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First Age

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{{History of Arda}}
 
{{History of Arda}}
The '''First Age''' of the [[Children of Ilúvatar]] began with the [[Awakening of the Elves]] and ended with the final overthrow of [[Morgoth]] by the combined armies of [[Valinor]] and Beleriand. The First Age was also known as the '''Elder Days'''.
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The '''First Age''' describes the events near the beginning of time. Also known as the '''[[Elder Days]]''' the First Age saw the creation of the [[races]] of [[Arda]], their flourishing in [[Valinor]] and [[Beleriand]], their feats against [[Morgoth]] and eventualy overthrow by the combined armies of [[Valar]], [[Elves]] and [[Edain]].  
  
Much of what is related of this period in ''The Silmarillion'' occurs within the last 50 years preceding the defeat of Morgoth.
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When exactly the First Age began is not clear and perhaps it was not defined by the chronicles. Possible beginnings of the First Age must have been the creation of [[Arda]] itself; the creation of the [[Two Trees]] which also kept [[Valian Years|track of time]]; or the [[Awakening of the Elves]]. With the creation of the [[Moon]] and [[Sun]], the time was measured with the [[coranar]].
  
The chronicles describe primarily the events that occurred in Beleriand.  These were centered around a series of wars waged by the [[Sindar]], the Noldor and the Three Houses of the [[Edain]], against the armies of [[Angband]] and the evil [[Men]]. The wars had actually begun before the First Age, during the Years of the Trees, but began again with renewed fury after the arrival of the Noldor in Beleriand.  There had been Elves in Beleriand for uncounted millennia, but they sought merely to exist, and [[Morgoth]] had little to do with them.  The Noldor, on the other hand, particularly the [[Sons of Fëanor]], had come with the express purpose of defeating Morgoth.
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The chronicles describe primarily the events that occurred in Beleriand.  These were centered around a series of wars waged by the [[Sindar]], the [[Noldor]] and the [[Three Houses]] of the [[Edain]], against the armies of [[Angband]] and the evil [[Men]]. There had been Elves in Beleriand for uncounted millennia, but they sought merely to exist, and [[Morgoth]] had little to do with them.  The Noldor, on the other hand, particularly the [[Sons of Fëanor]], had come with the express purpose of defeating Morgoth. The wars had actually begun before the creation of the Sun, but began again with renewed fury after the arrival of the Noldor in Beleriand. 
  
 
The chief battles of the First Age are:
 
The chief battles of the First Age are:
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* The [[Dagor Aglareb]] (''Glorious Battle'') was fought about seventy-five years after the return of the Ñoldor.  Morgoth again attacked the Noldor, and again with no success.  The Ñoldor became so bold as to besiege Angband.  However, the Siege was of limited effectiveness, because the northern side of Angband was on the north side of the [[Ered Engrin]], and was unapproachable.
 
* The [[Dagor Aglareb]] (''Glorious Battle'') was fought about seventy-five years after the return of the Ñoldor.  Morgoth again attacked the Noldor, and again with no success.  The Ñoldor became so bold as to besiege Angband.  However, the Siege was of limited effectiveness, because the northern side of Angband was on the north side of the [[Ered Engrin]], and was unapproachable.
 
* The [[Dagor Bragollach]] (''Battle of Sudden Flame'') began when Morgoth poured rivers of fire out of Angband, ruining the besieging Noldorin armies.  The Ñoldor eventually mustered a defense, but their losses were severe.  For instance, the green plain of [[Ard-galen]] had been permanently laid waste by the rivers of fire, and was now called ''Anfauglith'', the Choking Dust; and the highlands of [[Dorthonion]], which had been inhabited by Edain, were made inhospitable.
 
* The [[Dagor Bragollach]] (''Battle of Sudden Flame'') began when Morgoth poured rivers of fire out of Angband, ruining the besieging Noldorin armies.  The Ñoldor eventually mustered a defense, but their losses were severe.  For instance, the green plain of [[Ard-galen]] had been permanently laid waste by the rivers of fire, and was now called ''Anfauglith'', the Choking Dust; and the highlands of [[Dorthonion]], which had been inhabited by Edain, were made inhospitable.
* The [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]] (''Unnumbered Tears'') was the first battle to be initiated by the Noldor.  They massed an army composed of Elves, Edain, and the houses of [[Bór]] and [[Ulfang]] allied to the Sons of Fëanor.  The Elves and their allies advanced very close to Angband, but Morgoth's trickery had upset their battle plan, and Ulfang proved treacherous.  The name "Unnumbered Tears" comes from the fact that the Elves' last hope of victory was destroyed.  The land of Hithlum was lost, the Sons of Fëanor were largely scattered, and the peoples of Beleriand had been decimated.  Morgoth's Orcs made a heap of the Elven and Mannish dead in the center of Anfauglith.
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* The [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]] (''Unnumbered Tears'') was the first battle to be initiated by the Noldor.  They massed an army composed of Elves, Edain, and the houses of [[Bór]] and [[Ulfang]] allied to the Sons of Fëanor.  The Elves and their allies advanced very close to Angband, but Morgoth's trickery had upset their battle plan, and Ulfang proved treacherous.  The name "Unnumbered Tears" comes from the destruction of the Elves' last hope of victory.  The land of Hithlum was lost, the Sons of Fëanor were largely scattered, and the peoples of Beleriand had been decimated.  Morgoth's Orcs made a heap of the Elven and Mannish dead in the center of Anfauglith.
* The [[War of Wrath]] took place after [[Eärendil]] sailed to Valinor and persuaded the [[Valar]] to help those whom they had forsaken.  The Valar gathered an army comprised of [[Maiar]], [[Vanyar]], and those Ñoldor who had stayed in Valinor.  The [[Teleri]] refused their aid, due to an old offense dealt them by the Ñoldor of Beleriand, but consented to ferry the armies of the Valar in their famous ships.  This battle marked the first appearance of the winged dragons, most notably [[Ancalagon]] the Black, but the Valar had the day.  Morgoth was captured, and cast out of [[Arda]], but his lands, as well as most of Beleriand, had been destroyed and sunk under the sea in the heat of battle.
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* The [[War of Wrath]] took place after [[Eärendil]] sailed to Valinor and persuaded the [[Valar]] to help those whom they had forsaken.  The Valar gathered an army composed of [[Maiar]], [[Vanyar]], and those Ñoldor who had stayed in Valinor.  The [[Teleri]] refused their aid, due to an old offense dealt them by the Ñoldor of Beleriand, but consented to ferry the armies of the Valar in their famous ships.  This battle marked the first appearance of the winged dragons, most notably [[Ancalagon]] the Black, but the Valar had the day.  Morgoth was captured, and cast out of [[Arda]], but his lands, as well as most of Beleriand, had been destroyed and sunk under the sea in the heat of battle.
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==Definition==
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In the [[Appendix B]] and the ''[[Quenta Silmarillion]]'' [[Tolkien]] never gives First Age dates. In works such as ''[[The Annals of Aman]]'' Tolkien measures the First Age with [[Valian Years]] (VY) and then [[Years of the Sun]] (YS).
  
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[[Robert Foster]] among other [[Tolkienist]]s attempted to chronicle the First Age; by convention these sources use the Years of the Sun as "First Age" keeping a format similar to Appendix B. For example the [[First Age 20|twentieth Year of the Sun]] is referred to as I 20 or F.A. 20. [[Tolkien Gateway]] also uses this format. Foster admits that the definition YS 1 would be more accurate than FA 1<ref>[[Robert Foster]], ''[[The Complete Guide to Middle-earth]]'', Appendix A, p. 436</ref>.
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This convention however creates the [[Misconceptions#Definition_of_First_Age.3B_Third_Age_.22of_the_Sun.22|ambiguation]] that F.A. 1 was the first year of the First Age, or its beginning, marked as such by the first sunrise. This led to the [[fanon]] term "Ages of the Sun" and the misconception that the Ages measured from the first rising of the Sun. According to that definition, the First Age 'proper' followed the [[Years of the Trees]] and lasted only c. 600 years until the [[Second Age 1|beginning]] of the [[Second Age]].
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However Tolkien's division of the history of Arda uses the term "[[Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar]]" not "of the Sun". Furthermore, in ''[[The Peoples of Middle-earth]]'', Tolkien mentioned that the First Age was the longest, signifying therefore that the term "First Age" expands before the first rising of the Sun.
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{{references}}
 
[[Category:Ages]]
 
[[Category:Ages]]
 
[[de:Das Erste Zeitalter]]
 
[[de:Das Erste Zeitalter]]
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[[fr:encyclo/chronologie/premier_age]]
 
[[fi:Ensimmäinen Aika]]
 
[[fi:Ensimmäinen Aika]]

Revision as of 13:17, 21 November 2012

The History of Arda
Ainulindalë
Valian Years
    Years of the Lamps
    Years of the Trees
Years of the Sun
Ages
    First Age
    Second Age
    Third Age
    Fourth Age
Dagor Dagorath
Timeline of Arda

The First Age describes the events near the beginning of time. Also known as the Elder Days the First Age saw the creation of the races of Arda, their flourishing in Valinor and Beleriand, their feats against Morgoth and eventualy overthrow by the combined armies of Valar, Elves and Edain.

When exactly the First Age began is not clear and perhaps it was not defined by the chronicles. Possible beginnings of the First Age must have been the creation of Arda itself; the creation of the Two Trees which also kept track of time; or the Awakening of the Elves. With the creation of the Moon and Sun, the time was measured with the coranar.

The chronicles describe primarily the events that occurred in Beleriand. These were centered around a series of wars waged by the Sindar, the Noldor and the Three Houses of the Edain, against the armies of Angband and the evil Men. There had been Elves in Beleriand for uncounted millennia, but they sought merely to exist, and Morgoth had little to do with them. The Noldor, on the other hand, particularly the Sons of Fëanor, had come with the express purpose of defeating Morgoth. The wars had actually begun before the creation of the Sun, but began again with renewed fury after the arrival of the Noldor in Beleriand.

The chief battles of the First Age are:

  • The Dagor-nuin-Giliath (Battle under the Stars, so named because it was fought before the rising of the Sun) was fought soon after the arrival of the Ñoldor. Morgoth sent a raiding party from Angband to attack the Noldor encampment in Hithlum, but the Elves drove it back. Fëanor was killed. It is considered the second battle in the Wars of Beleriand, after one that took place during the Years of the Trees.
  • The Dagor Aglareb (Glorious Battle) was fought about seventy-five years after the return of the Ñoldor. Morgoth again attacked the Noldor, and again with no success. The Ñoldor became so bold as to besiege Angband. However, the Siege was of limited effectiveness, because the northern side of Angband was on the north side of the Ered Engrin, and was unapproachable.
  • The Dagor Bragollach (Battle of Sudden Flame) began when Morgoth poured rivers of fire out of Angband, ruining the besieging Noldorin armies. The Ñoldor eventually mustered a defense, but their losses were severe. For instance, the green plain of Ard-galen had been permanently laid waste by the rivers of fire, and was now called Anfauglith, the Choking Dust; and the highlands of Dorthonion, which had been inhabited by Edain, were made inhospitable.
  • The Nirnaeth Arnoediad (Unnumbered Tears) was the first battle to be initiated by the Noldor. They massed an army composed of Elves, Edain, and the houses of Bór and Ulfang allied to the Sons of Fëanor. The Elves and their allies advanced very close to Angband, but Morgoth's trickery had upset their battle plan, and Ulfang proved treacherous. The name "Unnumbered Tears" comes from the destruction of the Elves' last hope of victory. The land of Hithlum was lost, the Sons of Fëanor were largely scattered, and the peoples of Beleriand had been decimated. Morgoth's Orcs made a heap of the Elven and Mannish dead in the center of Anfauglith.
  • The War of Wrath took place after Eärendil sailed to Valinor and persuaded the Valar to help those whom they had forsaken. The Valar gathered an army composed of Maiar, Vanyar, and those Ñoldor who had stayed in Valinor. The Teleri refused their aid, due to an old offense dealt them by the Ñoldor of Beleriand, but consented to ferry the armies of the Valar in their famous ships. This battle marked the first appearance of the winged dragons, most notably Ancalagon the Black, but the Valar had the day. Morgoth was captured, and cast out of Arda, but his lands, as well as most of Beleriand, had been destroyed and sunk under the sea in the heat of battle.

Definition

In the Appendix B and the Quenta Silmarillion Tolkien never gives First Age dates. In works such as The Annals of Aman Tolkien measures the First Age with Valian Years (VY) and then Years of the Sun (YS).

Robert Foster among other Tolkienists attempted to chronicle the First Age; by convention these sources use the Years of the Sun as "First Age" keeping a format similar to Appendix B. For example the twentieth Year of the Sun is referred to as I 20 or F.A. 20. Tolkien Gateway also uses this format. Foster admits that the definition YS 1 would be more accurate than FA 1[1].

This convention however creates the ambiguation that F.A. 1 was the first year of the First Age, or its beginning, marked as such by the first sunrise. This led to the fanon term "Ages of the Sun" and the misconception that the Ages measured from the first rising of the Sun. According to that definition, the First Age 'proper' followed the Years of the Trees and lasted only c. 600 years until the beginning of the Second Age.

However Tolkien's division of the history of Arda uses the term "Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar" not "of the Sun". Furthermore, in The Peoples of Middle-earth, Tolkien mentioned that the First Age was the longest, signifying therefore that the term "First Age" expands before the first rising of the Sun.

References

  1. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, Appendix A, p. 436