This article or section needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of article quality.
|Other names||See below|
|Location||Brandy Hall, Buckland|
Bag End, Hobbiton
|Affiliation||Fellowship of the Ring|
|Language||Westron and Sindarin|
|Birth||22 September, T.A. 2968 |
|Sailed west||29 September, T.A. 3021 (aged 53)|
|Parentage||Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck|
|Height||Taller than most Hobbits|
|Clothing||Mithril coat, Elven cloak|
|Gallery||Images of Frodo Baggins|
Frodo Baggins was a hobbit of the Third Age, the most famous of all Hobbits in the histories for his leading role in the Quest of the Ring. During this epic quest, he bore the One Ring to Mount Doom and there destroyed it, giving him renown like no other Halfling throughout Middle-earth. He is also peculiar for being, as a Ring-bearer, one of the three Hobbits who sailed from Middle-earth to Aman, there to die in peace.
Childhood and youth
Frodo was the child of the respectable Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck, born on 22 September of S.R. 1368. After his parents died in a boating accident he went to live in Brandy Hall with his mother’s relatives of the Brandybucks. He grew up under the guardianship of the Master of Buckland Rorimac "Goldfather" Brandybuck, who was his uncle. In Brandy Hall he soon developed a reputation as a troublemaker, stealing mushrooms and causing a general fuss; one of his most traumatic experiences was when he was caught by Farmer Maggot who terrified little Frodo with his three dogs.
He was raised by Rory until his uncle Bilbo took him in to live at Bag End, his estate in Hobbiton. He enjoyed life with his "queer" Uncle Bilbo, with whom he shared the same birthday; he taught him to read, and told him stories of the past, even giving him some instruction in the elvish tongue. It is possible Bilbo even took his young cousin to see the elves that wandered about outside the Shire. Frodo developed a profound affection for his mentor. Bilbo made him his heir, frustrating the attempts of the disagreeable Sackville-Bagginses who coveted the inheritance.
Frodo and Bilbo got on like this until T.A. 3001. At this time Bilbo had planned his "disappearance" and withdrawal from the Shire, and threw an enormous birthday party for himself, as he was turning 111. On the same date, Frodo was turning 33 - the coming-of-age for hobbits. As Frodo was told by Bilbo during their preparations, Bilbo disappeared suddenly during the party to the shock of the Hobbits assembled. When Frodo returned home, now as the Master of Bag End, he found that Bilbo had left him the "magic ring".
Master of Bag EndGandalf the wizard, who had come for the festivities, warned Frodo not to use the magic ring, and to keep it secret and safe. He then left back into the wide world, curiosity nagging his mind about the ring.
Frodo, meanwhile, was pretty well off. He lived in peace and respectability for seventeen years, when Gandalf returned with the dreadful revelation that the "magic ring" was really the One Ring of Sauron, a thing of evil power thousands of years old. Furthermore, the Dark Lord was now aware of its survival, and would be searching for it, as Gollum had now revealed under torture that it was to be found in the Shire. After a long discussion and a test by fire of Gandalf's conclusions, the two agreed that Frodo would have to leave the Shire for his own safety and Samwise Gamgee the gardener would go with him. Gandalf recommended Rivendell as a destination, as the road was likely safe and the haven good. He told Frodo to take the alias Underhill abroad. Frodo was reluctant, but bought a house in Crickhollow as an excuse to head east.
Gandalf stayed for two months while Frodo worked out the details. At the end of that time he left to "get some news", as rather disturbing tidings had come to his ears. He promised to be back for the farewell party. Meanwhile, Frodo was not aware that some of his closest friends were watching him; Fredegar "Fatty" Bolger, his cousins Peregrin "Pippin" Took, and Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck, and Sam himself, knew that Frodo and Gandalf were in some trouble concerning the Ring, and that Frodo was preparing for a long adventure.
As autumn passed, Frodo was waiting for Gandalf who did not return, and Frodo grew quite anxious. His friends, Folco Boffin, Fredegar, Pippin and Merry helped him to pack for his travel to Crickhollow. Merry and Fatty later drove the cart of Frodo's belongings ahead, while Frodo still waited for Gandalf. At the last possible day he departed with Pippin and Sam, having sold Bag End to the Sackville-Baggins.
Hobbiton to CrickhollowBlack Rider that had spoken to his father, Gaffer Gamgee, some time earlier. This made Frodo wary, curious, and frightened at the same time. He wished that he had waited for Gandalf.
That night, they were again overtaken by a Black Horseman. This time it seemed to be able to sniff out their hiding place. But as it approached, it was driven away by the song of a group of Elves. Frodo, knowing the most about Elves, identified them as High Elves, and suggested that they wait to meet them. Their leader, Gildor, greeted the hobbits warmly, and lauded Frodo for his knowledge of their tongue. Frodo tried to get information from Gildor on the Black Riders, but the elf would tell him very little. Gildor foresaw that Frodo would have many dealings with the Riders in the future, and urged him to flee them whenever he met them. He and his party left the Hobbits before daybreak, while they slept.
The next day the threesome agreed to stay off the road. After a brief scare when Sam sighted a Rider, they worried about losing their way. That evening they heard a terrible wail, and Frodo distinguished words in it. Before long they came to Bamfurlong, the property of Farmer Maggot. Although Pippin knew Maggot, Frodo recalled a scare he had received at a young age after caught stealing the farmer’s mushrooms, being threatened with the dogs. He froze when Grip, Fang, and Wolf came forth from the house, but Maggot's hospitality soon won him over. When Maggot told of a Black Rider who had stopped at his house asking for "Baggins," and made several shrewd guesses, Frodo grew uncomfortable. Maggot took them to Bucklebury Ferry in his wagon. There they joined up with Meriadoc. As they were ferried across into Buckland, they caught sight of a dark shape on the landing from which they had come.
It was Merry who came for them.
Crickhollow to BreeRivendell. The next morning, leaving Fatty to keep house, they plunged into the Old Forest.Withywindle, where they were ensnared by Old Man Willow. Rescued by Tom Bombadil, the hobbits came to his house. There they met Tom's wife, Goldberry, and Frodo was moved to poetry over her loveliness. He was interested in Bombadil himself, and several times tried to learn who he was. That night he dreamed of a white-haired figure on a pinnacle of stone, borne away by an eagle.
The next day Frodo tried on the Ring, after finding it had no effect on Bombadil. Tom nevertheless could see him, for he was not subjected to the Ring’s power. That night he dreamed once more, a dream he never forgot.
Frodo heard a sweet singing running in his mind: a song that seemed to come like a pale light behind a grey rain-curtain, and growing stronger to turn the veil all to glass and silver, until at last it was rolled back, and a far green country opened before him under a swift sunrise.barrow-downs. Getting lost in the mist, however, they were taken by the barrow-wights, Frodo last of all. Frodo woke in the barrow to find the barrow-wight bending over his three friends. He rose and in a tremendous act of bravery and resilience took a sword and smote off the wight's hand. Then he summoned Bombadil with a song taught him, and Bombadil drove the wight away. Bombadil helped him wake Merry, Pippin, and Sam, gave them their ponies, and escorted them all to the road before turning his face back toward Withywindle. The hobbits, meanwhile, entered Bree and took lodging (at Bombadil’s recommendation) at The Prancing Pony inn, Frodo under the name of Underhill, as Gandalf had suggested.
—The Fellowship of the Ring, Fog on the Barrow-downs
Strider and WeathertopBarliman Butterbur to the gathering, Frodo under his alias and with the story that he was writing a book and came to Bree to gather information. Frodo also asked if Gandalf was present in Bree, only to learn that he had not yet arrived. While Pippin and Sam enjoyed the drink and conversation, Frodo remained withdrawn, soon falling into conversation with a curious ranger called Strider, who gave him a warning about letting his friends talk to much. Pippin began to tell about Bilbo's Birthday Party, and Frodo, at Strider’s encouragement and in an attempt to prevent the name of Baggins from being raised, began to sing The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late. This proved popular with the gathering, but unfortunately, as Frodo relaxed, he fell from the table and the Ring slipped on his finger, causing him to vanish.
Frodo crawled over to Strider's corner and slipped off the Ring. Then he tried to make the best of a bad situation, saying that he had rolled quickly to the side. The suspicious Breelanders, however, grew angry or frightened, and eventually all left the common-room. Frodo and his comrades retired to their room, where they found Strider waiting to talk to them. Strider was honest and blunt, telling what he had overheard and what he knew of them, as well as warning them of the Black Riders and traitors in Bree. He urged them to accept his aide by inviting him into the company. Frodo was leaning to believe the ranger when Butterbur broke in, giving Frodo the long-awaited letter from Gandalf, undelivered by Butterbur’s forgetfulness. After some little bit of light was shed on the situation to the innkeeper, he swore to help the hobbits in any way he could, as a friend of Gandalf and one very much afraid of Mordor. Frodo, reading the letter, learned that Gandalf recommended Strider as one to whom Frodo could go for help. After some further debate, Frodo agreed to let Strider lead them to Rivendell.Chetwood and Midgewater, and finally to the Weather Hills before coming up to Weathertop. Black Riders were sighted from the top of the cairn, and Strider counseled to remain where they were. That night, around a fire, Frodo began to tell of Gil-galad but was cut off by Strider, who chose instead to chant a part of the Lay of Leithian. Shortly after the Black Riders came, and Frodo was stricken down. In desperation he put on the Ring and saw the Nazgûl in their true forms. Frodo then tried to attack in Elbereth’s name, but their leader, the Witch-king of Angmar, stabbed Frodo in the chest before fleeing with his minions from Weathertop.
Quest of the Ring
File:The Hobbits in Rivendell.png After his healing, Frodo was summoned to a great Council that Elrond had organized. Representatives of all the Free Peoples of Middle-earth discussed the history of the Rings of Power and decided that the One Ring must be destroyed. As the ring was shown and tempers flared, argument broke out as to who should carry the Ring on this mission, until Frodo bravely volunteered to take the Ring to Mordor and cast it into the fires of Mount Doom. A member of each of the Free Peoples offered to join Frodo in his quest, thus forming the Fellowship of the Ring. The Fellowship consisted of Frodo, Samwise, Merry, Pippin, Aragorn, Gandalf, Boromir of Gondor, Legolas of the Woodland Realm, and Gimli of the Dwarves. Before leaving Rivendell, Bilbo gave Frodo his dwarf-made coat of mithril mail and his elven blade Sting. The mithril coat had been given to Bilbo by Thorin after the events of The Hobbit, and Sting had been taken by Bilbo from the den of a troll. On December 25, the Fellowship of the Ring departed from Rivendell and headed south.
File:Untitledhgjhg.png On January 11, 3019, the Fellowship attempted to cross the Misty Mountains (specifically the Pass of Caradhras), but were unable to due to a snowstorm. They instead traveled through the underground city of Moria at the urging of Gimli. Moria was the most ancient and grand of Dwarven cities, but was deserted when the dwarves uncovered a Balrog, known only as Durin's Bane, beneath the city, and had been defeated by legions of goblins. When they entered the Chamber of Mazarbul, the Fellowship was attacked by Orcs and a Cave-troll. Frodo helped to defeat the Troll before he was stabbed by an orc captain, his mithril shirt saving him from a deadly blow. The Fellowship ran through Moria to the Bridge of Khazad-dum, where Gandalf fell while confronting Durin's Bane. Once outside Moria, while the Fellowship was grieving, Gimli took Frodo and Sam to look upon the Mirrormere, even in their great hurry.
Deeply grieved by their loss, the Fellowship journeyed to the Elven kingdom of Lothlórien, where they met the Lady Galadriel and Lord Celeborn. Galadriel showed Frodo a vision of the future in her Mirror. Frodo offered her the One Ring, but she resisted the temptation to take it, passing the test that was laid before her, and accepting the diminishing of the power of the elves. Before the Fellowship departed from Lothlórien, Galadriel gave each member a gift. To Frodo, she gave a phial with the light of the star Eärendil captured inside; this gift would prove hugely important later on in the quest. They were also provided with elven way-bread, other supplies, and ships for their voyage down the Anduin River.
The Breaking of the Fellowship
The Fellowship continued their journey south to Amon Hen. There, Boromir, a Man of Gondor and a member of the Fellowship, attempted to convince Frodo to bring the Ring to Minas Tirith and regroup from there. When the hobbit asked for an hour alone to consider his options, Boromir followed him. Seeing that Frodo did not intend to take the suggested course of action, Boromir tried to take the Ring from him by force. Frodo put on the Ring and escaped to the Seat of Seeing, where he watched as war brewed across Middle-Earth and the Eye of Sauron searching for him. Taking off the Ring, he decided to take the item to Mordor alone, without telling the other members of the Fellowship. However, he was joined by his friend Samwise Gamgee, who felt it was necessary that he should protect and guide Frodo. Frodo gave in to Sam's protests, and although reluctant to lead anyone else to his fate, was glad to have Sam's company. The two hobbits continued toward Mordor, dividing the Fellowship. Here Boromir was killed by orc-archers while defending Merry and Pippin; the two young hobbits were then captured by Uruk-hai, and were to be taken to Isengard. Instead of following Samwise and Frodo to Mordor, the Three Hunters decided it more important to rescue Merry and Pippin from their captors. The breaking of the Fellowship was now complete.
After leaving what remained of the Fellowship at Amon Hen, Frodo and Sam tried to navigate through the winding paths of the Emyn Muil. After getting lost several times, they were found by Gollum, who at first tried to take the One Ring, but was captured by Sam (with Frodo's help) and tied up with the elven rope. Frodo, now pitying the creature, decided not to slay Gollum, but forced him to swear an oath of servitude to the master of the precious. Gollum then led them out of the maze and into the Dead Marshes.
The Dead Marshes
File:Frodowater.jpg The Dead Marshes followed the razor-sharp rocks of Emyn Muil, and were just as disorienting, if not more so. There was thought to be no route through the marshes, as orcs marched for miles around, although Gollum had secretly discovered a path when out on one of his many errands. He led Frodo and Sam on a safe pathway through the marshes, warning them not to follow what seemed like small torches in the water. Frodo, as if in a trance, falls into the waters of the marsh, and is rescued by Gollum.
Gollum led the two Hobbits to the Black Gate of Mordor, as Frodo had desired, but stopped the Hobbits from passing its doors, as the danger was too great. He then explained about a secret way into Mordor, 'Up the stairs and through the tunnel'. The Hobbits once again found themselves being led by Gollum. After venturing into Ithilien, and witnessing a skirmish between a company of warriors from Haradrim (along with Oliphaunts) and rangers from Gondor, they were apprehended by the ranger's captain, Faramir. When the skirmish had ended, Faramir blindfolded the ring-bearer and his companions and led them to Henneth Annun, the Window on the West. Upon much interrogation, Samwise foolishly misspoke, and gave away that Frodo was indeed carrying the One Ring. Realizing the importance of the quest, Faramir proved his quality, unlike his brother, Boromir, and let the ring-bearer go free. Later, Gollum was captured in the Forbidden Pool and forcibly taken into the hidden lair. Frodo begged for his safety, and he was not killed, although the rift between master and servant had once again begun to open.
Minas Morgul and Shelob's Lair
File:Shelob.jpg Gollum led the Hobbits past the lair of the Witch-King of Angmar, Minas Morgul, and up the stairs into 'The Tunnel'. When they arrived at the top though, they were abandoned by Gollum. They cautiously travelled through the tunnel, and managed to get to the end only to find their way barred by Shelob's great web. Whilst attempting to cut through the webbing, Frodo bravely stood up to Shelob and forced her back further into the tunnels giving him and Sam time enough to hack through the threads and escape. Upon escaping the tunnels, Frodo thought himself safe; however, Shelob, through one of her many tunnels, managed to sneak out and jab him with her stinger. As he was being encased in Shelob's webbing, Samwise was able to draw her into single combat wherein he, using Sting and the Phial of Galadriel, was able to mortally wound her and drive her back into her caves. Sam took the Ring from around Frodo's neck upon hearing Orcish voices, and hid behind some nearby rocks. He overheard the orcs speaking of Frodo, and Sam realized that his master was not dead, but merely paralyzed. Frodo was then taken to the tower of Cirith Ungol to await further torture and questioning.
Frodo was taken to the utmost top of Cirith Ungol and imprisoned. Squabbling over his mithril vest, fighting broke out amongst the two lead orcs and their battalions, killing almost all the orcs and Uruk-hai in the tower. Sam arrived at the gate of Cirith Ungol, only to find his way blocked by the Two Watchers; he eventually overcame them, journeyed to the tower where Frodo was held, and rescued his master. They fled the tower, having to pass the Watchers again (although this time destroying them), and entered Mordor.
Mordor and Mount Doom
File:Frodo and Sam at Mt Doom.png Frodo and Sam crawled onward through the empty plains of Mordor, as the orcs had been sent to the Black Gate to stop the Men of the West's army, and, after falling in and out of a company of Orcs, started to climb Mount Doom. They journeyed on for many days with hardly any food or water, and Frodo became progressively weaker as the Ring's power over him grew the closer they came to Orodruin. Frodo was eventually unable to go on, and Sam was forced to carry him a fair distance while his master rested upon his back. It was then that Gollum decided to reappear, and after a brief struggle, Sam cut Gollum in the stomach, and Frodo fled up the mountain. Inside the Crack of Doom, Frodo finally had the chance to destroy the ring, and rid himself of his burden, but the power of the ring was at its strongest, due to the proximity of the cracks. It was here that Frodo finally yielded to the temptation and power of the ring. Sam yelled for Frodo to destroy the Ring, but Frodo was overcome by its power and claimed the Ring for himself. Gollum attacked Sam, who fell and hit his head on a rock, temporarily knocking him unconscious. When he came to he saw Gollum fighting with an unseen foe (Frodo, having put on the Ring). Then Gollum bit off Frodo's finger, Ring and all, and was reunited with his treasure for a short time, until dancing with joy he toppled off the brink and fell into the depths, destroying himself and the One Ring. The two hobbits tried to escape as the volcano erupted. Just as it looked as though they were doomed, Gwaihir the Lord of Eagles saw them, and with his Eagle companions Landroval and Meneldor rescued Sam and Frodo and flew them to safety.
The End of the War and the Departure of Frodo
File:Bow to no one.png After recovering in Minas Tirith, and witnessing the coronation of King Aragorn, Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin all returned to the Shire. When they arrived though, they found it under the control of a man named Sharkey (later revealed to be Saruman) and his forces. Saruman was ruling the Shire from Bag End, although he was later murdered by Grima Wormtongue. Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin however, started to gather all the Shirriffs and townsfolk in the Shire, and they successfully defeated the Ruffians employed by Sharkey at the Battle of Bywater. File:Rotk2438.jpg Frodo was not directly involved in the fighting at the Battle of Bywater; instead, he made sure that no Hobbits (saying that no Hobbit had ever intentionally harmed another in the Shire and that it was not going to begin there), and also that any ruffians that surrendered were not harmed.
The Fourth Age
Frodo briefly served as Deputy Mayor of the Shire, but soon realized that he still bore the wounds of his quest, and so retired. He was also in continual pain from his shoulder wound, which pained him each anniversary of their stay on Weathertop. On 22 September SR 1421 (Fourth Age), at the age of 53, Frodo joined Bilbo, Gandalf, Elrond, Galadriel, and Círdan aboard an Elven ship. He was allowed passage across the sea to the Undying Lands, as he was a ring-bearer, with the hope of healing the damage to his spirit that bearing the Ring had caused. He presumably remained there until the end of his days.
Description and equipment
The only real description of Frodo's appearance is given only once by Gandalf in his letter to Barliman Butterbur, in which he is declared a "stout fellow with red cheeks, taller than some [hobbits], and fairer [more light-haired] than most", with a cleft chin, a bright eye, and a perky personality.
Frodo carried a small Elven sword (actually a dagger) called Sting and wore a coat of Dwarven chainmail made of Mithril under his clothes, both given to him by Bilbo. At Lothlórien, Galadriel gave him an Elven cloak that blends him in with the natural surroundings and a phial carrying the light of the star Eärendil to aid him on his quest.
Before Frodo went back to the Shire (after the Quest of the Ring was completed), Arwen Evenstar, wife of Aragorn and daughter of Elrond, gave Frodo a white stone to wear around his neck.
Etymology and translations
The name Frodo Baggins is an English translation of his Westron name Maura Labingi. The name Maura has the element maur- (wise, experienced), which Tolkien equivalated to the Germanic element frod- of the same meaning. Frodo's name in Sindarin was Iorhael ("old-wise") although in some instance he is mentioned as Daur (probably lenited form of taur).
In the German translation he is called Frodo Beutlin, in Spanish, Frodo Bolsón, in French, Frodon Sacquet, in Norwegian, Frodo Lommelun, in Danish, Frodo Sækker, in Faroese, Fróði Pjøkin in Finnish, Frodo Reppuli and in Dutch, Frodo Balings. In one of three Polish translations he is called Frodo Bagosz, but he keeps his original name in the other two.
Names and epithets
- Frodo Baggins - fród means "wise by experience" in Old English. Baggins may have been a reference to Bag End or may come from "bagging" which means "eating between meals" in northern England.
- Ring-bearer - he bore the One Ring to Mount Doom.
- Elf-friend - given to him by Gildor Inglorion.
- Mr. Underhill - used during his stay in the Prancing Pony to conceal his identity.
- The Halfling - a name used for him from Boromir's dream.
- Master - given to Frodo by both Samwise Gamgee as Sam was his gardener, and Gollum, as Frodo was the Master of the Precious.
- Nine-fingered Frodo\Frodo of the Nine Fingers - given to Frodo after Gollum bit off his finger.
- Deputy Mayor of Michel Delving - he was the Deputy from November 3019 through Mid-Year's Day in 3020
- Daur - which translates to "noble" and was given to Frodo at the Field of Cormallen.
- Iorhael - the Sindarin name for Frodo which comes from ior meaning "old" and hael meaning "wise,"
- Maura Labingi - the Hobbit name for Frodo.
- Bingo Baggins - Frodo's name in the early drafts of The Lord of the Rings.
- Bronwe athan Harthad - a name given to Frodo by Gandalf in an early version of The Lord of the Rings, revealed in The History of Middle-earth. It means "Endurance beyond Hope".
|Balbo Baggins||Berylla Boffin|
|Mungo Baggins(grandfather of Bilbo)||Largo Baggins||Tanta Hornblower|
|Dora Baggins||Drogo Baggins||Primula Brandybuck||Dudo Baggins|
|Frodo Baggins||Daisy Baggins||Griffo Boffin|
Portrayal in adaptations
|Frodo Baggins in adaptations|
- Frodo was voiced by Christopher Guard. Sharon Baird was the model for Frodo in the live-action recordings Bakshi used for rotoscoping.
2001-03: The Lord of the Rings (film series):
- Frodo is played by Elijah Wood. He is portrayed as slightly younger than his character in the book. He is also depicted with black hair, though the one (very brief) description of Frodo in the books said that he had fairer hair than most Hobbits (i.e. from light brown to dirty blonde).
2012-14: The Hobbit (film series):
- Oliver Burt provided the voice of Frodo.
- The voice of Frodo is provided by James Arrington.
- Frodo is voiced by Ian Holm.
- In two episodes telling of the meeting of Frodo and Tom Bombadil, Nigel Planer provided the voice of Frodo.
- Frodo is one of the playable characters, his story doesn't significantly differ from the book. He is voiced by Steve Staley.
- Frodo is present in all missions from Sam's perspective: escape from Osgiliath, Shelob's Lair, Cirith Ungol and the Crack of Doom. Completing the game allows to replay those missions from Frodo's perspective.
- Frodo is a "Hero" unit of the Free People, his ability to use the Ring and turn invisible make him ideal for scout missions.
- Unlike most other characters, Frodo and Sam make no appearance in Skirmish battles - they only appear in the storyline campaign.
- Frodo and other Hobbits are no longer permanent units, they are now a temporary power boost available to Free People forces.
2007: The Lord of the Rings Online:
- Frodo can be first met in Rivendell, preparing for departure. Later, he is found on Cerin Amroth in Lothlorien, weary from the loss of Gandalf. As a notable event, a Hobbit actor portrays Frodo Baggins in a Hobbit-made theater play "The Disappearance of Mad Baggins".
- Frodo is mentioned as "Frodo the Ringbearer", one of the much honored heroes of the War of the Ring, in the introduction of the game.
In The Prancing Pony Aragorn tells that he is waiting on a Hobbit with an important burden, this refers to Frodo and the One Ring.
- Latter in the game, Frodo appears in Rivendell, but interactions with him do not affect the main plot.
22 September, T.A. 3001 - 13 March, T.A. 3019
14 March, T.A. 3019 - 25 March, T.A. 3019
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "Strider"
- ↑ Peter Jackson, "Production begins in New Zealand on The Hobbit" dated 20 March 2011, Facebook (accessed 23 December 2011)
- ↑ The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, Prologue