was destroyed, and its former inhabitants accepted the King of Arthedain as their lord. Arthedain managed to reconquer the land briefly, but few people wished to live there on account of the Barrow-weights, and Cardolan was soon lost again.
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On [[22 September]] {{TA|3018|n}} the [[Nazgûl|Black Riders]] entered Cardolan from the south.<ref name="TA"/>  While hunting for the [[One Ring]] their chief established himself in [[Andrath]] on the Greenway and then visited the Barrow-downs. He stayed there for some days in order to rouse the [[Barrow-wights]].<ref>{{UT|Other}}</ref>
  
After the final fall of Arnor, and the destruction of Angmar at the [[Battle of Fornost]], Cardolan remained an unpopulated area until the reestablishment of the northern kingdom under king [[Aragorn II|Elessar]] at the end of the Third Age.
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==Etymology==
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It is not known if [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] ever explained the name ''Cardolan''. The most common suggestion is that ''Cardolan'' likely is [[Sindarin]] for "red hill country". In that case, the name could be analyzed as ''[[caran|carn]]'' "red", ''[[dol]]'' "hill, mount" and ''[[-iand|an(n)]]'' "land".<ref>{{HM|RC}}, p. 690</ref><ref name=Clewley/>
  
The name Cardolan appears to be dialect [[Sindarin]] for "Red Hill Land".
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An alternative etymology has been suggested by Roger Clewley: ''Cardolan'' deriving from [[Noldorin]] ''car'' "house", ''dolen'' "hidden, secret", and the toponymical ending ''[[-iand|-and]]'', thus meaning "place/land of
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hidden houses" (a reference to the "dead entombed there").<ref name=Clewley>{{webcite|author=Roger Clewley|articleurl=http://groups.yahoo.com/group/elfling/message/36363|articlename=On the Name ''Cardolan'' (#36363)|dated=7 September 2012|website=[[Elfling]] (mailing list)|accessed=11 September 2012}}</ref>
  
 
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{{references}}
[[Category:Realms]]
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[[Category:Arnor]]
 
[[Category:Eriador]]
 
[[Category:Eriador]]
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[[Category:Sindarin locations]]
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[[Category:Mannish realms]]
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[[de:Cardolan]]
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[[fi:Cardolan]]
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[[fr:encyclo:geographie:royaumes:cardolan]]

Latest revision as of 00:43, 22 February 2013

Cardolanrotwk.jpg
Cardolan
GovernmentMonarchy
Head of StateKing of Cardolan
Societal information
LanguageWestron
LocationNorthernEriador between the Gwathló and the Baranduin
PopulaceMen and Hobbits
ReligionBelief in Eru Ilúvatar
Historical information
Formed fromDisolution of Arnor
EstablishmentT.A. 861
ReorganisationT.A. 1349
DissolutionT.A. 1636

Cardolan was a breakaway realm of the Dúnedain kingdom of Arnor. After the death of Arnor's King Eärendur, his sons divided the realm into the kingdoms of Arthedain, Rhudaur and Cardolan.

Contents

[edit] Description

The southeastern border of Cardolan followed the Gwathló and the Mitheithel to the Last Bridge. From there its boundary followed the Great East Road westward to the Brandywine Bridge, and then down the Baranduin to the Sea and thence to the mouth of the Gwathló. However, Cardolan also claimed the land between Bree and the Weather Hills.[1] Notable features within Cardolan were the Old Forest, the Barrow-downs, the South Downs, and the Greenway.[2]

[edit] History

In T.A. 861 Arnor's tenth King, Eärendur, died.[3] Due to dissensions between his sons the realm was split into Arthedain, Rhudaur and Cardolan. While the line of Isildur continued in Arthedain, in both Rhudaur and Cardolan the line soon failed. Arthedain held Weatherop and possessed its Palantír as well as two others, which led to strife between the three kingdoms.[1]

In 1050 the Harfoots came into Eriador and in 1150 they were joined by the Fallohides.[3] It is likely that some of these Hobbits settled in Cardolan.

When Malvegil of Arthedain began his reign (in 1272[4]) Orcs began to trouble the region.[5] Later, around T.A. 1300, the Witch-king came north and founded the kingdom of Angmar north of the Ettenmoors. This event caused many Hobbits to move to Bree.[3]

After Malvegil, his son Argeleb I claimed lordship over all of Arnor since no descendants of Isildur remained in the other two kingdoms. Rhudaur resisted this claim and made league with Angmar.[1] Argeleb I fell in battle with Rhudaur in 1356.[3] His son, Arveleg I, avenged his father by pushing the enemy from the Weather Hills. In this effort he had the aid of Lindon and Cardolan.

However, in T.A. 1409 a great host issued from Angmar. It invaded Cardolan and took Weathertop, and King Arveleg I was killed. Rhudar was occupied by Angmar and Cardolan was ravaged. A remnant of the Dúnedain of Cardolan held out in the Barrow-downs and the Old Forest. The last prince of Cardolan was interred in the Barrow-downs in this year.

In T.A. 1636 those people who remained in the Barrow-downs died from the Great Plague. Angmar then sent Barrow-wights to infest and haunt the downs. Arthedain managed to reconquer the land briefly, but few people wished to live there on account of the Barrow-wights, and Cardolan was soon lost again.[1]

In 1974[3] after the final fall of Arnor, and the destruction of Angmar at the Battle of Fornost, Cardolan remained an unpopulated area until the reestablishment of the northern kingdom under king Elessar at the end of the Third Age.

On 22 September 3018 the Black Riders entered Cardolan from the south.[3] While hunting for the One Ring their chief established himself in Andrath on the Greenway and then visited the Barrow-downs. He stayed there for some days in order to rouse the Barrow-wights.[6]

[edit] Etymology

It is not known if Tolkien ever explained the name Cardolan. The most common suggestion is that Cardolan likely is Sindarin for "red hill country". In that case, the name could be analyzed as carn "red", dol "hill, mount" and an(n) "land".[7][8]

An alternative etymology has been suggested by Roger Clewley: Cardolan deriving from Noldorin car "house", dolen "hidden, secret", and the toponymical ending -and, thus meaning "place/land of hidden houses" (a reference to the "dead entombed there").[8]

[edit] References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Eriador, Arnor, and the Heirs of Isildur"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "The Realms in Exile", "The Northern Line: Heirs of Isildur"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Hunt for the Ring", "(ii) Other Versions of the Story"
  7. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 690
  8. 8.0 8.1 Roger Clewley, "On the Name Cardolan (#36363)" dated 07 September 2012, Elfling (mailing list) (accessed 11 September 2012)