Not much is known about the lands or peoples outside the Westlands. Cuiviénen, the lake where the Elves awoke, was somewhere in the East of Middle-earth. The eastern parts of the continent also featured two great mountain ranges, the Red and Yellow Mountains where some of the Fathers of the Dwarves awoke, and would found the Dwarven clans of Ironfists, Stiffbeards, Blacklocks and Stonefoots. And Hildórien, the origin of Men, was also somewhere in the east. Beyond these, the continent ended on the shores of the East Sea.
In the Second or Third Ages the Blue Wizards went into the East, never to return. Saruman also visited the East before returning and occupying Isengard. During the Watchful Peace, Sauron went to hiding in the East for 400 years and gathered the Easterlings to his service.