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Christopher Tolkien

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{{author infobox
 
{{author infobox
| image=[[Image:Christopher Tolkien.jpg|250px]]
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| image=[[File:Christopher Tolkien.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Christopher Tolkien
 
| name=Christopher Tolkien
| born=November 21st, [[1924]]
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| born=[[21 November]], [[1924]]
 
| died=
 
| died=
| education=
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| education=[[Wikipedia:Trinity College, Oxford|Trinity College]], [[Oxford]]
 
| occupation=Author, Professor
 
| occupation=Author, Professor
| location=England
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| location=England<br/>France
 
| website=[http://www.tolkienestate.com TolkienEstate.com]
 
| website=[http://www.tolkienestate.com TolkienEstate.com]
|}}
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}}
'''Christopher Reuel Tolkien''' (born [[November 21]], [[1924]]) is the third child and youngest son of [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] and [[Edith Tolkien]].  
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'''Christopher John Reuel Tolkien''' (born [[21 November]], [[1924]]) is the third child and youngest son of [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] and [[Edith Tolkien]]. He is the literary executor of the [[Tolkien Estate]] and has edited much of his father's work for posthumous publication.<ref>{{webcite|author=|articleurl=http://www.tolkien.co.uk/Non-Fiction/Pages/History-of-Middle-earth.aspx?page=2&sdt=1&sort=pno&objsct=History%20of%20Middle-earth|articlename=History of Middle-earth|dated=|website=[http://www.tolkien.co.uk Tolkien.co.uk]|accessed=18-11-2012}}</ref>
  
 
==Early life==
 
==Early life==
He was named after his father's friend, [[Christopher Wiseman]]. He also sometimes uses his confirmation name, "John" as seen on his initials of maps of [[The Lord of the Rings]], "CJRT". He was born in [[Leeds]] and raised in [[Oxford]] and went to the Dragon School in Oxford and Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire. Due to a heart ailment he was forced to stay at home and work with a private tutor. He enjoyed watching stars with a telescope as well as a passion for railways. As early as four and five, Christopher was concerned with the consistency of [[The Hobbit]].
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Christopher Tolkien was named after his father's friend, [[Christopher Wiseman]] (he also sometimes uses his confirmation name, "John" as seen on his initials of maps of [[The Lord of the Rings]], "CJRT").  
{{quote|Last time, you said Bilbo's front door was blue, and you said Thorin had a golden tassel on his hood, but you've just said that Bilbo's front door was green and that Thorin's hood was silver|Christopher Tolkien, foreword to The Hobbit}}
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Christopher proved invaluable towards correcting The Hobbit and was paid twopence a correction.
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Born in [[Leeds]] and raised in [[Oxford]], Christopher went to the Dragon School in Oxford and Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire. Due to a heart ailment, he was forced to stay at home and work with a private tutor. He enjoyed watching stars with a telescope as well as a passion for railways. As early as four and five, Christopher was concerned with the consistency of ''[[The Hobbit]]''.
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{{Blockquote|Last time, you said Bilbo's front door was blue, and you said Thorin had a golden tassel on his hood, but you've just said that Bilbo's front door was green and that Thorin's hood was silver|Christopher Tolkien, foreword to The Hobbit}}
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Christopher proved invaluable towards correcting ''The Hobbit'' and was paid twopence a correction.
  
 
==Young adulthood==
 
==Young adulthood==
In July of 1943 he entered the Royal Air Force and in 1944 he went to South Africa to train as a pilot. His absence did not however slow his contributions to his father's works as his father continually sent him parts of The Lord of the Rings to go over. In 1945 he returned to England and was stationed in Shropshire and later that year he returned to Oxford. On October 9th, 1945 his father informed him that the [[Inklings]] wished to consider him a permanent member. The task of reading The Lord of the Rings to the Inklings was passed on to Christopher and it was generally agreed that he was a better reader than his father.
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In July of [[1943]] he entered the Royal Air Force and in [[1944]] he went to South Africa to train as a pilot. His absence did not however slow his contributions to his father's works as his father continually sent him parts of ''The Lord of the Rings'' to go over. In [[1945]] he returned to England and was stationed in Shropshire and later that year he returned to Oxford. On October 9th, [[1945]] his father informed him that the [[Inklings]] wished to consider him a permanent member. The task of reading ''The Lord of the Rings'' to the Inklings was passed on to Christopher and it was generally agreed that he was a better reader than his father.
  
 
==Adulthood==
 
==Adulthood==
In 1946 Christopher returned to Trinity College to resume his studies and reading English. For a while his tutor was none other than [[C.S. Lewis]]. His thesis was a translation of ''The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise'' and he received his B.A. in [[1949]]. Christopher also became a lecturer in Old and Middle English as well as Old Icelandic at Oxford. He worked as an editor on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales,'' the ''Pardoner's Tale'', and the ''Nun's Priest's Tale''. From 1963 to 1975 he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford but resigned when he began to devote his time to his father's literary affairs.
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In [[1946]] Christopher returned to Trinity College to resume his studies and reading English. For a while his tutor was [[C.S. Lewis]]. His thesis was a translation of ''The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise'' and he received his B.A. in [[1949]]. Christopher also became a lecturer in Old and Middle English as well as Old Icelandic at Oxford. He worked as an editor on Chaucer's ''Canterbury Tales,'' the ''Pardoner's Tale'', and the ''Nun's Priest's Tale''. From [[1963]] to [[1975]] he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford but resigned when he began to devote his time to his father's literary affairs.
  
 
==After his father's death==
 
==After his father's death==
[[Image:Christopher Tolkien (black and white).jpg|thumb]]
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[[File:Christopher Tolkien (black and white).jpg|thumb]]
After his father's death, Christopher embarked on organizing the masses of his father's notes, some of them written on odd scraps of paper a half-century earlier. Much of the material was handwritten, frequently a fair draft was written over a half-erased first draft, and names of characters routinely changed between the beginning and end of the same draft. Deciphering this was an arduous task, and perhaps only someone with personal experience of J. R. R. and the evolution of his stories could have made any sense of it; even so, Christopher has admitted to having to occasionally guess at what his father intended.
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After his father's death, Christopher embarked on organizing the masses of his father's notes, some of them written on odd scraps of paper a half-century earlier. Much of the material was handwritten, frequently a fair draft was written over a half-erased first draft, and names of characters routinely changed between the beginning and end of the same draft. Deciphering this was an arduous task, and perhaps only someone with personal experience of J.R.R. and the evolution of his stories could have made any sense of it; even so, Christopher has admitted to having to occasionally guess at what his father intended.
  
With the help of [[Guy Gavriel Kay]] he managed to compile [[The Silmarillion]] in only four years. During this time he also edited his father's translations of [[Sir Gawain and the Green Knight]], and [[Sir Orfeo]]. He also worked on the [[Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings]] which was first published in 1975 as [[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings]] in [[A Tolkien Compass]].
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With the help of [[Guy Gavriel Kay]] he managed to compile ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' in only four years. During this time he also edited his father's translations of ''[[Sir Gawain and the Green Knight]]'', and ''[[Sir Orfeo]]''. He also worked on the ''[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings|Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings]]'' which was first published in [[1975]] as ''[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings]]'' in ''[[A Tolkien Compass]]''.
  
Christopher spent the years after continuing to study his father's works and taking the responsibilities of the [[Tolkien Estate]]. He recorded portions of The Silmarillion in 1977 and 1978 which was issued by Caedmon Records, New York. In 1979 he wrote about his father's illustrations and drawings for their publication in Tolkien calendars and [[Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien]]. Through 1980 and 1983 Christopher edited [[Unfinished Tales]], [[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[The Monsters and the Critics|The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays]], and [[The Book of Lost Tales Part 1]] which was the first volume in his twelve volume series of [[The History of Middle-earth]], the last of which was published in 1996. In 1998 he edited a new edition of [[Tree and Leaf]] including the poem [[Mythopoeia]]. His latest publication has been the editing of [[The Children of Húrin]] which was published in 2007.
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Christopher spent the years after continuing to study his father's works and taking the responsibilities of the [[Tolkien Estate]]. He recorded portions of ''The Silmarillion'' in [[1977]] and [[1978]] which was issued by Caedmon Records, New York. In [[1979]] he wrote about his father's illustrations and drawings for their publication in Tolkien calendars and ''[[Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien]]''. Through [[1980]] and [[1983]] Christopher edited ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'', ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', ''[[The Monsters and the Critics|The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays]]'', and ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]'' which was the first volume in his twelve volume series of ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'', the last of which was published in [[1996]]. In 1998 he edited a new edition of ''[[Tree and Leaf]]'' including the poem [[Mythopoeia]]. In [[2007]], he edited ''[[The Children of Húrin]]''. His latest publication has been the editing of ''[[The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún]]'' which was published in [[2009]].
  
 
==Response to adaptations==
 
==Response to adaptations==
{{quote|...I recognize that this is a debatable and complex question of art, and the suggestions that have been made that I 'disapprove' of the films, whatever their cinematic quality, even to the extent of thinking ill of those with whom I may differ, are wholly without foundation.|Christopher Tolkien}}
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{{Expansion}}
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{{Blockquote|...I recognize that this is a debatable and complex question of art, and the suggestions that have been made that I 'disapprove' of the films, whatever their cinematic quality, even to the extent of thinking ill of those with whom I may differ, are wholly without foundation.|Christopher Tolkien}}
  
 
==Family==
 
==Family==
Christopher's first wife, Faith (1928) took an English degree at Oxford and they had one son, [[Simon Tolkien]]. A bust of Tolkien by Faith was exhibited at the Royal Academy: Tolkien paid for its casting in bronze. It is now in the English Library in Oxford.
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Christopher's first wife, [[Faith Tolkien|Faith]] (1928) took an English degree at Oxford and they had one son, [[Simon Tolkien]]. A [[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien's bust at Exeter.jpg|bust]] of Tolkien by Faith was exhibited at the Royal Academy: Tolkien paid for its casting in bronze. It is now in the English Library in Oxford.
  
Christopher's second wife, Baillie (1941) is Canadian, and is the daughter of Winnipeg surgeon [[Alan Klass]], and Helen Klass (née Jacob). She has a BA in English from the University of Manitoba and an MA from Oxford. She worked as JRR Tolkien's secretary and was responsible for the section on poetry in the 1965 index to The Lord of the Rings. She later edited [[The Father Christmas Letters]]. She and Christopher have two children, [[Adam Tolkien]] and [[Rachel Tolkien]].
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Christopher's second wife, [[Baillie Tolkien|Baillie]] (1941) is Canadian, and is the daughter of Winnipeg surgeon [[Alan Klass]], and Helen Klass (née Jacob). She has a BA in English from the University of Manitoba and an MA from Oxford. She worked as J.R.R. Tolkien's secretary and was responsible for the section on poetry in the 1965 index to ''The Lord of the Rings''. She later edited ''[[The Father Christmas Letters]]''. She and Christopher have two children, [[Adam Tolkien]] and [[Rachel Tolkien]].
  
==Writings==
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==Bibliography==
* Tolkien Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks Konungs. C.J.R. Tolkien (Oxford University, Trinity College). B. Litt. thesis. 1953/4. [Year uncertain]
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===Books===
* 'The Battle of the Goths and the Huns'. Christopher Tolkien, in Saga-Book (University College, London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research) 14, part 3 (1955-6), pp. [141]-63.
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*195?: ''Tolkien Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks Konungs''. C.J.R. Tolkien (Oxford University, Trinity College). B. Litt. thesis. 1953/4. [Year uncertain]
* Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks. Ed. [E.O.] G. Turville-Petre. London: University College London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research, 1956; introduction by Christopher Tolkien.
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*[[1956]]: ''Hervarar Saga ok Heidreks''. Ed. [E.O.] G. Turville-Petre. London: University College London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research, 1956; introduction by Christopher Tolkien.
* The Pardoner's Tale. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1958. [29 Oct 58]
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*[[1958]]: ''The Pardoner's Tale''. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1958. [29 Oct 58]
* The Nun's Priest's Tale. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1959. [28 Feb 60]
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*[[1959]]: T''he Nun's Priest's Tale''. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1959. [28 Feb 60]
* The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. Ed. and trans. Christopher Tolkien. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Icelandic Texts), 1960. [30 Jun 60]
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*[[1960]]: ''The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise''. Ed. and trans. Christopher Tolkien. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons (Icelandic Texts), 1960. [30 Jun 60]
* The Man of Law's Tale. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Chris- topher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1969. [Jun 69]
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*[[1969]]: ''The Man of Law's Tale''. Geoffrey Chaucer, ed. Nevill Coghill and Christopher Tolkien. London: George G. Harrap, 1969. [Jun 69]
* '[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings]]'. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Chris- topher Tolkien, in: A Tolkien Compass. Ed. Jared Lobdell, La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1975.
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*[[1975]]: ''[[Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl and Sir Orfeo]]'' (editor)
* Handwritten note by Christopher Tolkien, dated March 1974, introducing two pages of script by J.R.R. Tolkien, reproduced in: Les Aventures de Tom Bombadil. J.R.R. Tolkien, trad. Dashiell Hedayat. Paris: Christian Bourgois Editeur, 1975.
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*[[1977]]: ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' (editor)
* Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl and Sir Orfeo. Translated by J.R.R. Tolkien (ed. Christopher Tolkien.). London: George Allen & Unwin, 1975. [late Sep 75]
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*[[1979]]: ''[[Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien]]'' (editor)
* [[The Lord of the Rings 1977 Calendar]]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1976. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
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*[[1980]]: ''[[Unfinished Tales|Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth]]'' (editor)
* [[The Father Christmas Letters]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Baillie Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1976. [2 Sep 76]
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*[[1981]]: ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'' (editor with [[Humphrey Carpenter]])
* Catalogue of an Exhibition of Drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien at the Ashmolean Museum Oxford ... Oxford: The Ashmolean Museum, 1976. Introduction by Baillie Tolkien. [?14 Dec 76]
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*[[1983]]: ''[[The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays]]'' (editor)
* [[The Silmarillion Calendar 1978]]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1977. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
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*[[1983]]: ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part One]]'' (editor)
* [[The Silmarillion]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1977. [15 Sep 77]
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*[[1984]]: ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part Two]]'' (editor)
* 'The Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien: A brief account of the book and its making'. Christopher Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977; rptd. Mallorn 14, 1980, pp. 3-5, 7-8.
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*[[1985]]: ''[[The Lays of Beleriand]]'' (editor)
* J.R.R. Tolkien: The Silmarillion: Of Beren and Luthien, read by Christopher Tolkien. New York: Caedmon Records TC1564, 1977. Sleeve notes by Chris- topher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
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*[[1986]]: ''[[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]'' (editor)
* J.R.R. Tolkien: Of the Darkening of Valinor, and Of the Flight of the Noldor, from The Silmarillion, read by Christopher Tolkien. New York: Caedmon Records TC 1579, 1978. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
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*[[1987]]: ''[[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]'' (editor)
* [[J.R.R. Tolkien Calendar 1979]]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
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*[[1988]]: ''[[Tree and Leaf]]'' (editor)
* Map of Beleriand and the Lands to the North [poster]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. As drawn by Christopher Tolkien for The Silmarillion, with colouring by H.E. Riddett.
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*[[1988]]: ''[[The Return of the Shadow]]'' (editor)
* [[Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien]]. Foreword and Notes by Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979; revised edition, London: Harper- Collins, 1992. [1 Nov 79]
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*[[1989]]: ''[[The Treason of Isengard]]'' (editor)
* Letter from Christopher Tolkien to Jared Lobdell, 21 June 1974, reproduced in: Eorclanstanar [Precious Stones] or The Hobbitiana: an offering of rarities by J.R.R. Tolkien [catalogue]. Melissa and Mark Hime [booksellers]. Idyllwild, California: 1980.
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*[[1990]]: ''[[The War of the Ring]]'' (editor)
* [[Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, London, 1980. [2 Oct 80]
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*[[1992]]: ''[[Sauron Defeated]]'' (editor)
* [[Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]. Ed. Humphrey Carpenter with the assistance of Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981. [20 Aug 81]
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*[[1993]]: ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'' (editor)
* 'The Tengwar Numerals'. Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT'), in Quettar 13, Feb. 1982, pp. 8-9; rptd. Beyond Bree Dec. 1984, p. 1. Further, untitled, explanation of Tengwar numerals by Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT 10 March 1982'), in Quettar 14, May 1982, pp. 6-7.
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*[[1994]]: ''[[The War of the Jewels]]'' (editor)
* [[The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983. [3 Mar 83]
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*[[1996]]: ''[[The Peoples of Middle-earth]]'' (editor)
* '...Future Publishing'. Christopher Tolkien, in Amon Hen 63, August 1983, p. 4; rptd. as 'Statement by Christopher Tolkien' in Beyond Bree, November 1983, p. 2.
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*[[2007]]: ''[[The Children of Húrin]]'' (editor)
* [[The Book of Lost Tales 1]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983. [27 Oct 83]
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*[[2009]]: ''[[The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún]]'' (editor)
* [[The Book of Lost Tales 2]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1984. [16 Aug 84]
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*[[2013]]: ''[[The Fall of Arthur]]'' (editor)
* '"Moria Gate" ... Another Look'. Christopher Tolkien, in Amon Hen 70, November 1984, p.3.
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* [[The Lays of Beleriand]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1985. [22 Aug 85]
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===Articles===
* 'Notes on the Differences in editions of The Hobbit cited by Mr. David Cofield'. Christopher Tolkien, in Beyond Bree, July 1986, pp. 1-3.
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*[[1955]]-[[1956|6]]: ''Saga-Book'' (University College, London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research) 14, part 3 (1955-6), pp. [141]-63.
* [[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1986. [21 Aug 86]
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**"The Battle of the Goths and the Huns"
* [[The Hobbit]]. J.R.R. Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987; fiftieth anniversary edition, with Foreword by Chrostopher Tolkien.
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*[[1975]]: ''[[A Tolkien Compass]]''
* [[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987. [27 Aug 87]
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**"[[Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings|Guide to the Names in ''The Lord of the Rings'']]". J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien
* [[The BBC Pronunciation Guide to The Lord of the Rings]]. Nancy Martsch, in Beyond Bree, August 1988, pp. 1-2. [About the transcription of Christopher Tolkien's recording of words and names in The Lord of the Rings for the BBC production by Brian Sibley.]
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*[[1975]]: ''[[Les aventures de Tom Bombadil]]''
* [[Tree and Leaf]]. J.R.R. Tolkien. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1964; second edition, subtitled 'including the poem Mythopoeia'. Introduction by Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. [25 Aug 88]
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**[Handwritten note by Christopher Tolkien, dated March 1974, introducing two pages of script by J.R.R. Tolkien]
* [[The Return of the Shadow]]. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. [25 Aug 88]
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*[[1980]]: [[Mallorn 14|''Mallorn'' 14]]
* [[The Treason of Isengard]]. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. [7 Sep 89]
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** "''The Silmarillion'', by J.R.R. Tolkien: A brief account of the book and its making"
* [[The War of the Ring]]. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1990. [Sep 90]
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*[[1982]]: ''Quettar'' 13, Feb. 1982, pp. 8-9
* [[Sauron Defeated]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: Harper- Collins, 1992. [6 Jan 92]
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**"The Tengwar Numerals". Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT'); rptd. ''Beyond Bree'' Dec. 1984, p. 1. Further, untitled, explanation of Tengwar numerals by Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT 10 March 1982'), in ''Quettar'' 14, May 1982, pp. 6-7.
* [[Morgoth's Ring]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: Harper- Collins, 1993.
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*[[1983]]: ''Amon Hen'' 63, August 1983, p. 4
* [[The War of the Jewels]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 1994.
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**"...Future Publishing". Reproduced as 'Statement by Christopher Tolkien' in ''Beyond Bree'', November 1983, p. 2.
* [[The Peoples of Middle-earth]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 1996.
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*[[1984]]: [[Amon Hen 70|''Amon Hen'' 70]], November 1984, p.3.
* [[The Children of Húrin]]. J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Christopher Tolkien. London: HarperCollins, 2007.
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**"'Moria Gate' ... Another Look"
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*[[1986]]: ''[[Beyond Bree July 1986]]'', pp. 1-3
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**"Notes on the Differences in editions of ''The Hobbit'' cited by Mr. David Cofield"
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*[[1987]]: ''[[The Hobbit (50th Anniversary edition)|The Hobbit]]''. J.R.R. Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987; fiftieth anniversary edition.
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**Foreword
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*[[1988]]: ''Beyond Bree'', August 1988, pp. 1-2
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**"The BBC Pronunciation Guide to ''The Lord of the Rings''". Nancy Martsch. [About the transcription of Christopher Tolkien's recording of words and names in ''The Lord of the Rings'' for the BBC production by Brian Sibley.]
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*[[1994]]: ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', (1994 edition by HarperCollins Publishers, p.1140 of the one-volume edition)
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**"A Note on the Maps"
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*[[2012]]: ''Le Monde'', 5 July
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**"Tolkien, l'anneau de la discorde" by Raphaëlle Rérolle [interview]
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===Ephemera===
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*[[1976]]: [[The Lord of the Rings 1977 Calendar]]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1976. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
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*[[1976]]: Catalogue of an Exhibition of Drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien at the Ashmolean Museum Oxford ... Oxford: The Ashmolean Museum, 1976. Introduction by Baillie Tolkien. [?14 Dec 76]
 +
*[[1977]]: ''[[The Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien: A Brief Account of the Book and its Making]]'' (pamphlet)
 +
*[[1977]]: [[The Silmarillion Calendar 1978]]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1977. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
 +
*[[1978]]: [[J.R.R. Tolkien Calendar 1979]]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
 +
*[[1978]]: Map of Beleriand and the Lands to the North [poster]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. As drawn by Christopher Tolkien for The Silmarillion, with colouring by H.E. Riddett.
 +
*[[1980]]: Letter from Christopher Tolkien to Jared Lobdell, 21 June 1974, reproduced in: Eorclanstanar [Precious Stones] or The Hobbitiana: an offering of rarities by J.R.R. Tolkien [catalogue]. Melissa and Mark Hime [booksellers]. Idyllwild, California: 1980.
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===Audio===
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*[[1977]]: ''J.R.R. Tolkien: The Silmarillion: Of Beren and Luthien, read by Christopher Tolkien''. New York: Caedmon Records TC1564, 1977. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
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*[[1978]]: ''J.R.R. Tolkien: Of the Darkening of Valinor, and Of the Flight of the Noldor, from The Silmarillion, read by Christopher Tolkien''. New York: Caedmon Records TC 1579, 1978. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
  
 
==Family Tree==
 
==Family Tree==
 
{{familytree/start}}
 
{{familytree/start}}
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | | EDB |y| JRR | | | | | | | | | | | |JRR=[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]|EDB=[[Edith Bratt]]}}
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{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | | EDB |y| JRR | | | | | | | | | | | |JRR=[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]|EDB=[[Edith Tolkien|Edith Bratt]]}}
 
{{familytree| |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.| |}}
 
{{familytree| |,|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.| |}}
{{familytree| JOT | | MIT | | FAI |y|CHT |y| BAT | | PRT |JOT=[[John Tolkien]]|MIT=[[Michael Tolkien]]|CHT=[[Christopher Tolkien]]|FAI=[[Faith Faulconbridge]]|BAT=[[Baillie Tolkien]]|PRT=[[Priscilla Tolkien]]}}
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{{familytree| JOT | | MIT | | FAI |y|CHT |y| BAT | | PRT |JOT=[[John Tolkien]]|MIT=[[Michael Tolkien (b. 1920)|Michael Tolkien]]|CHT=[[Christopher Tolkien]]|FAI=[[Faith Tolkien|Faith Faulconbridge]]|BAT=[[Baillie Tolkien]]|PRT=[[Priscilla Tolkien]]}}
{{familytree| | | | | | | | |,|-|-|^|-|v|-|^|-|.| |}}
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{{familytree| | | | | | | | |,|-|-|'| |,|-|^|-|.| |}}
 
{{familytree| | | | | | | | SIT | | | ADT | | RAT |SIT=[[Simon Tolkien]]|ADT=[[Adam Tolkien]]|RAT=[[Rachel Tolkien]]}}
 
{{familytree| | | | | | | | SIT | | | ADT | | RAT |SIT=[[Simon Tolkien]]|ADT=[[Adam Tolkien]]|RAT=[[Rachel Tolkien]]}}
 
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* [[:Category:Images of Christopher Tolkien|Images of Christopher Tolkien]]
 
* [[:Category:Images of Christopher Tolkien|Images of Christopher Tolkien]]
  
==External links==
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{{references}}
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/1697884.stm Christopher denies disapproving of Peter Jackson's films]
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* [http://tolkiennews.net/article.php?story=20061005151054723 Christopher Tolkien's Lawyer Speaks]
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Revision as of 01:05, 4 January 2013

Christopher Tolkien.jpg
Christopher Tolkien
Biographical information
Born21 November, 1924
EducationTrinity College, Oxford
OccupationAuthor, Professor
LocationEngland
France
WebsiteTolkienEstate.com

Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born 21 November, 1924) is the third child and youngest son of J.R.R. Tolkien and Edith Tolkien. He is the literary executor of the Tolkien Estate and has edited much of his father's work for posthumous publication.[1]

Contents

Early life

Christopher Tolkien was named after his father's friend, Christopher Wiseman (he also sometimes uses his confirmation name, "John" as seen on his initials of maps of The Lord of the Rings, "CJRT").

Born in Leeds and raised in Oxford, Christopher went to the Dragon School in Oxford and Oratory School in Caversham, Berkshire. Due to a heart ailment, he was forced to stay at home and work with a private tutor. He enjoyed watching stars with a telescope as well as a passion for railways. As early as four and five, Christopher was concerned with the consistency of The Hobbit.

Last time, you said Bilbo's front door was blue, and you said Thorin had a golden tassel on his hood, but you've just said that Bilbo's front door was green and that Thorin's hood was silver
—Christopher Tolkien, foreword to The Hobbit

Christopher proved invaluable towards correcting The Hobbit and was paid twopence a correction.

Young adulthood

In July of 1943 he entered the Royal Air Force and in 1944 he went to South Africa to train as a pilot. His absence did not however slow his contributions to his father's works as his father continually sent him parts of The Lord of the Rings to go over. In 1945 he returned to England and was stationed in Shropshire and later that year he returned to Oxford. On October 9th, 1945 his father informed him that the Inklings wished to consider him a permanent member. The task of reading The Lord of the Rings to the Inklings was passed on to Christopher and it was generally agreed that he was a better reader than his father.

Adulthood

In 1946 Christopher returned to Trinity College to resume his studies and reading English. For a while his tutor was C.S. Lewis. His thesis was a translation of The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise and he received his B.A. in 1949. Christopher also became a lecturer in Old and Middle English as well as Old Icelandic at Oxford. He worked as an editor on Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the Pardoner's Tale, and the Nun's Priest's Tale. From 1963 to 1975 he was a Fellow of New College, Oxford but resigned when he began to devote his time to his father's literary affairs.

After his father's death

After his father's death, Christopher embarked on organizing the masses of his father's notes, some of them written on odd scraps of paper a half-century earlier. Much of the material was handwritten, frequently a fair draft was written over a half-erased first draft, and names of characters routinely changed between the beginning and end of the same draft. Deciphering this was an arduous task, and perhaps only someone with personal experience of J.R.R. and the evolution of his stories could have made any sense of it; even so, Christopher has admitted to having to occasionally guess at what his father intended.

With the help of Guy Gavriel Kay he managed to compile The Silmarillion in only four years. During this time he also edited his father's translations of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and Sir Orfeo. He also worked on the Nomenclature of The Lord of the Rings which was first published in 1975 as Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings in A Tolkien Compass.

Christopher spent the years after continuing to study his father's works and taking the responsibilities of the Tolkien Estate. He recorded portions of The Silmarillion in 1977 and 1978 which was issued by Caedmon Records, New York. In 1979 he wrote about his father's illustrations and drawings for their publication in Tolkien calendars and Pictures by J.R.R. Tolkien. Through 1980 and 1983 Christopher edited Unfinished Tales, The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, and The Book of Lost Tales Part One which was the first volume in his twelve volume series of The History of Middle-earth, the last of which was published in 1996. In 1998 he edited a new edition of Tree and Leaf including the poem Mythopoeia. In 2007, he edited The Children of Húrin. His latest publication has been the editing of The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún which was published in 2009.

Response to adaptations

"...It is a long tale..." — Aragorn
This article or section needs expansion and/or modification. Please help the wiki by expanding it.
...I recognize that this is a debatable and complex question of art, and the suggestions that have been made that I 'disapprove' of the films, whatever their cinematic quality, even to the extent of thinking ill of those with whom I may differ, are wholly without foundation.
—Christopher Tolkien

Family

Christopher's first wife, Faith (1928) took an English degree at Oxford and they had one son, Simon Tolkien. A bust of Tolkien by Faith was exhibited at the Royal Academy: Tolkien paid for its casting in bronze. It is now in the English Library in Oxford.

Christopher's second wife, Baillie (1941) is Canadian, and is the daughter of Winnipeg surgeon Alan Klass, and Helen Klass (née Jacob). She has a BA in English from the University of Manitoba and an MA from Oxford. She worked as J.R.R. Tolkien's secretary and was responsible for the section on poetry in the 1965 index to The Lord of the Rings. She later edited The Father Christmas Letters. She and Christopher have two children, Adam Tolkien and Rachel Tolkien.

Bibliography

Books

Articles

  • 1955-6: Saga-Book (University College, London, for the Viking Society for Northern Research) 14, part 3 (1955-6), pp. [141]-63.
    • "The Battle of the Goths and the Huns"
  • 1975: A Tolkien Compass
  • 1975: Les aventures de Tom Bombadil
    • [Handwritten note by Christopher Tolkien, dated March 1974, introducing two pages of script by J.R.R. Tolkien]
  • 1980: Mallorn 14
    • "The Silmarillion, by J.R.R. Tolkien: A brief account of the book and its making"
  • 1982: Quettar 13, Feb. 1982, pp. 8-9
    • "The Tengwar Numerals". Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT'); rptd. Beyond Bree Dec. 1984, p. 1. Further, untitled, explanation of Tengwar numerals by Christopher Tolkien ('CRT after JRRT 10 March 1982'), in Quettar 14, May 1982, pp. 6-7.
  • 1983: Amon Hen 63, August 1983, p. 4
    • "...Future Publishing". Reproduced as 'Statement by Christopher Tolkien' in Beyond Bree, November 1983, p. 2.
  • 1984: Amon Hen 70, November 1984, p.3.
    • "'Moria Gate' ... Another Look"
  • 1986: Beyond Bree July 1986, pp. 1-3
    • "Notes on the Differences in editions of The Hobbit cited by Mr. David Cofield"
  • 1987: The Hobbit. J.R.R. Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987; fiftieth anniversary edition.
    • Foreword
  • 1988: Beyond Bree, August 1988, pp. 1-2
    • "The BBC Pronunciation Guide to The Lord of the Rings". Nancy Martsch. [About the transcription of Christopher Tolkien's recording of words and names in The Lord of the Rings for the BBC production by Brian Sibley.]
  • 1994: The Lord of the Rings, (1994 edition by HarperCollins Publishers, p.1140 of the one-volume edition)
    • "A Note on the Maps"
  • 2012: Le Monde, 5 July
    • "Tolkien, l'anneau de la discorde" by Raphaëlle Rérolle [interview]

Ephemera

  • 1976: The Lord of the Rings 1977 Calendar. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1976. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
  • 1976: Catalogue of an Exhibition of Drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien at the Ashmolean Museum Oxford ... Oxford: The Ashmolean Museum, 1976. Introduction by Baillie Tolkien. [?14 Dec 76]
  • 1977: The Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien: A Brief Account of the Book and its Making (pamphlet)
  • 1977: The Silmarillion Calendar 1978. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1977. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
  • 1978: J.R.R. Tolkien Calendar 1979. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. Notes on the Pictures by Christopher Tolkien.
  • 1978: Map of Beleriand and the Lands to the North [poster]. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. As drawn by Christopher Tolkien for The Silmarillion, with colouring by H.E. Riddett.
  • 1980: Letter from Christopher Tolkien to Jared Lobdell, 21 June 1974, reproduced in: Eorclanstanar [Precious Stones] or The Hobbitiana: an offering of rarities by J.R.R. Tolkien [catalogue]. Melissa and Mark Hime [booksellers]. Idyllwild, California: 1980.

Audio

  • 1977: J.R.R. Tolkien: The Silmarillion: Of Beren and Luthien, read by Christopher Tolkien. New York: Caedmon Records TC1564, 1977. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)
  • 1978: J.R.R. Tolkien: Of the Darkening of Valinor, and Of the Flight of the Noldor, from The Silmarillion, read by Christopher Tolkien. New York: Caedmon Records TC 1579, 1978. Sleeve notes by Christopher Tolkien. (Sleeve also has photo of CT.)

Family Tree

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edith Bratt
 
J.R.R. Tolkien
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John Tolkien
 
Michael Tolkien
 
Faith Faulconbridge
 
Christopher Tolkien
 
Baillie Tolkien
 
Priscilla Tolkien
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Simon Tolkien
 
 
Adam Tolkien
 
Rachel Tolkien


See also

References

  1. "History of Middle-earth" , Tolkien.co.uk (accessed 18 November 2012)