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Dunland

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{{location
 
{{location
 
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| name= Dunland
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| name=Dunland
 
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| etymology=  
 
| etymology=  
| type= Region
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| type=Region
| location= Across the Nen Hithoel from Amon Hen
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| location=The west-skirts of the southern [[Misty Mountains]], south of [[Glanduin]], north of [[Isen]]
| inhabitants=[[Men]]<br/>[[Dwarves]] (for a time)
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| inhabitants=[[Men]]<br/>For a time - [[Stoors]] and [[Dwarves]]
| realms=[[Arnor]]<br/>Land of the Dunlendings
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| realms=Nominally [[Gondor]]<br/>Land of the [[Dunlendings]]
| description=  
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| description=Foothills of the [[Misty Mountains]]
 
| events=  
 
| events=  
| references= ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', ''[[Unfinished Tales]]''
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| references=
 
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'''Dunland''' was a part of [[Enedwaith]] east of the [[North-South Road]], well south of the [[Glanduin]] and north of the [[Isen]].  It was a foothill region that fronted the western slopes of the southern [[Misty Mountains]].<ref>{{UT|Map}}</ref>  Far from the centers of population of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]], its inhabitants at times included wandering [[Hobbits]] and [[Dwarves]] but it was mostly known (and named) for the [[Men]] known as [[Dunlendings]].
  
'''Dunland''' means 'Hill Land' in the language of neighbouring [[Rohan]], who's people named it after arriving in nearby [[Calenardhon]] in the later [[Third Age]].
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==History==
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===The First Men in Dunland===
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In the early [[Second Age]], Dunland first acquired a significant population of [[Men]] when those who had dwelt in the forests of Enedwaith south of the [[Gwathló]] fled from the [[Númenóreans]] after they began to cut down all of the trees.<ref>{{UT|6d}}</ref>
  
The ancient ancestors of the Dunlendings inhabited the forested regions of [[Middle-earth]] either side of the [[Gwathló]] in the early [[Second Age]], and so were called 'Gwaithuirim' by the early Númenoreans. They spoke a language related to that of the Second House of Men, the [[Haladin]], rather than the vastly different [[Bëor]]ian/[[Marach]]ian tongue which stood at the base of [[Adûnaic]], and this lack of mutual understanding led to outright hostility. The Númenoreans greedily harvested their forests for timber, and after much war and bloodshed, the Gwaithuirim from south of the Gwathlo fled east to the [[Misty Mountains|Hithaeglir]], while others scattered to the cape of [[Eryn Vorn]] and the [[White Mountains]].
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When the kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] were established early in the [[Third Age]] the land of Enedwaith (and the region of Dunland) were largely ignored, although the inhabitants were nominally subjects of Gondor.<ref name="Isen">{{UT|Isen}}, Appendix (ii)</ref> 
  
At the end of the Second Age, the land north of the Gwathlo and south of the [[Baranduin]] was named [[Minhiriath]], 'Land between the Rivers', although the land south of Minhiriath remained unnamed.  
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===The Stoors Stay in Dunland===
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About {{TA|1150}} the Hobbit-breed known as the [[Stoors]] left their early homeland in the upper vales of the [[Anduin]] and crossed the [[Redhorn Pass]].  Some settled in the [[Angle (Eriador)|Angle]] and other traveled down the [[Loudwater]] and settled in Dunland.  While the Stoors in the Angle vacated that area in {{TA|1356|n}}, those living in Dunland remained until around {{TA|1630|n}} when they migrated to the newly founded [[The Shire|Shire]].<ref name="TA">{{App|TA}}</ref>
  
It's inhabitants were ignored, although a city grew up on the Gwathlo, west of the Misty Mountain hill-folk who had been Gwaithuirim long before.  
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===The Middle Years of the Third Age===
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The  [[Great Plague]] swept through the northwest of [[Middle-earth]] in the years {{TA|1636}} – {{TA|1637|n}}.<ref name="TA"/>  In Dunland the Dunlendings suffered, but to a lesser extent than in other regions due to their self-isolation.  After the end of the royal line in Gondor the Dunlendings ceased to be subjects of the realm.  During the years of the [[Watchful Peace]  ({{TA|1975|n}} – {{TA|2050|n}}), as the people of [[Calenardhon]] dwindled the Dunlendings began drifting across the [[Isen]].
  
About [[Third Age 1150]] some [[Stoors]] came to Dunland before migrating finally to [[the Shire]] in [[Third Age 1630]]  
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The expansion of the Dunlendings to the southeast of Dunland was checked when the new realm of [[Rohan]] was established in {{TA|2510|n}}.  The second and third Kings, [[Brego]] and [[Aldor]], successfully expelled the Dunlending from western Rohan.<ref name="Isen"/>  For many years there was peace, but the Dunlendings began raiding over the Isen during the reign of King [[Déor]], and in {{TA|2710|n}} they occupied [[Isengard]] (then deserted) and could not be dislodged.<ref name="Mark">{{App|Mark}}</ref>
  
It was not until [[Gondor]] abandoned this city ([[Tharbad]]) in T.A 2050 that the people and their land were renamed: both became known as [[Enedwaith]], 'The Middle-folk' and 'The Middle Region', because they no longer owed allegiance to either North or South Kingdom.
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Still, open war was not waged until the reign of [[Helm Hammerhand]].  During the [[Long Winter]] of {{TA|2758|n}} – {{TA|2759|n}}, the Dunlendings captured [[Edoras]] and besieged the [[Hornburg]].  They were ultimately unsuccessful and were driven back into Dunland by [[Fréaláf Hildeson|Fréaláf]], Helm's sister-son.<ref name="Mark"/>
  
These Hill-folk of the Hithaeglir kept their hatred of the descendants of Númenor, unlike those of Eryn Vorn and the White Mountains, who nevertheless remained uncooperative. The Dead Men of [[Dunharrow]], for example, who betrayed [[Isildur]], were descended from Gwaithurim.
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===The Dwarves in Dunland===
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In {{TA|2770}}, [[Smaug]] the [[Dragons|Dragon]] destroyed the [[Kingdom Under the Mountain]].<ref name="TA"/>  Dwarves fleeing from this disaster settled in Dunland, from where [[Thrór]] departed when he and his companion [[Nár]] journeyed to [[Moria]] in {{TA|2790}}. After the [[Battle of Azanulbizar]], provoked by the [[Orcs]]' brutal slaying of Thrór, [[Thráin II]] and [[Thorin]] led the remnants of their followers back to Dunland but soon left (to eventually settle in the [[Ered Luin]]).<ref>{{App|Durin}}</ref>
  
When [[Gondor]] decided to give the depopulated province of [[Calenardhon]] to the numerous people of [[Éothéod]] in 2510 T.A., the Hill-folk of the Hithaeglir felt threathened by these 'Forgoil', or ''Strawheads'' (referring to the blonde hair). The Hill-folk had slowly colonized Calenardhon during the dwindling of the [[Dúnedain]], and had already reclaimed all the land between the rivers [[Adorn]] and [[Isen]].  
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===The Later Third Age===
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Guarding the [[Gap of Rohan]] was the fortress of [[Isengard]], where a hereditary guard watched for Gondor. However, by the time of the [[Beren (Steward of Gondor)|Beren]], [[Ruling Steward|Steward]] of [[Gondor]], these guards had mixed with Dunlendings, and it had become hostile to Gondor. To remedy this situation, in {{TA|2759}}<ref name="TA"/> Beren gave [[Saruman]] the keys to [[Orthanc]], to guard Isengard for Gondor.<ref>{{UT|Isen}}</ref>
  
Still, open war was not waged until the reign of [[Helm Hammerhand]] (2741 T.A. - 2759 T.A.). [[Freca]], the lord of the hill-men (whom the Rohirrim now called [[Dunlendings]]) tried to get the throne of Rohan for himself by petitioning for the marriage of his son [[Wulf]] to the daughter of Helm. Freca was killed, and Wulf led the Dunlendings into open war with Rohan. They unsuccessfully besieged the [[Hornburg]] during the [[Long Winter]] of 2758&ndash;2759. Wulf did take [[Edoras]] and killed Haleth, the son of Helm, in front of the golden hall of [[Meduseld]]. But in the refuge of [[Dunharrow]] Helm's nephew [[Fréaláf]] held out against the Dunlendings. He recaptured Edoras in the end of the long winter and killed Wulf personally. The Dunlendings were driven out of Rohan, and Fréalaf succeeded the deceased Helm Hammerhand.
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During the [[Battle of the Hornburg]] the enmity of the Dunlendings for the people of Rohan was explained thusly:
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{{quote|Not in half a thousand years have they forgotten their grievance that the lords of Gondor gave the Mark to [[Eorl]] the Young and made alliance with him. That old hatred Saruman has inflamed.|[[Gamling]]<ref>{{TT|III7}}</ref>}}
  
Those of [[Durin's folk]] led by King [[Thráin II]], settled in '''Dunland''' for around twenty years, and then once the [[War of the Dwarves and Orcs]] ended they wandered in [[Eriador]] for three years till they settled in the North of the [[Ered Luin]].
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After the battle at [[Helm's Deep]], the Rohirrim allowed the surviving Dunlendings to return to their homes. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, and that the Dunlendings retreat behind the [[Isen]] river again.<ref>{{TT|III8}}</ref>
  
Guarding the [[Gap of Rohan]] was the fortress of [[Isengard]], where a hereditary guard watched for Gondor. However, by the time of the [[Beren (Steward of Gondor)|Beren]], [[Ruling Steward|Steward]] of [[Gondor]], these guards had mixed with Dunlendings, and it had become hostile to Gondor. To remedy this situation, Beren gave [[Saruman]] the keys to [[Orthanc]], to guard Isengard for Gondor.
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After the [[War of the Ring]] the four Hobbits, [[Frodo Baggins|Frodo]], [[Samwise Gamgee|Sam]], [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Merry]], and [[Peregrin Took|Pippin]], with the company of [[Gandalf]], [[Celeborn]], [[Galadriel]], and others journeyed through Dunland on their way home.  While traversing the region they met two beggars, Saruman and [[Gríma Wormtongue]].<ref>{{RK|VI6}}</ref>
  
Saruman used this old history to tempt the Dunlendings into supporting him during the [[War of the Ring]].
 
 
After the battle at [[Helm's Deep]], the Rohirrim allowed the surviving Dunlendings to return to their homes. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, and that the Dunlendings retreat behind the [[Isen]] river again.
 
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
''Dunland'' is understood as "Brownland" ([[Old English]] ''dunn'' means "brown, dusky, dull"), referring to its inhabitants being swarthy and dark-haired<ref>{{HM|AF}}</ref>
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Dunland meant "Hill Land" in the language of neighbouring [[Rohan]], who's people named it after arriving in nearby [[Calenardhon]] in the later [[Third Age]].  ''Dunland'' is understood as "Brownland" ([[Old English]] ''dunn'' means "brown, dusky, dull"), referring to its inhabitants being swarthy and dark-haired The element ''dunn'' had no relation to the [[Elvish]] root ''[[dûn]]'' meaning "west".<ref>{{App|Men}}</ref>
 
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The element ''dunn'' is not meant to have any relation to the [[Elvish]] root ''[[dûn]]'' meaning "west".
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Revision as of 01:03, 27 February 2012

Dunland
Physical Description
TypeRegion
LocationThe west-skirts of the southern Misty Mountains, south of Glanduin, north of Isen
RealmsNominally Gondor
Land of the Dunlendings
InhabitantsMen
For a time - Stoors and Dwarves
DescriptionFoothills of the Misty Mountains

Dunland was a part of Enedwaith east of the North-South Road, well south of the Glanduin and north of the Isen. It was a foothill region that fronted the western slopes of the southern Misty Mountains.[1] Far from the centers of population of Arnor and Gondor, its inhabitants at times included wandering Hobbits and Dwarves but it was mostly known (and named) for the Men known as Dunlendings.

Contents

History

The First Men in Dunland

In the early Second Age, Dunland first acquired a significant population of Men when those who had dwelt in the forests of Enedwaith south of the Gwathló fled from the Númenóreans after they began to cut down all of the trees.[2]

When the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor were established early in the Third Age the land of Enedwaith (and the region of Dunland) were largely ignored, although the inhabitants were nominally subjects of Gondor.[3]

The Stoors Stay in Dunland

About T.A. 1150 the Hobbit-breed known as the Stoors left their early homeland in the upper vales of the Anduin and crossed the Redhorn Pass. Some settled in the Angle and other traveled down the Loudwater and settled in Dunland. While the Stoors in the Angle vacated that area in 1356, those living in Dunland remained until around 1630 when they migrated to the newly founded Shire.[4]

The Middle Years of the Third Age

The Great Plague swept through the northwest of Middle-earth in the years T.A. 16361637.[4] In Dunland the Dunlendings suffered, but to a lesser extent than in other regions due to their self-isolation. After the end of the royal line in Gondor the Dunlendings ceased to be subjects of the realm. During the years of the [[Watchful Peace] (19752050), as the people of Calenardhon dwindled the Dunlendings began drifting across the Isen.

The expansion of the Dunlendings to the southeast of Dunland was checked when the new realm of Rohan was established in 2510. The second and third Kings, Brego and Aldor, successfully expelled the Dunlending from western Rohan.[3] For many years there was peace, but the Dunlendings began raiding over the Isen during the reign of King Déor, and in 2710 they occupied Isengard (then deserted) and could not be dislodged.[5]

Still, open war was not waged until the reign of Helm Hammerhand. During the Long Winter of 27582759, the Dunlendings captured Edoras and besieged the Hornburg. They were ultimately unsuccessful and were driven back into Dunland by Fréaláf, Helm's sister-son.[5]

The Dwarves in Dunland

In T.A. 2770, Smaug the Dragon destroyed the Kingdom Under the Mountain.[4] Dwarves fleeing from this disaster settled in Dunland, from where Thrór departed when he and his companion Nár journeyed to Moria in T.A. 2790. After the Battle of Azanulbizar, provoked by the Orcs' brutal slaying of Thrór, Thráin II and Thorin led the remnants of their followers back to Dunland but soon left (to eventually settle in the Ered Luin).[6]

The Later Third Age

Guarding the Gap of Rohan was the fortress of Isengard, where a hereditary guard watched for Gondor. However, by the time of the Beren, Steward of Gondor, these guards had mixed with Dunlendings, and it had become hostile to Gondor. To remedy this situation, in T.A. 2759[4] Beren gave Saruman the keys to Orthanc, to guard Isengard for Gondor.[7]

During the Battle of the Hornburg the enmity of the Dunlendings for the people of Rohan was explained thusly:

"Not in half a thousand years have they forgotten their grievance that the lords of Gondor gave the Mark to Eorl the Young and made alliance with him. That old hatred Saruman has inflamed."
Gamling[8]

After the battle at Helm's Deep, the Rohirrim allowed the surviving Dunlendings to return to their homes. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, and that the Dunlendings retreat behind the Isen river again.[9]

After the War of the Ring the four Hobbits, Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin, with the company of Gandalf, Celeborn, Galadriel, and others journeyed through Dunland on their way home. While traversing the region they met two beggars, Saruman and Gríma Wormtongue.[10]

Etymology

Dunland meant "Hill Land" in the language of neighbouring Rohan, who's people named it after arriving in nearby Calenardhon in the later Third Age. Dunland is understood as "Brownland" (Old English dunn means "brown, dusky, dull"), referring to its inhabitants being swarthy and dark-haired . The element dunn had no relation to the Elvish root dûn meaning "west".[11]

Region of Dunland
Tharbad, Gwathló.
Eriador
Glanduin, Eregion Moria, Misty Mountains, Lórien
Lond Daer, Gwathló,
Enedwaith
WindRose3.pngMisty Mountains, Fangorn Forest
Enedwaith, Drúwaith Iaur, River Isen River Isen Isengard, Gap of Rohan.
Rohan

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix D: The Port of Lond Daer"
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen", Appendix (ii)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", "The Kings of the Mark"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Helm's Deep"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Road to Isengard"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Many Partings"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men"