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==Tolkien and MacDonald==
==Tolkien and MacDonald==
[[Humphrey Carpenter]] wrote that
[[Humphrey Carpenter]] wrote that stories of MacDonaldTolkien's ''"childhood favourites"'', especially fond of ''[[The Princess and the Goblin]]'' and ''[[The Princess and Curdie]]''.<ref>[[Humphrey Carpenter]], ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography]]''</ref> Tolkien also introduced ''The Princess and the Goblin'' to his children.<ref>[[J.R.R. Tolkien]]; [[Verlyn Flieger]], [[Douglas A. Anderson]] (eds.), ''[[On Fairy-stories (expanded edition)]]''</ref>
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|Born||10 December 1824|
|Died||18 September 1905|
|Education||King's College, Aberdeen|
Highbury Theological College
|Occupation||Author, poet, minister|
George MacDonald (10 December 1824 – 18 September 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. Known particularly for his fairy tales and fantasy novels, George MacDonald inspired authors such as W.H. Auden, C.S. Lewis , J.R.R. Tolkien, G.K. Chesterton and Charles Williams. He is therefore often referred to as the "grandfather" of the Inklings.
Tolkien and MacDonald
Humphrey Carpenter wrote that several stories of MacDonald's had been Tolkien's "childhood favourites", especially having been fond of The Princess and the Goblin and The Princess and Curdie. Tolkien also introduced The Princess and the Goblin to his children.
- Orcs and goblins:...
In 1964, Tolkien was asked to write a preface to an American edition of MacDonald's short story "The Golden Key". While accepting the commission, for the reason that he thought "well of this story of his", Tolkien never finished the preface, and wrote in a letter to the publishers that "I am not as warm an admirer of George MacDonald as C.S. Lewis was" (Lewis, more explictly and warmingly than Tolkien, thought highly of MacDonald, writing that "I have never concealed the fact that I regarded George MacDonald as my master").
Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull have argued that Tolkien, when re-reading "The Golden Key" and other of MacDonald's works, apparently reconsidered his former admiration on the grounds that the stories often contained a narrator's voice and too much of moral lecturing reminding of the literary style of The Hobbit (a style which Tolkien regretted later in life). Hammond and Scull further quote from a manuscript, held at the Bodleian Library, where Tolkien writes that "a highly selective memory had retained only a few impressions of things that moved me, and re-reading G[eorge] M[acDonald] critically filled with me distaste".
- 1858: Phantastes
- 1864: Adela Cathcart (includes the short story "The Giant's Heart")
- 1867: Dealings with the Fairies (includes the short story "The Golden Key")
- 1872: The Princess and the Goblin
- 1883: The Princess and Curdie
- 1895: Lilith
- Preface to "The Golden Key" (manuscript by Tolkien)
- ↑ Gisela Kreglinger, "MacDonald, George (1824–1905)", in J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment
- ↑ Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Verlyn Flieger, Douglas A. Anderson (eds.), On Fairy-stories (expanded edition)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 262, (dated 7 September 1964)
- ↑ Quoted in George MacDonald, The Complete Fairy Tales (Penguin Classics, 2000)
- ↑ Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Reader's Guide, pp.570-1