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Dunland

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Dunland means 'Hill Land' in the language of neighbouring [[Rohan]], who's people named it after arriving in nearby [[Calenardhon]] in the later [[Third Age]].
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{{location
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| image= [[File:Dunland.png|250px]]
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| name=Dunland
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| othernames=
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| etymology=
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| type=Region
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| location=The west-skirts of the southern [[Misty Mountains]], south of [[Glanduin]], north of [[Isen]]
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| inhabitants=[[Men]]<br/>For a time - [[Stoors]] and [[Dwarves]]
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| realms=Nominally [[Gondor]]<br/>Land of the [[Dunlendings]]
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| description=Foothills of the [[Misty Mountains]]
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| events=
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| references=
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|}}
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'''Dunland''' was a part of [[Enedwaith]] east of the [[North-South Road]], well south of the [[Glanduin]] and north of the [[Isen]].  It was a foothill region that fronted the western slopes of the southern [[Misty Mountains]].<ref>{{UT|Map}}</ref>  Far from the centers of population of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]], its inhabitants at times included the [[Men]] known as [[Dunlendings]] as well as wandering [[Hobbits]] and [[Dwarves]].
  
The ancient ancestors of the Dunlendings inhabited the forested regions of [[Middle-earth]] either side of the [[Gwathló]] in the early [[Second Age]], and so were called 'Gwaithuirim' by the early Númenoreans. They spoke a language related to that of the Second House of Men, the [[Haladin]], rather than the vastly different [[Bëor]]ian/[[Marach]]ian tongue which stood at the base of [[Adûnaic]], and this lack of mutual understanding led to outright hostility. The Númenoreans greedily harvested their forests for timber, and after much war and bloodshed, the Gwaithuirim from south of the Gwathlo fled east to the [[Hithaeglir]], while others scattered to the cape of [[Eryn Vorn]] and the [[White Mountains]].
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Dunland was a fair, fertile land. By the end of the [[Third Age]] being neither prosperous or civilised, it was sparsely inhabited by unorganised herdsmen and hillmen.<ref>[[Robert Foster]], ''[[The Complete Guide to Middle-earth]]'', entry "Dunland"</ref>
  
At the end of the Second Age, the land north of the Gwathlo and south of the [[Baranduin]] was named [[Minhiriath]], 'Land between the Rivers', although the land south of Minhiriath remained unnamed.  
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==History==
It's inhabitants were ignored, although a city grew up on the Gwathlo, west of the Misty Mountain hill-folk who had been Gwaithuirim long before.
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===The First Men in Dunland===
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In the early [[Second Age]], Dunland first acquired a significant population of [[Men]] when those who had dwelt in the forests of Enedwaith south of the [[Gwathló]] fled from the [[Númenóreans]] after they began to cut down all of the trees.<ref>{{UT|6d}}</ref>s
  
It was not until [[Gondor]] abandoned this city ([[Tharbad]]) in T.A 2050 that the people and their land were renamed: both became known as [[Enedwaith]], 'The Middle-folk' and 'The Middle Region', because they no longer owed allegiance to either North or South Kingdom.   
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When the kingdoms of [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]] were established early in the [[Third Age]] the land of Enedwaith (and the region of Dunland) were largely ignored, although the inhabitants were nominally subjects of Gondor.<ref name="Isen">{{UT|Isen}}, Appendix (ii)</ref>  
  
These Hill-folk of the Hithaeglir kept their hatred of the descendants of Númenor, unlike those of Eryn Vorn and the White Mountains, who nevertheless remained uncooperative. The Dead Men of [[Dunharrow]], for example, who betrayed [[Isildur]], were descended from Gwaithurim.   
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===The Stoors Stay in Dunland===
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About {{TA|1150}} the Hobbit-breed known as the [[Stoors]] left their early homeland in the upper vales of the [[Anduin]] and crossed the [[Redhorn Pass]]. Some settled in the [[Angle (Eriador)|Angle]] and other traveled down the [[Loudwater]] and settled in DunlandWhile the Stoors in the Angle vacated that area in {{TA|1356|n}}, those living in Dunland remained until around {{TA|1630|n}} when they migrated to the newly founded [[The Shire|Shire]].<ref name="TA">{{App|TA}}</ref>
  
When [[Gondor]] decided to give the depopulated province of [[Calenardhon]] to the numerous people of [[Éothéod]] in 2510 T.A., the Hill-folk of the Hithaeglir felt threathened by these 'Forgoil', or ''Strawheads'' (referring to the blonde hair). The Hill-folk had slowly colonized Calenardhon during the dwindling of the [[Dúnedain]], and had already reclaimed all the land between the rivers [[Adorn]] and [[Isen]].  
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===The Middle Years of the Third Age===
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The  [[Great Plague]] swept through the northwest of [[Middle-earth]] in the years {{TA|1636}} – {{TA|1637|n}}.<ref name="TA"/>  Dunland suffered, but to a lesser extent than in other regions due to their self-isolation.  After the end of the royal line in Gondor the Dunlendings ceased to be subjects of the realm. During the years of the [[Watchful Peace]] ({{TA|1975|n}} – {{TA|2050|n}}), as the people of [[Calenardhon]] dwindled, the Dunlendings began drifting across the [[Isen]].
  
Still, open war was not waged until the reign of [[Helm Hammerhand]] (2741 T.A. - 2759 T.A.). [[Freca]], the lord of the hill-men (whom the Rohirrim now called [[Dunlendings]]) tried to get the throne of Rohan for himself by petitioning for the marriage of his son [[Wulf]] to the daughter of Helm. Freca was killed, and Wulf led the Dunlendings into open war with Rohan. They unsuccessfully besieged the [[Hornburg]] during the [[Long Winter]] of 2758&ndash;2759. Wulf did take [[Edoras]] and killed Haleth, the son of Helm, in front of the golden hall of [[Meduseld]]. But in the refuge of [[Dunharrow]] Helm's nephew [[Fréaleaf]] held out against the Dunlendings. He recaptured Edoras in the end of the long winter and killed Wulf personally. The Dunlendings were driven out of Rohan, and Fréalaf succeeded the deceased Helm Hammerhand.
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The expansion of the Dunlendings to the southeast of Dunland was checked when the new realm of [[Rohan]] was established in {{TA|2510|n}}. In the subsequent centuries there was tension between the Dunlendings and the [[Rohirrim]], which reach open war in the time of [[Helm Hammerhand]].
  
Guarding the [[Gap of Rohan]] was the fortress of [[Isengard]], where a hereditary guard watched for Gondor. However, by the time of the [[Steward of Gondor]] [[Beren]], these guards had mixed with Dunlendings, and it had become hostile to Gondor. To remedy this situation, Beren gave [[Saruman]] the keys to [[Orthanc]], to guard Isengard for Gondor.
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Guarding the [[Gap of Rohan]] was the fortress of [[Isengard]], where a hereditary guard watched for Gondor. However, by the time of the [[Beren (Steward of Gondor)|Beren]], [[Ruling Steward|Steward]] of [[Gondor]], these guards had mixed with Dunlendings, and it had become hostile to Gondor. To remedy this situation, in {{TA|2759}}<ref name="TA"/> Beren gave [[Saruman]] the keys to [[Orthanc]], to guard Isengard for Gondor.<ref>{{UT|Isen}}</ref>
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===The Dwarves in Dunland===
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In {{TA|2770}}, [[Smaug]] the [[Dragons|Dragon]] destroyed the [[Kingdom Under the Mountain]].<ref name="TA"/>  Dwarves fleeing from this disaster settled in Dunland, from where [[Thrór]] departed when he and his companion [[Nár]] journeyed to [[Moria]] in {{TA|2790}}.  After the [[Battle of Azanulbizar]], provoked by the [[Orcs]]' brutal slaying of Thrór, [[Thráin II]] and [[Thorin]] led the remnants of their followers back to Dunland but soon left (to eventually settle in the [[Ered Luin]]).<ref>{{App|Durin}}</ref>
  
Saruman used this old history to tempt the Dunlendings into supporting him during the [[War of the Ring]].
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===The Later Third Age===
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Beren's decision to trust Saruman however had severe consequences, as before and around the [[War of the Ring]], the Wizard inflamed the Dunlendings' grievance and enmity to the Rohirrim<ref>{{TT|III7}}</ref> and concentrated a great military force which besieged them at the [[Helm's Deep]]. After the [[Battle of the Hornburg]], the Rohirrim allowed the surviving Dunlendings to return to their homes. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, and that the Dunlendings retreat behind the [[Isen]] river again.<ref>{{TT|III8}}</ref>
  
After the battle at [[Helm's Deep]], the Rohirrim allowed the surviving Dunlendings to return to their homes. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, and that the Dunlendings retreat behind the [[Isen]] river again.
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After the War the four Hobbits, [[Frodo Baggins|Frodo]], [[Samwise Gamgee|Sam]], [[Meriadoc Brandybuck|Merry]], and [[Peregrin Took|Pippin]], with the company of [[Gandalf]], [[Celeborn]], [[Galadriel]], and others journeyed through Dunland on their way home. While traversing the region they met two beggars, Saruman and [[Gríma|Gríma Wormtongue]].<ref>{{RK|VI6}}</ref>
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==Etymology==
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Dunland meant "Hill Land" in the language of neighbouring [[Rohan]], whose people named it after arriving in nearby [[Calenardhon]] in the later [[Third Age]].  ''Dunland'' is understood as "Brownland" ([[Old English]] ''dunn'' means "brown, dusky, dull"), referring to its inhabitants being swarthy and dark-haired .  The element ''dunn'' had no relation to the [[Elvish]] root ''[[dûn]]'' meaning "west".<ref>{{App|Men}}</ref>
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{{navigation
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| title=Region of Dunland
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| north-west=[[Tharbad]], [[Gwathló]].<br/>'''[[Eriador]]'''
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| north=[[Glanduin]], [[Eregion]]
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| north-east=[[Moria]], [[Misty Mountains]], [[Lothlórien|Lórien]]
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| west=[[Lond Daer]], [[Gwathló]],<br/>[[Enedwaith]]
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| east=[[Misty Mountains]], [[Fangorn Forest]]
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| south-west=[[Enedwaith]], [[Drúwaith Iaur]], [[Isen|River Isen]]
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| south=[[Isen|River Isen]]
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| south-east=[[Isengard]], [[Gap of Rohan]].<br/>'''[[Rohan]]'''
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}}
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{{references}}
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[[Category:Eriador]]
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[[Category:Regions]]
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[[de:Dunland]]
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[[fr:encyclo:geographie:regions:pays_de_dun]]
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[[fi:Mustainmaa]]

Revision as of 13:22, 30 January 2013

Dunland.png
Dunland
Physical Description
TypeRegion
LocationThe west-skirts of the southern Misty Mountains, south of Glanduin, north of Isen
RealmsNominally Gondor
Land of the Dunlendings
InhabitantsMen
For a time - Stoors and Dwarves
DescriptionFoothills of the Misty Mountains

Dunland was a part of Enedwaith east of the North-South Road, well south of the Glanduin and north of the Isen. It was a foothill region that fronted the western slopes of the southern Misty Mountains.[1] Far from the centers of population of Arnor and Gondor, its inhabitants at times included the Men known as Dunlendings as well as wandering Hobbits and Dwarves.

Dunland was a fair, fertile land. By the end of the Third Age being neither prosperous or civilised, it was sparsely inhabited by unorganised herdsmen and hillmen.[2]

Contents

History

The First Men in Dunland

In the early Second Age, Dunland first acquired a significant population of Men when those who had dwelt in the forests of Enedwaith south of the Gwathló fled from the Númenóreans after they began to cut down all of the trees.[3]s

When the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor were established early in the Third Age the land of Enedwaith (and the region of Dunland) were largely ignored, although the inhabitants were nominally subjects of Gondor.[4]

The Stoors Stay in Dunland

About T.A. 1150 the Hobbit-breed known as the Stoors left their early homeland in the upper vales of the Anduin and crossed the Redhorn Pass. Some settled in the Angle and other traveled down the Loudwater and settled in Dunland. While the Stoors in the Angle vacated that area in 1356, those living in Dunland remained until around 1630 when they migrated to the newly founded Shire.[5]

The Middle Years of the Third Age

The Great Plague swept through the northwest of Middle-earth in the years T.A. 16361637.[5] Dunland suffered, but to a lesser extent than in other regions due to their self-isolation. After the end of the royal line in Gondor the Dunlendings ceased to be subjects of the realm. During the years of the Watchful Peace (19752050), as the people of Calenardhon dwindled, the Dunlendings began drifting across the Isen.

The expansion of the Dunlendings to the southeast of Dunland was checked when the new realm of Rohan was established in 2510. In the subsequent centuries there was tension between the Dunlendings and the Rohirrim, which reach open war in the time of Helm Hammerhand.

Guarding the Gap of Rohan was the fortress of Isengard, where a hereditary guard watched for Gondor. However, by the time of the Beren, Steward of Gondor, these guards had mixed with Dunlendings, and it had become hostile to Gondor. To remedy this situation, in T.A. 2759[5] Beren gave Saruman the keys to Orthanc, to guard Isengard for Gondor.[6]

The Dwarves in Dunland

In T.A. 2770, Smaug the Dragon destroyed the Kingdom Under the Mountain.[5] Dwarves fleeing from this disaster settled in Dunland, from where Thrór departed when he and his companion Nár journeyed to Moria in T.A. 2790. After the Battle of Azanulbizar, provoked by the Orcs' brutal slaying of Thrór, Thráin II and Thorin led the remnants of their followers back to Dunland but soon left (to eventually settle in the Ered Luin).[7]

The Later Third Age

Beren's decision to trust Saruman however had severe consequences, as before and around the War of the Ring, the Wizard inflamed the Dunlendings' grievance and enmity to the Rohirrim[8] and concentrated a great military force which besieged them at the Helm's Deep. After the Battle of the Hornburg, the Rohirrim allowed the surviving Dunlendings to return to their homes. The Rohirrim required that all hostilities cease, and that the Dunlendings retreat behind the Isen river again.[9]

After the War the four Hobbits, Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin, with the company of Gandalf, Celeborn, Galadriel, and others journeyed through Dunland on their way home. While traversing the region they met two beggars, Saruman and Gríma Wormtongue.[10]

Etymology

Dunland meant "Hill Land" in the language of neighbouring Rohan, whose people named it after arriving in nearby Calenardhon in the later Third Age. Dunland is understood as "Brownland" (Old English dunn means "brown, dusky, dull"), referring to its inhabitants being swarthy and dark-haired . The element dunn had no relation to the Elvish root dûn meaning "west".[11]

Region of Dunland
Tharbad, Gwathló.
Eriador
Glanduin, Eregion Moria, Misty Mountains, Lórien
Lond Daer, Gwathló,
Enedwaith
WindRose3.pngMisty Mountains, Fangorn Forest
Enedwaith, Drúwaith Iaur, River Isen River Isen Isengard, Gap of Rohan.
Rohan

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The West of Middle-earth at the End of the Third Age" [map]
  2. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Dunland"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix D: The Port of Lond Daer"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen", Appendix (ii)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Battles of the Fords of Isen"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "Durin's Folk"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "Helm's Deep"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Road to Isengard"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Many Partings"
  11. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F, "The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age", "Of Men"