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Celtic

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Celtic is a category of European languages which had close contact with Germanic languages. The original inhabitants of England were Celts, before the coming of the Anglo-Saxon (who spoke [[Old English]]).
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'''Celtic''' refers either to the [[Wikipedia:Celtic languages|Celtic languages]], including [[Wikipedia:Breton language|Breton]], [[Wikipedia:Cornish language|Cornish]], [[Wikipedia:Goidelic languages|Gaelic]], and [[Welsh]], or to the [[Wikipedia:Celts|Celts]], an historic group of people.<ref>{{CG|RG}}, pp. 148-52</ref>
  
[[Tolkien]]'s [[legendarium]] has mainly Germanic and English elements, but Celtic concepts are present in some views about the [[Elves]] (see [[Elves#Celtic influence]]). [[George Allen & Unwin]] also criticized ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' as being obscure and "too Celtic".
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==Celtic influences on the Legendarium==
  
Celtic analogies with peoples are present mostly relating to [[Pre-Númenóreans]], especially [[Dunland]] and the [[Stoors|Stoor]] [[hobbits]], which is evident in placenames such as [[Bree]] and the personal names of the [[Bucklanders]].  
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===Mythology===
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Tolkien claimed knowledge of Celtic languages and legends, however expressed a dislike in Celtic legends and denied that his legendarium is "Celtic"<ref>[[Humphrey Carpenter]] ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography]]'' p. 26</ref>
  
It is possible that the rivalry between the primitive Dunlendings and the blonde-haired, pseudo-Anglo-Saxon Rohirrim who migrated into the lands neighboring them was meant by Tolkien to be analagous to the real life conflicts that arose between the Anglo-Saxons in England and neighboring Celtic peoples.
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However, Celtic concepts are present in some views about the [[Elves]] (see [[Elves#Celtic influence]]).
  
This is supported by the fact that placenames of [[Bree-land]] are Celtic. The [[Stoors|Stoor]] [[Hobbits]] (who had stayed long in [[Dunland]]), have Celtic elements in their names. Tolkien mentioned that the survival of traces of the older language of the Stoors and the Bree-men resembled the survival of Celtic elements in England.
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===Names===
==Celtic names in the legendarium==
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The way Tolkien used Germanic, English and Old English names to represent [[Westron]] and related [[Mannish]] languages, genuine Celtic names are scarcely used for more alien languages.
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*[[Bree]] (Brythonic) "hill"
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While several names in [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]]'s [[legendarium]] have [[North Germanic languages|Germanic]] and [[Old English]] elements, Tolkien mentioned that the survival of traces of the older language of the Stoors and the Bree-men resembled the survival of Celtic elements in England.<ref>{{App|F2}}</ref> Tolkien said to the Dutch Translator, [[Max Schuchart]], that there were "'[[Celtic]]' elements in [[Buckland]] and [[Eastfarthing|East-farthing]] names."<ref>{{HM|RC}}, p. 93</ref>
*[[Carn Dûm]] (Gaelic) "mountain fortress"
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*Chet (in [[Chetwood]] and [[Archet]]) "wood"
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*Car (in [[Carrock]]) "rock"
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The majority of Celtic names is seen in the family trees of the [[Brandybuck]]s. Names such as [[Rorimac Brandybuck|Rorimac]], [[Dinodas Brandybuck|Dinodas]], [[Gorbadoc Brandybuck|Gorbadoc]], [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Meriadoc]] and [[Marmadoc Brandybuck|Marmadoc]] are Celtic.
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Celtic analogies with peoples are present mostly relating to [[Pre-Númenóreans]], especially [[Dunland]] and the [[Stoors|Stoor]] [[hobbits]], which is evident in placenames such as [[Bree]] and the personal names of the [[Bucklanders]]. According to [[Paula Marmor]], the Celtic elements in [[Stoorish]] names represents an earlier language, related to the languages of the [[Bree-landers]].<ref>[[Jim Allan]] (ed.), ''[[An Introduction to Elvish]]'', "An etymological excursion among the Shire folk"</ref>
[[category:languages (real-world)]]
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The majority of Celtic names is seen in the family trees of the [[Brandybuck]]s. Names such as [[Rorimac Brandybuck|Rorimac]], [[Dinodas Brandybuck|Dinodas]], [[Gorbadoc Brandybuck|Gorbadoc]], [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Meriadoc]] and [[Marmadoc Brandybuck|Marmadoc]] are Celtic.<ref>[[Jim Allan]] (ed.), ''[[An Introduction to Elvish]]'', "Giving of names"</ref>
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Other names having (or have been suggested as having) a Celtic influence include:
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*''[[Bree#Etymology|Bree]]''
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*''[[Carn Dûm#Etymology|Carn Dûm]]''
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*''[[Chetwood#Etymology|Chetwood]] and [[Archet#Etymology|Archet]]''
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*''[[Carrock#Etymology|Carrock]]''
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*''[[The Yale#Etymology|Yale]]''
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{{references}}
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==External links==
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*{{WP|Celtic languages}}
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*''[http://middle-earth.xenite.org/2012/11/14/how-much-was-tolkien-influenced-by-irish-mythology/ How much was Tolkien influenced by Irish mythology?]'' by [[Michael Martinez]]
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[[Category:languages (real-world)]]

Revision as of 01:14, 24 November 2012

"...there is much else that may be told." — Glóin
This article or section is a stub. Please help Tolkien Gateway by expanding it.

Celtic refers either to the Celtic languages, including Breton, Cornish, Gaelic, and Welsh, or to the Celts, an historic group of people.[1]

Contents

Celtic influences on the Legendarium

Mythology

Tolkien claimed knowledge of Celtic languages and legends, however expressed a dislike in Celtic legends and denied that his legendarium is "Celtic"[2]

However, Celtic concepts are present in some views about the Elves (see Elves#Celtic influence).

Names

While several names in Tolkien's legendarium have Germanic and Old English elements, Tolkien mentioned that the survival of traces of the older language of the Stoors and the Bree-men resembled the survival of Celtic elements in England.[3] Tolkien said to the Dutch Translator, Max Schuchart, that there were "'Celtic' elements in Buckland and East-farthing names."[4]

Celtic analogies with peoples are present mostly relating to Pre-Númenóreans, especially Dunland and the Stoor hobbits, which is evident in placenames such as Bree and the personal names of the Bucklanders. According to Paula Marmor, the Celtic elements in Stoorish names represents an earlier language, related to the languages of the Bree-landers.[5]

The majority of Celtic names is seen in the family trees of the Brandybucks. Names such as Rorimac, Dinodas, Gorbadoc, Meriadoc and Marmadoc are Celtic.[6]

Other names having (or have been suggested as having) a Celtic influence include:

References

  1. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, pp. 148-52
  2. Humphrey Carpenter J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography p. 26
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "On Translation"
  4. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (eds), The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 93
  5. Jim Allan (ed.), An Introduction to Elvish, "An etymological excursion among the Shire folk"
  6. Jim Allan (ed.), An Introduction to Elvish, "Giving of names"

External links