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Elenna

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'''Elenna''' ({{IPA|[eˈlenːa]}}) or '''Elenna-nórë''' ([[Quenya|Q]], pron. {{IPA|[eˌlenːa-ˈnoːre]}}) was a name said to mean '[[Númenor|Starwards]]',<ref>{{S|Akallabeth}}</ref> referring to the island on which the realm of [[Númenor]] was founded.<ref>{{App|Numenor}}</ref>
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{{location
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| image=[[File:Narfil Palùrfalas - Numenor Map.jpg|250px]]
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| name=Elenna
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| type=Island
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| location=Between [[Aman]] and [[Middle-earth]]
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| inhabitants=[[Númenóreans]] (including the [[Drúedain]])<ref name="TD">{{UT|12}}</ref>
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| realms=[[Númenor]]
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| description=
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| othernames=Elenna-nórë, Andor
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| etymology=
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| events=[[Downfall of Númenor]], [[Changing of the World]]
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| references=
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}}
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'''Elenna''' ({{IPA|[eˈlenːa]}}) or '''Elenna-nórë''' ([[Quenya|Q]], pron. {{IPA|[eˌlenːa-ˈnoːre]}}) also '''Andor''', the "Land of Gift", was the island on which the realm of [[Númenor]] was founded.<ref>{{App|Numenor}}</ref>
  
It was taken from the fact that the first [[Men]] to inhabit that island came to it by following the light of the [[Star of Eärendil]].
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The name meant 'Starwards',<ref name=downfall>{{S|Akallabeth}}</ref> from the fact that the first [[Men]] to inhabit that island came to it by following the light of the [[Star of Eärendil]].
  
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Generations later, owing to the Númenóreans' arrogance and blasphemy against the [[Valar]], Elenna was deluged during the [[Changing of the World]].
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==Geography==
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The island of Númenor was about 167,961 square miles,<ref>Estimation by [[Karen Wynn Fonstad]] in the ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]''</ref> It was located in the [[Belegaer]] closer to [[Valinor]] (about 39 days by ship) than [[Middle-earth]].
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Its shape was of a 5-point star, each point having its own unique geological and physical features, therefore considered a separate region of Númenor and had separate names:
 +
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*[[Forostar]] (''Northlands'')
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*[[Andustar]] (''Westlands'')
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*[[Hyarnustar]] (''Southwestlands'')
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*[[Hyarrostar]] (''Southeastlands'')
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*[[Orrostar]] (''Eastlands'')
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*[[Mittalmar]] (''Inlands'')
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The area between Orrostar and Hyarrostar was the bay of [[Rómenna]], with [[Tol Uinen]] standing off its coast.
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The central region of Mittalmar contained the region of [[Emerië]], a grass land with many sheep, and the sacred mountain [[Meneltarma]], standing in the very center of the island. It was the highest location on the entire island and was a holy place devoted to [[Ilúvatar|Eru Ilúvatar]]. It was said that on a clear day the 'far-sighted' might see [[Tol Eressëa]], the island east of Valinor proper which along with it comprised the Undying Lands.
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The lower slopes of the mountain, the [[Tarmasundar]], were gentle grass-covered, however, near the summit the slopes became more vertical and could not be ascended easily. The kings later built a spiral road to the peak, beginning at the southern tip of the mountain and winding up to the lip of the summit in the north.
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The only other known mountain on the island was [[Sorontil]], in Forostar.
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Númenor had only two rivers: [[Siril]] which began at Meneltarma and ended in a small delta near the city of [[Nindamos]], and the [[Nunduinë]], which formed the lake [[Nísinen]] before reaching the sea in the [[Bay of Eldanna]] near the haven [[Eldalondë]].
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The island itself was tilted southward and a little westward; the northern coasts were all steep sea cliffs.
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==Plant life==
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Númenor contained many species of plants that could be found nowhere else in [[Middle-earth]], for many of them were given to the Númenóreans from the [[Valar]] in [[Aman]].  Most important of these was the [[White Tree of Númenor|White Tree]] that dwelt in the King's Palace at [[Armenelos]]. A [[White Tree of Gondor|seedling]] from it was later planted in in the [[Court of the Fountain (Minas Tirith)|Court of the Fountain]] in [[Minas Tirith]], [[Gondor]]. 
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The other parts of Númenor contained many types of plants, many unique to each of the promontories of the island.  Andustar contained great forests of [[Beeches|beech]] and birch at the higher ground, and oak and elm forests are lower altitudes.  The eastern part of Hyarnustar, being warm and fertile, had great vineyards.
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The greatest delight of the Númenóreans, however, were the trees given to them by the [[Eldar]].  They grew mostly in the Western portion, Andustar.  They are often remembered in song and lore, and few have flowered east of Númenor. 
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*[[Oiolairë]]
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*[[Lairelossë]]
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*[[Nessamelda]]
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*[[Vardarianna]]
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*[[Taniquelassë]]
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*[[Yavannamírë]]
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Because of the diversity of wildlife in Andustar, that region was soon called [[Nisimaldar]], or the [[Fragrant Trees]]. Also only in Andustar could the Golden Tree be found, [[Malinornë]]. 
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In Hyarrostar grew the tree [[Laurinquë]], which the Númenóreans loved because of their flowers. They believed that it came from the Great Tree of Valinor,
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
The word is actually the allative form of the [[Quenya]] word ''[[elen]]'' meaning "to (a) star".
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The word is actually the allative form of the [[Quenya]] word ''[[elen]]'' meaning "to (a) star". The "longer" name ''Elenna-nórë'' is glossed as "Land of the Star",<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref> literally "Starwards-land". The island was named so as the [[Edain]] colonists sailed "starwards", following the [[Star of Eärendil]].
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[[Robert Foster]] mistakenly identifies the word as being the "[[Wikipedia:essive case|essive]]" form of ''elen''.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Elenna"</ref> Essive is a grammatical case that exists in [[Finnish]] (but not in Quenya), and is marked by the ending ''-na'', like the Quenya allative.
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The [[Adûnaic]] name was ''[[Gimlad]]'' (cf. ''[[gimil]]'').
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==Location==
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[[File:Didier Willis - Numenor recontructed latitude.png|thumb|right|Reconstructed latitude of Númenor]]
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Tolkien never drew a map of Arda showing where exactly in Belegaer, or relative to Middle-earth the island of Númenor stood but there are some narrative hints.
 +
 
 +
While sailing for Lindon, [[Vëantur]] had to fight the north and east winds,<ref>{{UT|Wife}}</ref> possibly suggesting the island was south of the latitude of Lindon (or perhaps simply stating the presence of opposing winds). It is also mentioned that Vëantur was accompanied by (apparently migratory) birds in autumn and spring.<ref name="Didier">[http://www.jrrvf.com/hisweloke/site3/articles.php?lng=fr&pg=38 Mystères géographiques n°2 : La position de Númenor, Du kirinki au puffin cendré] (2000-2001). In this article, Willis suggested that the presence of those birds could indicate that the island was found south of the Tropic of Arda, but he later changed his mind.</ref>
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The Downfall of Númenor, while causing important loss in Lindon, also filled much of the [[Bay of Belfalas]] so that the city of [[Pelargir]] was left far inland<ref>{{HM|PM}}, p. 183.</ref>. This could suggest the island was more or less around the latitude of the Bay of Belfalas. However, the cataclysmic forces of the Downfall were stated to have impacted "all the coasts and seaward regions of the western world". This could be construed as evidence for Númenor being located in a relatively central position on the north-south axis. However, in the "World Made Round" conception of the Downfall presented in the ''Akallabêth'', the cataclysm is by no means localized to Númenor, as the entire earth is warped and "new lands" are created.<ref name="SIV">{{S|IV}}</ref>
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As vineyards are attested in the eastern part of the [[Hyarnustar]], [[Didier Willis]] notes that adequate climatological conditions for viticulture are quite strict<ref>See e.g. Jones, Gregory V., "Climate Change: Observations, Projections, and General Implications for Viticulture and Wine Production" in ''Practical Winery and Vineyard'', July/August 2007, pp. 44–64.</ref> and estimates the island to be located around 40° N, indeed facing the Bay of Belfalas.<ref name="Didier2">[[Didier Willis]], ''[[Tolkien, le façonnement d'un monde]]'', vol. 2, p. 213 (map of adequate climatological zones for vines on Earth), pp. 215-220 (application to Númenor and discussion).</ref>
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It is mentioned, however, that after his first voyages to Middle-earth, [[Aldarion]] was no longer content to sail to [[Mithlond]] and began exploring the coasts southwards, past the mouths of [[Baranduin]].<ref>{{UT|Wife}}</ref> This suggests that the first land to be encountered on the journey of the [[Númenóreans]] east is north of the the Branywine delta - Lindon, which could place the island around that latitude.
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As for the distances, we are told simply that the island was closer to Valinor than Endor<ref name="Ak">{{S|Akallabeth}}</ref>. It was said that from Meneltarma, the keen-eyed Númenóreans could sometimes get a glimpse of [[Avallónë]];<ref name="Ak"/> the Fall of Númenor came 39 days after [[Ar-Pharazôn]] left,<ref name="Ak"/> but his actual voyage could be shorter.
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 +
[[Didier Willis]] estimates that as Vëantur could sail directly from Númenor to Lindon - not needing to find a closer coast and follow it up to his destination - the island was close enough to Lindon, with a realistic distance between 2000 to 3000 km.<ref name="Didier"/>
  
The [[Adûnaic]] name was ''[[Gimlad]]''
+
[[Karen Wynn Fonstad]] placed the island in her Second Age maps south of the latitude of the [[Umbar]]. It approximates the Númenórean ports of [[Vinyalondë]], [[Pelargir]] and Umbar on Middle-earth. Her map shows the distance between the Island and Eressëa to be approximately 800 miles.<ref>[[Karen Wynn Fonstad]] ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]''</ref> Because Eressëa was within eyesight of [[Túna]]<ref name="S5">{{S|5}}</ref>, Túna was located "nigh to the Girdle of Arda" (ie, near the equator)<ref name="S9">{{S|9}}</ref>, and the far-sighted could on a clear day see Eressëa from the summit of Meneltarma,<ref name=downfall/> Númenor could not be too much further north than the equator itself.
  
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
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[[Category:Islands]]
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[[Category:Númenor]]
 
[[Category:Quenya names]]
 
[[Category:Quenya names]]

Latest revision as of 06:21, 2 October 2016

Narfil Palùrfalas - Numenor Map.jpg
Elenna
Physical Description
TypeIsland
LocationBetween Aman and Middle-earth
RealmsNúmenor
InhabitantsNúmenóreans (including the Drúedain)[1]
General Information
Other namesElenna-nórë, Andor
EventsDownfall of Númenor, Changing of the World

Elenna ([eˈlenːa]) or Elenna-nórë (Q, pron. [eˌlenːa-ˈnoːre]) also Andor, the "Land of Gift", was the island on which the realm of Númenor was founded.[2]

The name meant 'Starwards',[3] from the fact that the first Men to inhabit that island came to it by following the light of the Star of Eärendil.

Generations later, owing to the Númenóreans' arrogance and blasphemy against the Valar, Elenna was deluged during the Changing of the World.

Contents

[edit] Geography

The island of Númenor was about 167,961 square miles,[4] It was located in the Belegaer closer to Valinor (about 39 days by ship) than Middle-earth.

Its shape was of a 5-point star, each point having its own unique geological and physical features, therefore considered a separate region of Númenor and had separate names:

The area between Orrostar and Hyarrostar was the bay of Rómenna, with Tol Uinen standing off its coast.

The central region of Mittalmar contained the region of Emerië, a grass land with many sheep, and the sacred mountain Meneltarma, standing in the very center of the island. It was the highest location on the entire island and was a holy place devoted to Eru Ilúvatar. It was said that on a clear day the 'far-sighted' might see Tol Eressëa, the island east of Valinor proper which along with it comprised the Undying Lands.

The lower slopes of the mountain, the Tarmasundar, were gentle grass-covered, however, near the summit the slopes became more vertical and could not be ascended easily. The kings later built a spiral road to the peak, beginning at the southern tip of the mountain and winding up to the lip of the summit in the north.

The only other known mountain on the island was Sorontil, in Forostar.

Númenor had only two rivers: Siril which began at Meneltarma and ended in a small delta near the city of Nindamos, and the Nunduinë, which formed the lake Nísinen before reaching the sea in the Bay of Eldanna near the haven Eldalondë.

The island itself was tilted southward and a little westward; the northern coasts were all steep sea cliffs.

[edit] Plant life

Númenor contained many species of plants that could be found nowhere else in Middle-earth, for many of them were given to the Númenóreans from the Valar in Aman. Most important of these was the White Tree that dwelt in the King's Palace at Armenelos. A seedling from it was later planted in in the Court of the Fountain in Minas Tirith, Gondor.

The other parts of Númenor contained many types of plants, many unique to each of the promontories of the island. Andustar contained great forests of beech and birch at the higher ground, and oak and elm forests are lower altitudes. The eastern part of Hyarnustar, being warm and fertile, had great vineyards.

The greatest delight of the Númenóreans, however, were the trees given to them by the Eldar. They grew mostly in the Western portion, Andustar. They are often remembered in song and lore, and few have flowered east of Númenor.

Because of the diversity of wildlife in Andustar, that region was soon called Nisimaldar, or the Fragrant Trees. Also only in Andustar could the Golden Tree be found, Malinornë.

In Hyarrostar grew the tree Laurinquë, which the Númenóreans loved because of their flowers. They believed that it came from the Great Tree of Valinor,

[edit] Etymology

The word is actually the allative form of the Quenya word elen meaning "to (a) star". The "longer" name Elenna-nórë is glossed as "Land of the Star",[5] literally "Starwards-land". The island was named so as the Edain colonists sailed "starwards", following the Star of Eärendil.

Robert Foster mistakenly identifies the word as being the "essive" form of elen.[6] Essive is a grammatical case that exists in Finnish (but not in Quenya), and is marked by the ending -na, like the Quenya allative.

The Adûnaic name was Gimlad (cf. gimil).

[edit] Location

Reconstructed latitude of Númenor

Tolkien never drew a map of Arda showing where exactly in Belegaer, or relative to Middle-earth the island of Númenor stood but there are some narrative hints.

While sailing for Lindon, Vëantur had to fight the north and east winds,[7] possibly suggesting the island was south of the latitude of Lindon (or perhaps simply stating the presence of opposing winds). It is also mentioned that Vëantur was accompanied by (apparently migratory) birds in autumn and spring.[8]

The Downfall of Númenor, while causing important loss in Lindon, also filled much of the Bay of Belfalas so that the city of Pelargir was left far inland[9]. This could suggest the island was more or less around the latitude of the Bay of Belfalas. However, the cataclysmic forces of the Downfall were stated to have impacted "all the coasts and seaward regions of the western world". This could be construed as evidence for Númenor being located in a relatively central position on the north-south axis. However, in the "World Made Round" conception of the Downfall presented in the Akallabêth, the cataclysm is by no means localized to Númenor, as the entire earth is warped and "new lands" are created.[10]

As vineyards are attested in the eastern part of the Hyarnustar, Didier Willis notes that adequate climatological conditions for viticulture are quite strict[11] and estimates the island to be located around 40° N, indeed facing the Bay of Belfalas.[12]

It is mentioned, however, that after his first voyages to Middle-earth, Aldarion was no longer content to sail to Mithlond and began exploring the coasts southwards, past the mouths of Baranduin.[13] This suggests that the first land to be encountered on the journey of the Númenóreans east is north of the the Branywine delta - Lindon, which could place the island around that latitude.

As for the distances, we are told simply that the island was closer to Valinor than Endor[14]. It was said that from Meneltarma, the keen-eyed Númenóreans could sometimes get a glimpse of Avallónë;[14] the Fall of Númenor came 39 days after Ar-Pharazôn left,[14] but his actual voyage could be shorter.

Didier Willis estimates that as Vëantur could sail directly from Númenor to Lindon - not needing to find a closer coast and follow it up to his destination - the island was close enough to Lindon, with a realistic distance between 2000 to 3000 km.[8]

Karen Wynn Fonstad placed the island in her Second Age maps south of the latitude of the Umbar. It approximates the Númenórean ports of Vinyalondë, Pelargir and Umbar on Middle-earth. Her map shows the distance between the Island and Eressëa to be approximately 800 miles.[15] Because Eressëa was within eyesight of Túna[16], Túna was located "nigh to the Girdle of Arda" (ie, near the equator)[17], and the far-sighted could on a clear day see Eressëa from the summit of Meneltarma,[3] Númenor could not be too much further north than the equator itself.

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Númenor"
  3. 3.0 3.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  4. Estimation by Karen Wynn Fonstad in the The Atlas of Middle-earth
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan"
  6. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Elenna"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  8. 8.0 8.1 Mystères géographiques n°2 : La position de Númenor, Du kirinki au puffin cendré (2000-2001). In this article, Willis suggested that the presence of those birds could indicate that the island was found south of the Tropic of Arda, but he later changed his mind.
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, p. 183.
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  11. See e.g. Jones, Gregory V., "Climate Change: Observations, Projections, and General Implications for Viticulture and Wine Production" in Practical Winery and Vineyard, July/August 2007, pp. 44–64.
  12. Didier Willis, Tolkien, le façonnement d'un monde, vol. 2, p. 213 (map of adequate climatological zones for vines on Earth), pp. 215-220 (application to Númenor and discussion).
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  15. Karen Wynn Fonstad The Atlas of Middle-earth
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Eldamar and the Princes of the Eldalië"
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Flight of the Noldor"