In the West-lands of Middle-earth the four cardinal directions were Númen, Hyarmen, Rómen, and Formen, and they were named in this order, beginning with (and facing) west. Hyarmen meant a left-hand region and Formen meant a right-hand region. Thus the word for "north" derives from the Primitive Quendian root PHOR, meaning "right hand", plus MEN indicating direction.
- Formenos = "Northern Fortress"
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Writing", "The Fëanorian Letters", Note, The names of the letters
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Writing", "The Fëanorian Letters"
- ↑ See Westron Tengwar
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, "Part Three: The Etymologies", PHOR-