Tolkien Gateway

Easterlings

(Difference between revisions)
(Third Age)
m
Line 4: Line 4:
 
| caption="Easterlings" by [[John Howe]]
 
| caption="Easterlings" by [[John Howe]]
 
| pronun=
 
| pronun=
| othernames=
+
| othernames=[[Men of Darkness]], Men of [[Rhûn]], [[Swarthy Men]]
| origin=
+
| origin=[[Wild Men]] out of the [[East]]
| location=lands east of and including [[Rhûn]]; [[Rhovanion]]; [[March of Maedhros]]; [[Hithlum]]
+
| location=Lands east of and including [[Rhûn]]; [[Rhovanion]], [[March of Maedhros]], [[Hithlum]]
| affiliation=[[Sauron]]
+
| affiliation=[[Morgoth]] (House of Ulfang)<br/>[[Union of Maedhros]] (House of Bór)<br>[[Sauron]]
 
| rivalry=
 
| rivalry=
 
| language=
 
| language=
| members=[[Khamûl]], [[Easterlings (First Age)]] ([[Brodda]], [[Lorgan]], [[Ulfang]], [[Uldor]], [[Ulfast]], [[Ulwarth]], [[Bór]], [[Borlach]], [[Borlad]], [[Borthand]])
+
| members=[[Khamûl]], [[Ulfang]], [[Uldor]], [[Ulfast]], [[Ulwarth]], [[Brodda]], [[Lorgan]], [[Borlach]], [[Borlad]], [[Borthand]], [[Bór]]
| lifespan=
+
| lifespan=Shorter than [[Númenóreans]]
 
| distinctions=Use of the war-wagons ([[Wainriders]] and [[Balchoth]])
 
| distinctions=Use of the war-wagons ([[Wainriders]] and [[Balchoth]])
| height=
+
| height=Shorter than [[Númenóreans]]
 
| hair=Dark
 
| hair=Dark
 
| skin=Swarthy in the [[First Age]]
 
| skin=Swarthy in the [[First Age]]
Line 23: Line 23:
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
 
===First Age===
 
===First Age===
In the [[First Age]], Men [[Awakening of Men|awoke]] in [[Hildórien]] in the [[East]]. Some of them were early corrupted by [[Morgoth]], prompting others (the [[Edain]]) to migrate westwards.<ref name=dm>{{PM|Dwarves}}</ref>
+
Long after the [[Men]] awoke in [[Hildórien]], some of them left that land to migrate to the [[Beleriand|West]]. Some of the ancestors of the Swarthy Men left their descendants in [[Eriador]]. Of those people came the indigenous Men that dwelt in the north in the later [[Ages]].<ref name=GA>{{WJ|P1}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
They made their way to [[Beleriand]]; others desired its rich lands, while others were instigated by the Enemy. They entered from east of [[Blue Mountains|Ered Luin]] after [[Dagor Bragollach]], much later than the [[Edain]] who had already established themselves among the [[Noldor]] and the [[Sindar]].
 +
 
 +
Some of them, like [[Bór]], entered the service of the [[House of Feanor]] and fought with [[Maedhros]] in the [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]]. Others, like [[Ulfang the Black|Ulfang]] and his sons, were for a part secretly in league with [[Morgoth]] and betrayed [[Caranthir]] resulting in the defeat.
 +
 
 +
[[File:Liz Danforth - Ulfang.png|thumb|right|"[[:File:Liz Danforth - Ulfang.png|Ulfang]]" by Liz Danforth]]
 +
 
 +
The Easterlings were betrayed by their lord Morgoth, and confined to [[Hithlum]] in the latter years of the First Age. Those [[Incomers]] enslaved the remaining Edain. Some, like [[Brodda]], intermarried with the Edain.
 +
 
 +
After the [[War of Wrath]], those that survived fled back over the Ered Luin to [[Eriador]] and beyond.<ref group="note">[[Karen Wynn Fonstad]] suggests that the Easterlings of the First Age were related to the Easterlings of the [[Third Age]]; during the deluge of Beleriand they fled to [[Rhûn]] and were the ancestors of the Easterlings as they appear in ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]''; cf. {{HM|AME}}, p. 40-41. [[Andreas Moehn]] suggests instead that they were ancestors to, or related to the [[Haradrim]], also called "Swarthy Men". cf. [http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Men_of_Darkness.html The Men of Darkess]</ref> Some of them became Kings of the primitive [[Middle Men]] who had no contact with the [[Eldar]] or the [[Edain]]. For this the Middle Men were neglected by the Valar.<ref>{{S|Akallabeth}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
====Sons of Bór====
 +
[[Bór]] was a leader of Men who came into Lothlann, Beleriand, in the year {{FA|463}}. His people were worty, and tillers of the earth.<ref name=GA/>
 +
 
 +
His sons were [[Borlach]], [[Borlad]] and [[Borthand]]. Bór was welcomed by [[Maedhros]], who gave him and his followers land north of the [[March of Maedhros]], and south of it. Bór and his sons swore allegiance to Maedhros, and remained faithful, though he was told by Morgoth to betray the banner of [[Caranthir]]. All of them were wiped out during the [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]].
 +
 
 +
====Sons of Ulfang "the Accursed"====
 +
[[Ulfang]] also came in Lothlann, Beleriand, in 463, shortly after Bór. He was the father of [[Ulfast]], [[Ulwarth]], and [[Uldor]]. Ulfang was welcomed by the sons of [[Fëanor]], and he and his sons swore allegiance to Caranthir. They were given lands to dwell in the north and south of the March of Maedhros. Ulfang and his sons were secretly in the employ of Morgoth, and [[Treachery of Men|betrayed]] the [[Eldar]] and Edain during the Nirnaeth Arnoediad.
  
Centuries later, after [[Dagor Bragollach]], tribes of [[Men]] joined the Edain in [[Beleriand]], long after their arrival. These [[Easterlings (First Age)|Swarthy Men]] came from the east, probably [[Eriador]] and were also called "Easterlings". Two of their leaders were [[Bór]] and [[Ulfang]].<ref>{{S|Fingolfin}}</ref>
 
 
===Second Age===
 
===Second Age===
In the [[Second Age]] [[Sauron]] escaped the judgment of the [[Valar]] and continued his former master's work, turning the Men of the [[East]] and [[South]] to evil and dominating them. Under the authority of the Dark Lord, many towns and walls of stone were built, and those under his influence became numerous and armed with iron. To these men, Sauron was feared as a king and god.<ref name=dm/><ref name=rings>{{S|Rings}}</ref>  
+
In the [[Second Age]], [[Sauron]] escaped the judgment of the [[Valar]] and continued his former master's work, turning the Men of the [[East]] and [[South]] to evil and dominating them. Under the authority of the Dark Lord, many towns and walls of stone were built, and those under his influence became numerous and armed with iron. To these men, Sauron was feared as a king and god.<ref name=rings>{{S|Rings}}</ref>  
  
During the [[Dark Years]] Sauron dominated most of the [[Westlands]], also urging men from the East to go the west for loot. Those troubled the [[Northmen]] who waged a war against them and the [[orcs]]. When Sauron was driven back to [[Mordor]], he continued his expansions eastwards gaining servants and worshippers.<ref name=dm/><ref>{{UT|Amroth}}</ref>
+
During the [[Dark Years]], Sauron dominated most of the [[Westlands]], also urging men from the East to go the west for loot. Those troubled the [[Northmen]] who waged a war against them and the [[orcs]]. When Sauron was driven back to [[Mordor]], he continued his expansions eastwards gaining servants and worshippers.<ref>{{UT|Amroth}}</ref>
  
 
===Third Age===
 
===Third Age===
Line 35: Line 52:
 
After Sauron's defeat in the [[War of the Last Alliance]], these "Wild Men" were released by his tyranny but they still had [[The Darkness|darkness]] in their hearts. Evil and restless, they battled against each other and some withdrew to the hated west.<ref>{{UT|6b}}</ref> Thus they encountered the lands of [[Gondor]] and since then, tribes brought trouble periodically with several attacks and migrations. Even [[Northmen]] often assailed Gondor for a long time.<ref>{{TT|IV5}}</ref>
 
After Sauron's defeat in the [[War of the Last Alliance]], these "Wild Men" were released by his tyranny but they still had [[The Darkness|darkness]] in their hearts. Evil and restless, they battled against each other and some withdrew to the hated west.<ref>{{UT|6b}}</ref> Thus they encountered the lands of [[Gondor]] and since then, tribes brought trouble periodically with several attacks and migrations. Even [[Northmen]] often assailed Gondor for a long time.<ref>{{TT|IV5}}</ref>
  
They first enter the records of [[Gondor]] in {{TA|490}} attacking Gondor from the plains between the [[Sea of Rhûn]] and the [[Ash Mountains]]. [[Tarostar]] managed a first victory against them in {{TA|500}}. In {{TA|541}} they invaded [[Ithilien]] but [[Turambar (King of Gondor)|Turambar of Gondor]] destroyed the horde and conquered a new territory in [[Rhûn]] for Gondor.<ref name=gondor/>
+
They first enter the records of [[Gondor]] in {{TA|490}}, attacking Gondor from the plains between the [[Sea of Rhûn]] and the [[Ash Mountains]]. [[Tarostar]] managed a first victory against them in {{TA|500}}. In {{TA|541}}, they invaded [[Ithilien]] but [[Turambar (King of Gondor)|Turambar of Gondor]] destroyed the horde and conquered a new territory in [[Rhûn]] for Gondor.<ref name=gondor/>
  
In the following centuries the Easterlings cease, while Gondor was free to extend its borders to [[South Gondor|the south]].  
+
In the following centurie,s the Easterlings cease their fighting, while Gondor was free to extend its borders to [[South Gondor|the south]].  
  
 
However, beyond the borders of Gondor, some "invaders from the East", no doubt moved by Sauron,<ref>{{PM|XNotes}}, #60</ref> came to [[Rhovanion]] harassing the Northmen, occupying [[Greenwood]] and traversing it, coming to the [[Vales of Anduin]]. These moves coincided with the coming of the [[Shadow]] of [[Dol Guldur]], and these were the causes that drove the [[Hobbits]] to [[Eriador|the west]] around {{TA|1000}}.<ref>{{PM|Atani}}</ref>
 
However, beyond the borders of Gondor, some "invaders from the East", no doubt moved by Sauron,<ref>{{PM|XNotes}}, #60</ref> came to [[Rhovanion]] harassing the Northmen, occupying [[Greenwood]] and traversing it, coming to the [[Vales of Anduin]]. These moves coincided with the coming of the [[Shadow]] of [[Dol Guldur]], and these were the causes that drove the [[Hobbits]] to [[Eriador|the west]] around {{TA|1000}}.<ref>{{PM|Atani}}</ref>
Line 43: Line 60:
 
In the days of [[Narmacil I]] the Easterlings resumed their attacks, even some greedy Northmen joined them. In {{TA|1248}} an Easterling army marched in the lands between [[Rhovanion]] and the Sea of Rhûn. Forces from Gondor - aided by Northmen of Rhovanion - defeated them and destroyed their camps and settlements east of the Inland Sea.<ref name=gondor/>
 
In the days of [[Narmacil I]] the Easterlings resumed their attacks, even some greedy Northmen joined them. In {{TA|1248}} an Easterling army marched in the lands between [[Rhovanion]] and the Sea of Rhûn. Forces from Gondor - aided by Northmen of Rhovanion - defeated them and destroyed their camps and settlements east of the Inland Sea.<ref name=gondor/>
  
After this defeat the Easterlings disappeared from the Gondorian records for some period, during which Gondor was again occupied with the south and the [[Corsairs of Umbar]].
+
After this defeat, the Easterlings disappeared from the Gondorian records for some period, during which Gondor was again occupied with the south and the [[Corsairs of Umbar]].
  
=== The Wainriders ===
+
==== The Wainriders ====
During that time tribes of Easterlings form the confederacy known as the '''[[Wainriders]]''' (q.v.) who would trouble the Kingdom and the Northmen.<ref name=gondor>{{App|Gondor}}</ref>  
+
During that time, tribes of Easterlings form the confederacy known as the '''[[Wainriders]]''' (q.v.) who would trouble the [[Gondor|Kingdom of Gondor]] and the [[Northmen]].<ref name=gondor>{{App|Gondor}}</ref>  
  
Gondor was weakened by the [[Great Plague]] and the Wainriders defeated the Gondorian army in {{TA|1856}}, raided the lands of [[Rhovanion]] and enslaved its people. Some of these lands eventually were reclaimed by King [[Calimehtar (King of Gondor)|Calimehtar]].  
+
Gondor was weakened by the [[Great Plague]] and the Wainriders defeated the Gondorian army in {{TA|1856}}, raided the lands of [[Rhovanion]], and enslaved its people. Some of these lands eventually were reclaimed by King [[Calimehtar (King of Gondor)|Calimehtar]].  
  
In {{TA|1944}} the Wainriders, allied with the [[Haradrim]] of [[Near Harad]] and the [[Variags]] of [[Khand]], managed a brief victory against Gondor, despite the assistance by the [[Éothéod]]; eventually they were [[Battle of the Camp|defeated]] in their camp during their celebrations.  
+
In {{TA|1944}}, the Wainriders, allied with the [[Haradrim]] of [[Near Harad]] and the [[Variags]] of [[Khand]], managed a brief victory against Gondor, despite the assistance by the [[Éothéod]]; eventually, they were [[Battle of the Camp|defeated]] in their camp during their celebrations.  
  
After this defeat the might of the Wainriders was broken although still held Rhovanion, and they retreated east. Most importantly, King [[Ondoher]] and both his sons were slain in that assault, an event that led to the extinction for the line of the [[Kings of Gondor]].  
+
After this defeat, the might of the Wainriders was broken, although they still held Rhovanion, and they retreated east. Most importantly, King [[Ondoher]] and both his sons were slain in that assault, an event that led to the extinction for the line of the [[Kings of Gondor]].  
  
In {{TA|2063}} the Necromancer (who was actually Sauron) retreated from [[Dol Guldur]] for some centuries. That period was known as the [[Watchful Peace]] for the [[Westlands]], but during that time Sauron retreated to the East and managed to create a strong alliance between the various tribes of Easterlings.
+
In {{TA|2063}}, the Necromancer (who was actually Sauron) retreated from [[Dol Guldur]] for some centuries. That period was known as the [[Watchful Peace]] for the [[Westlands]], but during that time Sauron retreated to the East and managed to create a strong alliance between the various tribes of Easterlings.
  
===The Balchoth===
+
====The Balchoth====
 
The '''[[Balchoth]]''' were a fierce race southeast of [[Mirkwood]], under orders of [[Dol Guldur]]<ref name=A1ivS>{{App|A1ivS}}</ref> and no doubt related to the [[Wainriders]].<ref name=cirion/> In {{TA|2510}} they and [[Orcs]] overran the plains of [[Calenardhon]] and almost destroyed the army of Steward [[Cirion]], but were defeated by the [[Éothéod]].<ref name=A1ivS/><ref name=cirion>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref>
 
The '''[[Balchoth]]''' were a fierce race southeast of [[Mirkwood]], under orders of [[Dol Guldur]]<ref name=A1ivS>{{App|A1ivS}}</ref> and no doubt related to the [[Wainriders]].<ref name=cirion/> In {{TA|2510}} they and [[Orcs]] overran the plains of [[Calenardhon]] and almost destroyed the army of Steward [[Cirion]], but were defeated by the [[Éothéod]].<ref name=A1ivS/><ref name=cirion>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref>
  
In {{TA|2545}} some Easterlings renewed their attacks and entered the new-founded [[Rohan]]. Thus [[Eorl]] fell fighting in [[the Wold]].<ref>{{App|Mark}}</ref>
+
In {{TA|2545}}, some Easterlings renewed their attacks and entered the new-founded [[Rohan]]. Thus [[Eorl]] fell fighting in [[the Wold]].<ref>{{App|Mark}}</ref>
  
During these struggles Sauron reclaimed Mordor unnoticed in {{TA|2941}}.
+
During these struggles, Sauron reclaimed Mordor unnoticed in {{TA|2941}}.
  
=== War of the Ring ===
+
==== War of the Ring ====
 
Easterlings serving Mordor fought in the [[War of the Ring]] alongside the [[Haradrim]] and [[Variags]]. They appeared in the [[Battle of the Pelennor Fields]] and the [[Battle of Dale]].
 
Easterlings serving Mordor fought in the [[War of the Ring]] alongside the [[Haradrim]] and [[Variags]]. They appeared in the [[Battle of the Pelennor Fields]] and the [[Battle of Dale]].
  
In the [[Fourth Age]] some Easterlings were subdued by [[Aragorn|King Elessar]] and King [[Éomer]].<ref>{{App|Eorl}}</ref>
+
In the [[Fourth Age]], the Easterlings were subdued by [[Aragorn|King Elessar]] and King [[Éomer]] as he retook all of the [[Reunited Kingdom]]'s former land at the height of its power.<ref>{{App|Eorl}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Traits and Culture ==
 +
They are described as short and broad, with swarthy (dark) skin, eyes and hair. Some had greater liking for the [[Dwarves]] of the mountains than for the [[Elves]].<ref name=s18>{{S|18}}</ref> Some of their women were proud and barbaric.<ref>{{UT|Tuor}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
It is seen that they were used to alliterate the names of father and sons/brothers, a custom also seen among the [[House of Beor]].<ref>{{webcite|website=Lalaith|articlename=The Men of Darkness|articleurl=http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Men_of_Darkness.html}}</ref><ref group="note">Other than the name alliteration, a Germanic custom, Andreas Moehn also notes that their names have a strong Germanic flavor.</ref>
  
== Culture ==
 
 
The Easterlings were in general more primitive than [[Gondor]]. They were motivated by [[Sauron]] to hate Gondor and seek its riches.  
 
The Easterlings were in general more primitive than [[Gondor]]. They were motivated by [[Sauron]] to hate Gondor and seek its riches.  
  
Line 77: Line 98:
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[:Category:Images of Easterlings|Images of Easterlings]]
 
*[[:Category:Images of Easterlings|Images of Easterlings]]
 +
 +
{{notes}}
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
 
[[Category:Men]]
 
[[Category:Men]]

Revision as of 20:30, 8 June 2019

Easterlings
People
John Howe - Easterlings.jpg
"Easterlings" by John Howe
General Information
Other namesMen of Darkness, Men of Rhûn, Swarthy Men
OriginsWild Men out of the East
LocationsLands east of and including Rhûn; Rhovanion, March of Maedhros, Hithlum
AffiliationMorgoth (House of Ulfang)
Union of Maedhros (House of Bór)
Sauron
MembersKhamûl, Ulfang, Uldor, Ulfast, Ulwarth, Brodda, Lorgan, Borlach, Borlad, Borthand, Bór
Physical Description
LifespanShorter than Númenóreans
DistinctionsUse of the war-wagons (Wainriders and Balchoth)
Average heightShorter than Númenóreans
Hair colorDark
Skin colorSwarthy in the First Age
GalleryImages of Easterlings

The Easterlings were Men who lived in the East of Middle-earth, and were enemies of the Free peoples.

Contents

History

First Age

Long after the Men awoke in Hildórien, some of them left that land to migrate to the West. Some of the ancestors of the Swarthy Men left their descendants in Eriador. Of those people came the indigenous Men that dwelt in the north in the later Ages.[1]

They made their way to Beleriand; others desired its rich lands, while others were instigated by the Enemy. They entered from east of Ered Luin after Dagor Bragollach, much later than the Edain who had already established themselves among the Noldor and the Sindar.

Some of them, like Bór, entered the service of the House of Feanor and fought with Maedhros in the Nirnaeth Arnoediad. Others, like Ulfang and his sons, were for a part secretly in league with Morgoth and betrayed Caranthir resulting in the defeat.

"Ulfang" by Liz Danforth

The Easterlings were betrayed by their lord Morgoth, and confined to Hithlum in the latter years of the First Age. Those Incomers enslaved the remaining Edain. Some, like Brodda, intermarried with the Edain.

After the War of Wrath, those that survived fled back over the Ered Luin to Eriador and beyond.[note 1] Some of them became Kings of the primitive Middle Men who had no contact with the Eldar or the Edain. For this the Middle Men were neglected by the Valar.[2]

Sons of Bór

Bór was a leader of Men who came into Lothlann, Beleriand, in the year F.A. 463. His people were worty, and tillers of the earth.[1]

His sons were Borlach, Borlad and Borthand. Bór was welcomed by Maedhros, who gave him and his followers land north of the March of Maedhros, and south of it. Bór and his sons swore allegiance to Maedhros, and remained faithful, though he was told by Morgoth to betray the banner of Caranthir. All of them were wiped out during the Nirnaeth Arnoediad.

Sons of Ulfang "the Accursed"

Ulfang also came in Lothlann, Beleriand, in 463, shortly after Bór. He was the father of Ulfast, Ulwarth, and Uldor. Ulfang was welcomed by the sons of Fëanor, and he and his sons swore allegiance to Caranthir. They were given lands to dwell in the north and south of the March of Maedhros. Ulfang and his sons were secretly in the employ of Morgoth, and betrayed the Eldar and Edain during the Nirnaeth Arnoediad.

Second Age

In the Second Age, Sauron escaped the judgment of the Valar and continued his former master's work, turning the Men of the East and South to evil and dominating them. Under the authority of the Dark Lord, many towns and walls of stone were built, and those under his influence became numerous and armed with iron. To these men, Sauron was feared as a king and god.[3]

During the Dark Years, Sauron dominated most of the Westlands, also urging men from the East to go the west for loot. Those troubled the Northmen who waged a war against them and the orcs. When Sauron was driven back to Mordor, he continued his expansions eastwards gaining servants and worshippers.[4]

Third Age

After Sauron's defeat in the War of the Last Alliance, these "Wild Men" were released by his tyranny but they still had darkness in their hearts. Evil and restless, they battled against each other and some withdrew to the hated west.[5] Thus they encountered the lands of Gondor and since then, tribes brought trouble periodically with several attacks and migrations. Even Northmen often assailed Gondor for a long time.[6]

They first enter the records of Gondor in T.A. 490, attacking Gondor from the plains between the Sea of Rhûn and the Ash Mountains. Tarostar managed a first victory against them in T.A. 500. In T.A. 541, they invaded Ithilien but Turambar of Gondor destroyed the horde and conquered a new territory in Rhûn for Gondor.[7]

In the following centurie,s the Easterlings cease their fighting, while Gondor was free to extend its borders to the south.

However, beyond the borders of Gondor, some "invaders from the East", no doubt moved by Sauron,[8] came to Rhovanion harassing the Northmen, occupying Greenwood and traversing it, coming to the Vales of Anduin. These moves coincided with the coming of the Shadow of Dol Guldur, and these were the causes that drove the Hobbits to the west around T.A. 1000.[9]

In the days of Narmacil I the Easterlings resumed their attacks, even some greedy Northmen joined them. In T.A. 1248 an Easterling army marched in the lands between Rhovanion and the Sea of Rhûn. Forces from Gondor - aided by Northmen of Rhovanion - defeated them and destroyed their camps and settlements east of the Inland Sea.[7]

After this defeat, the Easterlings disappeared from the Gondorian records for some period, during which Gondor was again occupied with the south and the Corsairs of Umbar.

The Wainriders

During that time, tribes of Easterlings form the confederacy known as the Wainriders (q.v.) who would trouble the Kingdom of Gondor and the Northmen.[7]

Gondor was weakened by the Great Plague and the Wainriders defeated the Gondorian army in T.A. 1856, raided the lands of Rhovanion, and enslaved its people. Some of these lands eventually were reclaimed by King Calimehtar.

In T.A. 1944, the Wainriders, allied with the Haradrim of Near Harad and the Variags of Khand, managed a brief victory against Gondor, despite the assistance by the Éothéod; eventually, they were defeated in their camp during their celebrations.

After this defeat, the might of the Wainriders was broken, although they still held Rhovanion, and they retreated east. Most importantly, King Ondoher and both his sons were slain in that assault, an event that led to the extinction for the line of the Kings of Gondor.

In T.A. 2063, the Necromancer (who was actually Sauron) retreated from Dol Guldur for some centuries. That period was known as the Watchful Peace for the Westlands, but during that time Sauron retreated to the East and managed to create a strong alliance between the various tribes of Easterlings.

The Balchoth

The Balchoth were a fierce race southeast of Mirkwood, under orders of Dol Guldur[10] and no doubt related to the Wainriders.[11] In T.A. 2510 they and Orcs overran the plains of Calenardhon and almost destroyed the army of Steward Cirion, but were defeated by the Éothéod.[10][11]

In T.A. 2545, some Easterlings renewed their attacks and entered the new-founded Rohan. Thus Eorl fell fighting in the Wold.[12]

During these struggles, Sauron reclaimed Mordor unnoticed in T.A. 2941.

War of the Ring

Easterlings serving Mordor fought in the War of the Ring alongside the Haradrim and Variags. They appeared in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and the Battle of Dale.

In the Fourth Age, the Easterlings were subdued by King Elessar and King Éomer as he retook all of the Reunited Kingdom's former land at the height of its power.[13]

Traits and Culture

They are described as short and broad, with swarthy (dark) skin, eyes and hair. Some had greater liking for the Dwarves of the mountains than for the Elves.[14] Some of their women were proud and barbaric.[15]

It is seen that they were used to alliterate the names of father and sons/brothers, a custom also seen among the House of Beor.[16][note 2]

The Easterlings were in general more primitive than Gondor. They were motivated by Sauron to hate Gondor and seek its riches.

Troops mentioned in the Easterling forces aiding Sauron in the Third Age included swordsmen, spearmen, horsemen, mounted archers, and chariots ridden by chieftains.

Some like the Wainriders and the Balchoth had large chariots, wagons and wains which they used to run their foes down, as well as live in and used to fortify their camps.[11] During the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Easterlings were bearded and used axes.[17]

See also

Notes

  1. Karen Wynn Fonstad suggests that the Easterlings of the First Age were related to the Easterlings of the Third Age; during the deluge of Beleriand they fled to Rhûn and were the ancestors of the Easterlings as they appear in The Lord of the Rings; cf. Karen Wynn Fonstad (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth, p. 40-41. Andreas Moehn suggests instead that they were ancestors to, or related to the Haradrim, also called "Swarthy Men". cf. The Men of Darkess
  2. Other than the name alliteration, a Germanic custom, Andreas Moehn also notes that their names have a strong Germanic flavor.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part One. The Grey Annals"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Amroth and Nimrodel"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Window on the West"
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion"
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men", "Notes", #60
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men", "The Atani and their Languages"
  10. 10.0 10.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards"
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan"
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl", "The Kings of the Mark"
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl"
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Of Tuor and his Coming to Gondolin"
  16. "The Men of Darkness", Lalaith's Middle-earth Science Pages (accessed 21 August 2019)
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "The Battle of the Pelennor Fields"