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Constellations

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The '''Constellations''' of [[Arda]] were formations of [[stars]] mady by [[Varda]] to signal the [[Elves]] to [[Valinor]]. In a council of the [[Valar]], [[Mandos]] foresaw the coming of the Elves and spoke: "the Firstborn shall come in the darkness, and shall look first upon the stars - to Varda [[A Elbereth Gilthoniel|ever shall they call at need]]."<sup>[[#References|1]]</sup>
The first [[Stars]] were made by [[Varda]] in the very beginnings of [[Arda]] ([[The Silmarillion]] Chap. 1) but she formed the constellations only later, during the age of the [[Trees]] when [[Mandos]] in a council of the [[Valar]] had foreboded the coming of the [[Elves]] and told that 'the Firstborn shall come in the darkness, and shall look first upon the stars. --- To Varda ever shall they call at need'.
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After pondering at the words of Mandos, Varda decided to make new stars and also 'many other of the ancient stars she gathered together and set as signs in the heavens of Arda' (Silmarillion, Chap. 3).
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==Creation==
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After pondering at the words of Mandos, Varda decided to make new stars and also "many other of the ancient stars she gathered together and set as signs in the heavens of Arda"<sup>[[#References|2]]</sup>.
  
Thus were formed the '''constellations''' of [[Wilwarin]], [[Telumendil]], [[Soronúmë]], [[Anarríma]], and as the most important ones, [[Menelmacar]] (or [[Telumehtar]]) and [[Valacirca]]. Of the two last ones the former was meant to forebode the [[Last Battle]] and the latter to challenge [[Melkor]] in the Northern skies and to act as the sign of doom of the Valar.
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Thus were formed the constellations [[Wilwarin]], [[Telumendil]], [[Soronúmë]], [[Anarríma]], and as the most important ones, [[Menelmacar]] and [[Valacirca]]. Of the two last ones the former was meant to forebode the [[Dagor Dagorath]] and the latter to challenge [[Melkor]] in the Northern skies and to act as the sign of doom of the Valar.
  
According to the [[Annals of Aman]] the making of the stars (and constellations) happened 1000-1050 [[Valian Years]] after the first flowering of the [[Trees]] (MR 71, 159-160).
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According to the ''[[Annals of Aman]]'' the making of the stars (and constellations) happened 1000-1050 [[Valian Years]] after the first flowering of the [[Two Trees]]<sup>[[#References|3]]</sup>.  
  
 
==Evolution of the story==
 
==Evolution of the story==
  
The constellations play their part already in the very early phase of the mythology of Arda in [[The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr]] (LT1 113-139).
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The constellations played their part already in the very early phase of the mythology of Arda in ''The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr''<sup>[[#References|4]]</sup>.
  
There the Elves are first brought to Valinor ''during'' the captivity of Melko and [[Varda]], in order to commemorate the coming of the [[Eldar]], makes new stars mingling the radiance of the Silver Tree that was stored in a basin with molten silver in Aulë's workshop. Of the constellations only the [[Seven Stars]] (The Great Bear) is mentioned, and its' birth is ascribed either to [[Aulë]] or (in a separate note) to Varda (See the article on [[Valacirca]] and LT1, 114, 133). Later, in [[The Tale of the Sun and the Moon]] there is a reference to [[Telimektar]] (Orion) and in the end of the Tale the [[Moon]] is told to beg the 'starry mariners flee before him and the constellate lamps go out' (LT1, 195).
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There the Elves are first brought to Valinor during the captivity of Melko and [[Varda]], in order to commemorate the coming of the [[Eldar]], made new stars mingling the radiance of the [[Telperion|Silver Tree]] that was stored in a basin with molten silver in Aulë's workshop. Of the constellations only the "[[Seven Stars]]" is mentioned, and its birth is ascribed either to [[Aulë]] or (in a separate note) to Varda<sup>[[#References|5]]</sup>. Later, in ''The Tale of the Sun and the Moon'' there is a reference to [[Telimektar]] and in the end of the Tale the [[Moon]] is told to beg the "starry mariners flee before him and the constellate lamps go out"<sup>[[#References|6]]</sup>.
  
The development of [[Telimektar]] (q. v.) from a [[Valar|Vala]], son of [[Tulkas]], to the constellation of Orion follows its own path, separate from the the story of the making of the constellations until it is abandoned. Only in the latest versions of the Silmarillion Telimektar-Orion is taken to the company of other constellations with another name and character, [[Menelmacar]] the Swordsman. So, let us continue the main path:
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The development of Telimektar, from a [[Valar|Vala]], son of [[Tulkas]], to the constellation now known as Orion followed its own path, separate from the story of the making of the constellations until it was abandoned. Only in the latest versions of the Silmarillion, Telimektar was taken to the company of other constellations with another name and character, [[Menelmacar]] the Swordsman.  
  
In the next phase, [[The Sketch of the Mythology]] (SM 11-75), written c. 1926-30, the making of the stars is already contemporary with the awakening of the Elves (SM 12), but the constellations are not mentioned. Only in [[The Quenta]] (SM 76-218), written in 1930, Varda makes the stars ''before'' the coming of the Eldar and also creates The Great Bear (SM 84), also mentioned in [[The Earliest Annals of Valinor]] (SM 262-293) at the [[Valian Years|Valian Year]] 2000 (later changed to 1900) (SM 264, 272).
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In the next phase, written between 1926-30<sup>[[#References|7]]</sup>, the making of the stars was already contemporary with the awakening of the Elves, but the constellations were not mentioned. Only in ''The Quenta''<sup>[[#References|8]]</sup>, written in [[1930]], Varda made the stars ''before'' the coming of the Eldar and also creates The Great Bear, also mentioned in ''The Earliest Annals of Valinor''<sup>[[#References|9]]</sup>, at the [[Valian Years|Valian Year]] 2000 (later changed to 1900).
  
In another pre-LoTR composition, [[The Later Annals of Valinor]] (LR 109-123), written between 1930 and the end of 1937 (cf. LR 107) in the entry of [[Valian year]] 1900 Varda is told to have begun "the fashioning of the stars" (LR 111) and in V. Y. 1950 she made the [[Sickle of the Gods]] or the Great Bear. No other constellations are mentioned.
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In ''The Later Annals of Valinor''<sup>[[#References|10]]</sup>, written between 1930 and the end of 1937, in the entry of [[Valian year]] 1900 Varda is told to have begun "the fashioning of the stars" and in V. Y. 1950 she made the [[Valacirca|Sickle of the Gods]]. No other constellations are mentioned.
  
The Sickle only gets company in [[The Annals of Aman]] (MR 47-138) with which Tolkien worked after finishing The Lord of the Rings (cf. MR 47). There the stars are told to have been made in V. Y. 1000-1050 with [[Menelmakar]], Orion (now set apart from the story of [[Telimektar]]), and only after that, in V. Y. 1050, [[Valakirka]], the Sickle.
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The origin of the stars is again changed in the ''Annals of Aman''<sup>[[#References|11]]</sup>, which were written after [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] finished ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]''. Here, the stars are told to have been made in V. Y. 1000-1050: first, [[Menelmacar]] (now set apart from the story of [[Telimektar]]), and after that, in V. Y. 1050, [[Valacirca]]
  
Finally, in [[The Later Quenta Silmarillion]] I (MR 141-199), also written after the completion of [[The Lord of the Rings]], in the early 1950's (cf. MR 141), the list of the constellations is complete (MR 159-160) and the Elves awake just "when first Menelmakar strode up the sky" (MR 160). The printed text in the Silmarillion (Chap. 3) does not essentially deviate from this but in wording and in leaving out some details.
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Finally, in ''The Later Quenta Silmarillion I''<sup>[[#References|12]]</sup>, also written after the completion of ''The Lord of the Rings'', all constellations now known are listed and the Elves awake just "when first Menelmakar strode up the sky". The printed text in the Silmarillion does not essentially deviate from this except in wording and omission of some details.
  
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==References==
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# ''[[The Silmarillion]]'', [[Of the Beginning of Days]]
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# ''[[The Silmarillion]]'', [[Of the Coming of the Elves and the Captivity of Melkor]]
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# ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'', [[The Annals of Aman]]
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# ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part 1]]'', The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr
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# ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part 1]]'', The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr
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# ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part 1]]'', The Tale of the Sun and Moon
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# ''[[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]'', The Sketch of the Mythology
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# ''[[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]'', The Quenta
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# ''[[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]'', The Earliest Annals of Valinor
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# ''[[The Lost Road and Other Writings]]'', The Later Annals of Valinor
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# ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'', [[The Annals of Aman]]
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# ''[[Morgoth's Ring]]'', The Later Quenta Silmarillion I
  
To conclude, the presence of the constellations in the heavens of Arda was from the very beginning tied with the evolution of the story of the second making of the stars by Varda connected to the awakening of the Elves. The Sickle of the Valar or the Great Bear was the first of the constellations, and as the story evolved, other constellations were added, but of these only Telumehtar-Menelmacar had some deeper character and a mythology which evolved separately from the story of the other constellations.
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[[Category:Constellations]]
 
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'''APPENDIX: [[Kortirion among the Trees]] - [[The Trees of Kortirion]]'''
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This poem by Tolkien (LT1, 33-43) was first written in 1915 and revised in further instances. It was dedicated to [[Warwick]], town where at that time lived Tolkien's bride [[Edith Bratt]]. Warwick was the model of [[Kortirion]], city of the Elves in the [[Lonely Isle]].
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The poem belongs to the period when the mythology of the Silmarillion was in its cradle, so further analysis would be superfluous, but let us mention that in this poem by 23-years-old Tolkien two constellations are mentioned: the [[Silver Bear]] (LT1 33, 35), later replaced by he [[Silver Wain]] (LT1 39, 43) and the [[Seven Stars]] (LT1, 38, 42), which here probably stands for the Pleiades (cf. C. Tolkien in LT1, 291).
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'''Abbreviations'''
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LR = [[The Lost Road and Other Writings]] (The History of Middle-earth, vol. 5)
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LT1 = [[The Book of Lost Tales 1]] (The History of Middle-earth, vol. 1)
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MR = [[Morgoth's Ring]] (The History of Middle-earth, vol. 10)
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SM = [[The Shaping of Middle-earth]] (The History of Middle-earth, vol. 4)
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[[category:stars|Constellations]]
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Revision as of 13:00, 27 April 2008

The Constellations of Arda were formations of stars mady by Varda to signal the Elves to Valinor. In a council of the Valar, Mandos foresaw the coming of the Elves and spoke: "the Firstborn shall come in the darkness, and shall look first upon the stars - to Varda ever shall they call at need."1

Creation

After pondering at the words of Mandos, Varda decided to make new stars and also "many other of the ancient stars she gathered together and set as signs in the heavens of Arda"2.

Thus were formed the constellations Wilwarin, Telumendil, Soronúmë, Anarríma, and as the most important ones, Menelmacar and Valacirca. Of the two last ones the former was meant to forebode the Dagor Dagorath and the latter to challenge Melkor in the Northern skies and to act as the sign of doom of the Valar.

According to the Annals of Aman the making of the stars (and constellations) happened 1000-1050 Valian Years after the first flowering of the Two Trees3.

Evolution of the story

The constellations played their part already in the very early phase of the mythology of Arda in The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr4.

There the Elves are first brought to Valinor during the captivity of Melko and Varda, in order to commemorate the coming of the Eldar, made new stars mingling the radiance of the Silver Tree that was stored in a basin with molten silver in Aulë's workshop. Of the constellations only the "Seven Stars" is mentioned, and its birth is ascribed either to Aulë or (in a separate note) to Varda5. Later, in The Tale of the Sun and the Moon there is a reference to Telimektar and in the end of the Tale the Moon is told to beg the "starry mariners flee before him and the constellate lamps go out"6.

The development of Telimektar, from a Vala, son of Tulkas, to the constellation now known as Orion followed its own path, separate from the story of the making of the constellations until it was abandoned. Only in the latest versions of the Silmarillion, Telimektar was taken to the company of other constellations with another name and character, Menelmacar the Swordsman.

In the next phase, written between 1926-307, the making of the stars was already contemporary with the awakening of the Elves, but the constellations were not mentioned. Only in The Quenta8, written in 1930, Varda made the stars before the coming of the Eldar and also creates The Great Bear, also mentioned in The Earliest Annals of Valinor9, at the Valian Year 2000 (later changed to 1900).

In The Later Annals of Valinor10, written between 1930 and the end of 1937, in the entry of Valian year 1900 Varda is told to have begun "the fashioning of the stars" and in V. Y. 1950 she made the Sickle of the Gods. No other constellations are mentioned.

The origin of the stars is again changed in the Annals of Aman11, which were written after Tolkien finished The Lord of the Rings. Here, the stars are told to have been made in V. Y. 1000-1050: first, Menelmacar (now set apart from the story of Telimektar), and after that, in V. Y. 1050, Valacirca

Finally, in The Later Quenta Silmarillion I12, also written after the completion of The Lord of the Rings, all constellations now known are listed and the Elves awake just "when first Menelmakar strode up the sky". The printed text in the Silmarillion does not essentially deviate from this except in wording and omission of some details.

References

  1. The Silmarillion, Of the Beginning of Days
  2. The Silmarillion, Of the Coming of the Elves and the Captivity of Melkor
  3. Morgoth's Ring, The Annals of Aman
  4. The Book of Lost Tales Part 1, The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr
  5. The Book of Lost Tales Part 1, The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr
  6. The Book of Lost Tales Part 1, The Tale of the Sun and Moon
  7. The Shaping of Middle-earth, The Sketch of the Mythology
  8. The Shaping of Middle-earth, The Quenta
  9. The Shaping of Middle-earth, The Earliest Annals of Valinor
  10. The Lost Road and Other Writings, The Later Annals of Valinor
  11. Morgoth's Ring, The Annals of Aman
  12. Morgoth's Ring, The Later Quenta Silmarillion I