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Gil-galad

(Difference between revisions)
(I added my double portrait of GG with son of Orodreth as the main focus since all other images illustrating article show the son of Fingon (assuming son of Orodreth would have golden hair like his sister Finduilas).)
 
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{{noldor infobox
 
{{noldor infobox
| image=[[File:Soni Alcorn-Hender - Gil-galad at the Last Alliance.jpg|250px]]
+
| image=[[File:Kimberly - Gil-galad.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Gil-galad
 
| name=Gil-galad
 +
| pronun=
 
| othernames=''Artanáro''/''Rodnor'' ([[Quenya|Q]]/[[Sindarin|S]], [[Father-name|fn]]),<br/>''Ereinion'' ([[Sindarin|S]], [[Epessë|epessë]])
 
| othernames=''Artanáro''/''Rodnor'' ([[Quenya|Q]]/[[Sindarin|S]], [[Father-name|fn]]),<br/>''Ereinion'' ([[Sindarin|S]], [[Epessë|epessë]])
 
| titles=[[High King of the Noldor]]
 
| titles=[[High King of the Noldor]]
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| language=[[Quenya]] and [[Sindarin]]
 
| language=[[Quenya]] and [[Sindarin]]
 
| birth=c. {{FA|450}}
 
| birth=c. {{FA|450}}
| birthlocation=Presumably [[Nargothrond]]
+
| birthlocation=Unknown
 
| rule={{FA|510}} - {{SA|3441}}
 
| rule={{FA|510}} - {{SA|3441}}
 
| death={{SA|3441}}
 
| death={{SA|3441}}
 
| deathlocation=[[Siege of Barad-dûr]]
 
| deathlocation=[[Siege of Barad-dûr]]
 
| age=c. 3581
 
| age=c. 3581
| house=[[House of Finarfin]]
+
| notablefor=
| parentage=[[Orodreth]]
+
| house=[[House of Fingolfin]] ([[The Silmarillion]])<br/>[[House of Finarfin]] (later notes)
| siblings=[[Finduilas]]
+
| parentage=[[Fingon]] ([[The Silmarillion]])<br/>[[Orodreth]] (later notes)
 +
| siblings=none ([[The Silmarillion]])<br/>[[Finduilas]] (later notes)
 
| spouse=
 
| spouse=
 
| children=
 
| children=
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| eyes=
 
| eyes=
 
| clothing=
 
| clothing=
| weapons=[[Aeglos]]
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| weapons=[[Aeglos (spear)|Aeglos]]
 
| steed=
 
| steed=
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Pronounce|Ereinion Gil-galad.mp3|Ardamir}}
 
{{Pronounce|Ereinion Gil-galad.mp3|Ardamir}}
 
<center>{{quote|Gil-galad was an Elven-king<br>Of him the harpers sadly sing<br>The last whose realm was fair and free<br>Between the Mountains and the Sea.|From [[The Fall of Gil-galad]], as translated by [[Bilbo Baggins]]}}</center>
 
<center>{{quote|Gil-galad was an Elven-king<br>Of him the harpers sadly sing<br>The last whose realm was fair and free<br>Between the Mountains and the Sea.|From [[The Fall of Gil-galad]], as translated by [[Bilbo Baggins]]}}</center>
'''Ereinion Gil-galad''' ([[Sindarin|S]], pron. {{IPA|[eˈreɪnjon ˈɡilɡalad]}}) was the sixth and last [[High King of the Noldor]]. He is the son of [[Orodreth]] (in the Silmarillion he is the son of [[Fingon]]), who was in turn the son of [[Angrod]] of [[Finarfin]]'s house.
+
'''Ereinion Gil-galad''' ([[Sindarin|S]], pron. {{IPA|[eˈreɪnjon ˈɡilɡalad]}}) was the sixth and last [[High King of the Noldor]].  
 
+
Gil-galad was a descendant of the Noldor, [[Teleri]] and [[Vanyar]], for his great-grandmother [[Eärwen]], married with Finarfin, is the daughter of Olwë of the Teleri and his Great-Great-grandmother [[Indis]], married with Finwe, is of the Vanyar. Nonetheless, he is counted among the Noldor.
+
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
 
===First Age===
 
===First Age===
The exact date and place of Gil-galad's birth is not given. His father Orodreth dwelt at [[Minas Tirith (Beleriand)|Minas Tirith]] upon [[Tol Sirion]], so he might either been born there or his granduncle's [[Finrod Felagund]] underground fortress [[Nargothrond]].
+
The exact date and place of Gil-galad's birth is not given.
  
He was still a child at the time of the [[Dagor Bragollach]] when [[Morgoth]] broke the [[Siege of Angband]] and his grandfather [[Angrod]] was killed. As a result his father sent him (and his mother<ref name="Ruin">{{WJ|Ruin}}</ref>) to [[Círdan]] at the [[Havens of the Falas]] for safekeeping.<ref>{{S|Fingolfin}}</ref> After the fall of Minas Tirith, the [[Pass of Sirion]] was open to Morgoth's hosts although they were still kept at bay by the still mighty realm of [[Hithlum]] and also the power of Nargothrond. Hithlum was destroyed after the [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]] and thus there was now power left that could withstand the enemies and the ports at the Falas were besieged and captured. Yet Círdan, Gil-galad and many other Elves could flee from death on ship and etablished a refuge upon the [[Isle of Balar]] and a small haven at the [[Mouths of Sirion]].<ref>{{S|Fifth}}</ref>
+
He was still a child at the time of the [[Dagor Bragollach]] when [[Morgoth]] broke the [[Siege of Angband]]. As a result his father<ref group=note>In the [[Silmarillion]], Gil-galad's father was [[Fingon]]; in later notes [[Tolkien]] changed him to [[Orodreth]], but never incorporated this change in a narrative. See [[#Other Versions of the Legendarium]]</ref> sent him (and his mother<ref name="Ruin">{{WJ|Ruin}}</ref>) to [[Círdan]] at the [[Havens of the Falas]] for safekeeping.<ref>{{S|Fingolfin}}</ref> After the fall of Minas Tirith, the [[Pass of Sirion]] was open to Morgoth's hosts although they were still kept at bay by the still mighty realm of [[Hithlum]] and also the power of Nargothrond. Hithlum was destroyed after the [[Nirnaeth Arnoediad]] and thus there was no power left that could withstand the enemies, and the ports at the Falas were besieged and captured. Yet Círdan, Gil-galad and many other Elves could flee from death on ship and established a refuge upon the [[Isle of Balar]] and a small haven at the [[Mouths of Sirion]].<ref>{{S|Fifth}}</ref>
  
In the Nirnaeth Arnoediad [[Fingon]], High King of the Noldor, was slain, and the crown passed to his brother [[Turgon]] in Gondolin. When Gondolin was lost, Gil-galad received the Kingship of the Noldor, as his father had been killed in [[Battle of Tumhalad]] some years before and Turgon did not have a male descendant .<ref>{{S|Gondolin}}</ref> He and Círdan maintained the refuge upon Balar and the small port at the Sirion estuary until the [[War of Wrath]] and the end of the First Age.
+
In the Nirnaeth Arnoediad [[Fingon]], High King of the Noldor, was slain, and the crown passed to his brother [[Turgon]] in Gondolin. When Gondolin was lost, Gil-galad received the Kingship of the Noldor.<ref>{{S|Gondolin}}</ref> He and Círdan maintained the refuge upon Balar and the small port at the Sirion estuary until the [[War of Wrath]] and the end of the First Age.
  
 
===Second Age===
 
===Second Age===
After the destruction of [[Beleriand]] during the [[War of Wrath]], Gil-galad founded a kingdom in [[Lindon]] in the far northwest of Middle-earth, roughly between the [[Blue Mountains]] and the [[Belegaer|Great Sea]] around the [[Gulf of Lhûn]] and the havens [[Forlond]], [[Harlond]] and [[Mithlond]] were founded.<ref name="Rings">{{S|Rings}}</ref> Many Elves, both [[Sindar]] and [[Noldor]] joined him. But soon there was again unrest among the Noldor, and many of them left Lindon and led by [[Celebrimbor]] founded the realm of [[Eregion]], probably also stirred up by the finding of [[Mithril]] in [[Khazad-dûm]]. Also some Sindar and many of the [[Nandor]] did not wish to live with the Noldor, who had done them [[Sack of Doriath|great evil]], and migrated eastwards to [[Lothlórien]] or [[Greenwood the Great]].
+
After the destruction of [[Beleriand]] during the [[War of Wrath]], Gil-galad founded a kingdom in [[Lindon]] in the far northwest of Middle-earth, roughly between the [[Blue Mountains]] and the [[Belegaer|Great Sea]] around the [[Gulf of Lhûn]] and the havens of [[Forlond]], [[Harlond (Lindon)|Harlond]] and [[Mithlond]] were founded.<ref name="Rings">{{S|Rings}}</ref> Many Elves, both the [[Sindar]] and the [[Noldor]] joined him. But soon there was again unrest among the Noldor, and many of them left Lindon and led by [[Celebrimbor]] founded the realm of [[Eregion]], probably also stirred up by the finding of ''[[mithril]]'' in [[Moria|Khazad-dûm]]. Also some of the Sindar and many of the [[Nandor]] did not wish to live with the Noldor, who had done them a [[Sack of Doriath|great evil]], and migrated eastwards to [[Lothlórien]] or [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]].
  
When Prince [[Aldarion]] of [[Númenor]] came to [[Middle-earth]], they established friendship with the [[Elves]]. In {{SA|882}} Gil-galad gave him a letter for his father, the [[King of Númenor]], [[Tar-Meneldur]]. He warned him that a new shadow was arisen in the [[East]] and beseeched him for aid.<ref>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
+
When Prince [[Aldarion]] of [[Númenor]] came to [[Middle-earth]], they established friendship with the [[Elves]]. In {{SA|882}} Gil-galad gave him [[Gil-galad's letter|a letter for his father]], the [[King of Númenor]], [[Tar-Meneldur]]. He warned him that a new shadow had arisen in the [[East]] and besought him for aid.<ref>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
[[File:Lelia - Gil-Galad.jpg|200px|thumb|left|'''Gil-galad''' by Lelia.]]Around the year 1000 of the Second Age, Sauron tried to make contact with the Elves under the name [[Annatar]], the "Lord of Gifts". But Gil-galad and Círdan did not trust him and rejected his proposals. Sauron though, was welcomed in Eregion and the [[Rings of Power]] were forged.<ref name="Rings"/> Around {{SA|1600}} Sauron had forged [[the One Ring]], and in 1695 he invaded [[Eriador]], the [[War of the Elves and Sauron]] began.<ref name="PM">{{PM|Second}}</ref> Celebrimbor had rescued the Three Rings of the Elves in time, sending [[Narya]] and [[Vilya]] to Gil-galad, while the third ring [[Nenya]] was given to [[Galadriel]].<ref name="Galadriel">{{UT|Galadriel}}</ref>
+
[[File:Lelia - Gil-Galad.jpg|200px|thumb|left|Lelia - ''Gil-galad'']]Around the year 1000 of the [[Second Age]], [[Sauron]] tried to make contact with the Elves under the name of [[Annatar]], the "Lord of Gifts". But Gil-galad and Círdan did not trust him and rejected his proposals. Sauron though, was welcomed in Eregion and the [[Rings of Power]] were forged.<ref name="Rings"/> Around {{SA|1600}} Sauron, though, had forged [[the One Ring]] in secret, and when the Elves of Eregion found out that they have been betrayed, Sauron demanded the Rings, and when they refused, in {{SA|1695}} he invaded [[Eriador]], and the [[War of the Elves and Sauron]] began.<ref name="PM">{{PM|Second}}</ref> Celebrimbor had rescued the Three Rings of the Elves in time, sending [[Narya]] and [[Vilya]] to Gil-galad, while the third ring [[Nenya]] was given to [[Galadriel]].<ref name="Galadriel">{{UT|Galadriel}}</ref>
  
Sauron conquered [[Eregion]] quickly and the forces from Lindon that Gil-galad had sent under command of [[Elrond]] came too late and were too small and fled far north, where Elrond etablished the stronghold of [[Rivendell|Imladris]].<ref name="Galadriel"/>
+
Sauron conquered [[Eregion]] quickly and the forces from Lindon that Gil-galad had sent under the command of [[Elrond]] came too late and were too small, and fled far north, where Elrond established the stronghold of [[Rivendell|Imladris]].<ref name="Galadriel"/> While Sauron sent most of his army west to attack [[Lindon]] he had to leave a strong detachment behind to contain Elrond.<ref name=UTC>{{UT|Concerning}}</ref>
  
The war lasted on, until a great fleet of the [[Númenóreans]] arrived at Lindon. With united forces, Sauron's army was driven back and defeated near [[Sarnford]] and withdrew to [[Tharbad]] were he was reinforced. But the Númenórean's Admiral [[Tar-Minastir]] had send a fleet up river Gwathló and Sauron's army was attacked in the rear and utterly defeated.<ref name="Galadriel"/> After this war, the Elves were not further troubled by Sauron for a long time. During this time, Gil-galad passed the rings Narya and Vilya to Círdan and Elrond.<ref name="Galadriel"/>
+
The war lasted on, until a great fleet of the [[Númenóreans]] arrived at Lindon. With united forces, Sauron's army was driven back and defeated near the [[Sarn Ford]] and withdrew to [[Tharbad]] where he was reinforced. But the Númenórean admiral [[Ciryatur]] had sent a fleet up the river Gwathló and Sauron's army was [[Battle of the Gwathló|attacked in the rear and utterly defeated]].<ref name="Galadriel"/> After this war, the Elves were not further troubled by Sauron for a long time. During this time, Gil-galad passed the rings Narya and Vilya to Círdan and Elrond, respectively, and he appointed Elrond as his vice-regent.<ref name="Galadriel"/>.
  
 
After the [[Downfall of Númenor]], [[Elendil]] and his sons came to Middle-earth and founded the realms of [[Gondor]] in the south and [[Arnor]] in the north. Gondor was soon attacked by Sauron and Elendil's son [[Isildur]] had to flee, and sailed north to his father, where the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]] was formed with Gil-galad.  
 
After the [[Downfall of Númenor]], [[Elendil]] and his sons came to Middle-earth and founded the realms of [[Gondor]] in the south and [[Arnor]] in the north. Gondor was soon attacked by Sauron and Elendil's son [[Isildur]] had to flee, and sailed north to his father, where the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]] was formed with Gil-galad.  
 +
[[File:Maureval - Ereinion Gil-galad.jpg|thumb|Maureval - ''Ereinion Gil-galad'']]
 +
It took several years for the Allies to gather their forces but ultimately they marched on Mordor and defeated a great army in the [[Battle of Dagorlad]]. They broke through [[Cirith Gorgor]] and besieged [[Sauron]]'s [[Barad-dûr|Dark Tower]].
  
It took several years for the Allies to gather their forces but ultimately they marched on Mordor and defeated a great army in the [[Battle of Dagorlad]]. They broke through [[Cirith Gorgor]] and besieged [[Sauron]]'s [[Dark Tower]].
+
When the siege had lasted for seven years, it became so pressing that Sauron himself sallied forth. By his power the siege was broken and his army advanced to the slopes of [[Orodruin]]. There he was engaged by Elendil and Gil-galad in a single combat. Sauron was defeated but both Gil-galad and Elendil were killed in the act. Gil-galad was the last High King of Noldor. In the scroll he left in [[Minas Tirith]] before riding north, Isildur wrote that Gil-galad was killed by the heat of Sauron's hand.<ref>{{FR|Council}}</ref>
 
+
When the siege had lasted seven years, it became so pressing that Sauron himself sallied forth. By his power the siege was broken and his army advanced to the slopes of [[Orodruin]]. There he was engaged by Elendil and Gil-galad in single combat. Both Gil-galad and Elendil were killed by Sauron's hands.  
+
 
+
According to the laws of succession, Elrond should have become the next High King of the Noldor, but he refused the crown{{fact}}, and Gil-galad became the last King of the Noldor in Middle-earth.<ref name="Rings"/>
+
  
 
Gil-galad's weapon was the spear [[Aeglos (spear)|Aeglos]].
 
Gil-galad's weapon was the spear [[Aeglos (spear)|Aeglos]].
  
 
== Other Versions of the Legendarium ==
 
== Other Versions of the Legendarium ==
Originally in early versions of ''[[The Silmarillion]]'', Gil-galad was the son of [[Finrod|Finrod Felagund]]. In the ''[[Grey Annals]]'', however, Felagund had no son, leaving his wife in [[Tirion]] at the [[Flight of the Noldor]]. Later writings, specifically the ''[[Shibboleth of Fëanor]]'', presents the fact that Gil-galad was the son of Orodreth, who was in fact the son of Angrod. In other early versions he was of the [[House of Fëanor]].
 
  
In the published ''[[The Silmarillion|Silmarillion]]'' and ''[[Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife|The Mariner's Wife]]'' Gil-galad is said to have been the  son of [[Fingon]]. However, [[Christopher Tolkien]] later admitted that it was a rushed choice, and that Gil-galad was Orodreth's son in the original manuscripts written by his father.
+
Gil-galad was originally, and briefly, conceived as a descendant of [[Fëanor]].
 +
 
 +
Later, and through the writing of ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', he was considered a son of [[Finrod Felagund]], until Tolkien decided that Felagund was unmarried and childless.  
  
 +
A marginal note by Tolkien from around this time (the late 1950s) suggested that Gil-galad might be the son of [[Fingon]]. This suggestion was taken up by Tolkien's son and literary executor [[Christopher Tolkien]] in the published version of ''[[The Silmarillion]]'', which states that Gil-galad is the son of [[Fingon]]. This parentage is also mentioned in ''[[Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife]]''. [[Christopher Tolkien|Christopher]] later stated in ''[[The Peoples of Middle-earth]]'' that this decision to make Gil-galad a son of Fingon was an editorial mistake on his part, and did not represent his father's conception of the character.  He suggested that it would have been better to have left Gil-galad's parentage obscure.
 +
 +
Tolkien's final decision for Gil-galad's parentage appears to have been that he was a son of [[Orodreth]], who was at the same time changed from being a son of [[Finarfin]] to a son of [[Angrod]].<ref>The Shibboleth of Fëanor (History of Middle Earth vol.XII)</ref>This conception, however, was never incorporated into the written stories of ''The Silmarillion'', and aspects of it — notably the downgrading of Orodreth into a son of Angrod — would have required considerable reworking of the existing text.
 +
[[File:Karolina Węgrzyn - Scion of Kings son of Orodreth.jpg|thumb|left|Karolina Węgrzyn - ''Scion of Kings son of Orodreth'']]
 
== Etymology ==
 
== Etymology ==
 
+
 
''Gil-galad'' is a [[Sindarin]] name, meaning "Star of bright light". The name consists of the elements ''[[gil]]'' ("star") + ''[[galad]]'' ("radiance")<ref name=RGEO>{{RGEO|Notes}}, p. 73</ref>. According to a note this name was given to him because of the brightness of his eyes <ref name="Ruin"/>.
 
''Gil-galad'' is a [[Sindarin]] name, meaning "Star of bright light". The name consists of the elements ''[[gil]]'' ("star") + ''[[galad]]'' ("radiance")<ref name=RGEO>{{RGEO|Notes}}, p. 73</ref>. According to a note this name was given to him because of the brightness of his eyes <ref name="Ruin"/>.
 
+
[[File:Shrunken Gil-galad.jpg|thumb|[[Mark Ferguson]] as Gil-galad in [[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]]]
+
[[File:The Lord of the Rings (film series) - Gil-galad.jpg|thumb|Gil-galad in ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'']]
 
''Gil-galad ''was his [[Amilessë|mother-name]], and it was his preferred name in his youth. His [[father-name]] was '''''Rodnor''''' (pron. {{IPA|[ˈrodnor]}}), or in [[Quenya]], '''''Artanáro''''' (pron. {{IPA|[ˌartaˈnaːro]}}).
 
''Gil-galad ''was his [[Amilessë|mother-name]], and it was his preferred name in his youth. His [[father-name]] was '''''Rodnor''''' (pron. {{IPA|[ˈrodnor]}}), or in [[Quenya]], '''''Artanáro''''' (pron. {{IPA|[ˌartaˈnaːro]}}).
  
As High King of the Noldor, his [[epessë]] was '''''Ereinion''''', "Scion of Kings" (from ''[[erain]]'' = "kings" and ''[[ion]]'' = "son").
+
As a High King of the Noldor, his [[epessë]] was '''''Ereinion''''', "Scion of Kings" (from ''[[erain]]'' = "kings" and ''[[ion]]'' = "son").
  
== Genealogy ==
+
== Revised genealogy ==
 
{{familytree/start}}
 
{{familytree/start}}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | ARF |y| EAR | | | | | | |ARF=[[Finarfin]]|EAR=[[Eärwen]]}}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | ARF |y| EAR | | | | | | |ARF=[[Finarfin]]|EAR=[[Eärwen]]}}
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{{familytree/end}}
 
{{familytree/end}}
  
 +
==Portrayals in adaptations==
 +
'''2001: ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'':'''
 +
:In the prologue, Gil-galad can be seen holding one of the [[Three Rings|three Elven rings]]. Later, he is seen wielding his spear [[Aeglos (spear)|Aeglos]] in the [[Siege of Barad-dûr|Battle]] of the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]. His death is not shown, and he does not take down [[Sauron]]. He is played by [[Mark Ferguson]].
 +
 +
== See Also ==
 +
* [[:Category:Images of Gil-galad|Images of Gil-galad]].
 +
{{references|notes}}
 
{{seq-start}}
 
{{seq-start}}
 
{{seq-head
 
{{seq-head
 
| race=noldor
 
| race=noldor
| house=[[Finarfin|House of Finarfin]]
 
 
| born=c. {{FA|450}}
 
| born=c. {{FA|450}}
 
| died={{SA|3441}}
 
| died={{SA|3441}}
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| pvac=
 
| pvac=
 
| prev=[[Turgon]]
 
| prev=[[Turgon]]
| list=6th [[High King of the Noldor]]
+
| list=[[High King of the Noldor]]
 
| dates={{FA|510}} - {{SA|3441}}
 
| dates={{FA|510}} - {{SA|3441}}
| next=Abandoned
+
| next=Title abandoned
 
| nvac=None
 
| nvac=None
 
| nrow=
 
| nrow=
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{seq-end}}
 
{{seq-end}}
 
== Portrayals in adaptations==
 
'''2001''': ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring]]'':'''
 
:In the prologue, Gil-galad can be seen holding one of the three Elven rings. Later, he is seen wielding his spear Aeglos in the Battle of the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]. His death is not shown, and he does not take down Sauron. He is played by [[Mark Ferguson]].
 
 
 
 
== See Also ==
 
* [[:Category:Images of Gil-galad|Images of Gil-galad]].
 
{{references}}
 
 
[[Category:Characters in The Silmarillion]]
 
[[Category:Characters in The Silmarillion]]
 +
[[Category:House of Fingolfin]]
 
[[Category:House of Finarfin]]
 
[[Category:House of Finarfin]]
[[Category:House of Olwë]]
+
[[Category:Noldor]]
 
[[Category:amilessi]]
 
[[Category:amilessi]]
 
[[Category:Sindarin names]]
 
[[Category:Sindarin names]]

Latest revision as of 14:35, 17 June 2015

Kimberly - Gil-galad.jpg
Gil-galad
Noldo
Biographical Information
Other namesArtanáro/Rodnor (Q/S, fn),
Ereinion (S, epessë)
TitlesHigh King of the Noldor
LocationHavens of Sirion; Lindon
AffiliationLast Alliance
LanguageQuenya and Sindarin
Birthc. F.A. 450
Unknown
RuleF.A. 510 - S.A. 3441
DeathS.A. 3441 (aged c. 3581)
Siege of Barad-dûr
Family
HouseHouse of Fingolfin (The Silmarillion)
House of Finarfin (later notes)
ParentageFingon (The Silmarillion)
Orodreth (later notes)
Siblingsnone (The Silmarillion)
Finduilas (later notes)
Physical Description
GenderMale
WeaponryAeglos
GalleryImages of Gil-galad
"Gil-galad was an Elven-king
Of him the harpers sadly sing
The last whose realm was fair and free
Between the Mountains and the Sea.
"
― From The Fall of Gil-galad, as translated by Bilbo Baggins

Ereinion Gil-galad (S, pron. [eˈreɪnjon ˈɡilɡalad]) was the sixth and last High King of the Noldor.

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] First Age

The exact date and place of Gil-galad's birth is not given.

He was still a child at the time of the Dagor Bragollach when Morgoth broke the Siege of Angband. As a result his father[note 1] sent him (and his mother[1]) to Círdan at the Havens of the Falas for safekeeping.[2] After the fall of Minas Tirith, the Pass of Sirion was open to Morgoth's hosts although they were still kept at bay by the still mighty realm of Hithlum and also the power of Nargothrond. Hithlum was destroyed after the Nirnaeth Arnoediad and thus there was no power left that could withstand the enemies, and the ports at the Falas were besieged and captured. Yet Círdan, Gil-galad and many other Elves could flee from death on ship and established a refuge upon the Isle of Balar and a small haven at the Mouths of Sirion.[3]

In the Nirnaeth Arnoediad Fingon, High King of the Noldor, was slain, and the crown passed to his brother Turgon in Gondolin. When Gondolin was lost, Gil-galad received the Kingship of the Noldor.[4] He and Círdan maintained the refuge upon Balar and the small port at the Sirion estuary until the War of Wrath and the end of the First Age.

[edit] Second Age

After the destruction of Beleriand during the War of Wrath, Gil-galad founded a kingdom in Lindon in the far northwest of Middle-earth, roughly between the Blue Mountains and the Great Sea around the Gulf of Lhûn and the havens of Forlond, Harlond and Mithlond were founded.[5] Many Elves, both the Sindar and the Noldor joined him. But soon there was again unrest among the Noldor, and many of them left Lindon and led by Celebrimbor founded the realm of Eregion, probably also stirred up by the finding of mithril in Khazad-dûm. Also some of the Sindar and many of the Nandor did not wish to live with the Noldor, who had done them a great evil, and migrated eastwards to Lothlórien or Greenwood the Great.

When Prince Aldarion of Númenor came to Middle-earth, they established friendship with the Elves. In S.A. 882 Gil-galad gave him a letter for his father, the King of Númenor, Tar-Meneldur. He warned him that a new shadow had arisen in the East and besought him for aid.[6]

Lelia - Gil-galad
Around the year 1000 of the Second Age, Sauron tried to make contact with the Elves under the name of Annatar, the "Lord of Gifts". But Gil-galad and Círdan did not trust him and rejected his proposals. Sauron though, was welcomed in Eregion and the Rings of Power were forged.[5] Around S.A. 1600 Sauron, though, had forged the One Ring in secret, and when the Elves of Eregion found out that they have been betrayed, Sauron demanded the Rings, and when they refused, in S.A. 1695 he invaded Eriador, and the War of the Elves and Sauron began.[7] Celebrimbor had rescued the Three Rings of the Elves in time, sending Narya and Vilya to Gil-galad, while the third ring Nenya was given to Galadriel.[8]

Sauron conquered Eregion quickly and the forces from Lindon that Gil-galad had sent under the command of Elrond came too late and were too small, and fled far north, where Elrond established the stronghold of Imladris.[8] While Sauron sent most of his army west to attack Lindon he had to leave a strong detachment behind to contain Elrond.[9]

The war lasted on, until a great fleet of the Númenóreans arrived at Lindon. With united forces, Sauron's army was driven back and defeated near the Sarn Ford and withdrew to Tharbad where he was reinforced. But the Númenórean admiral Ciryatur had sent a fleet up the river Gwathló and Sauron's army was attacked in the rear and utterly defeated.[8] After this war, the Elves were not further troubled by Sauron for a long time. During this time, Gil-galad passed the rings Narya and Vilya to Círdan and Elrond, respectively, and he appointed Elrond as his vice-regent.[8].

After the Downfall of Númenor, Elendil and his sons came to Middle-earth and founded the realms of Gondor in the south and Arnor in the north. Gondor was soon attacked by Sauron and Elendil's son Isildur had to flee, and sailed north to his father, where the Last Alliance of Elves and Men was formed with Gil-galad.

Maureval - Ereinion Gil-galad

It took several years for the Allies to gather their forces but ultimately they marched on Mordor and defeated a great army in the Battle of Dagorlad. They broke through Cirith Gorgor and besieged Sauron's Dark Tower.

When the siege had lasted for seven years, it became so pressing that Sauron himself sallied forth. By his power the siege was broken and his army advanced to the slopes of Orodruin. There he was engaged by Elendil and Gil-galad in a single combat. Sauron was defeated but both Gil-galad and Elendil were killed in the act. Gil-galad was the last High King of Noldor. In the scroll he left in Minas Tirith before riding north, Isildur wrote that Gil-galad was killed by the heat of Sauron's hand.[10]

Gil-galad's weapon was the spear Aeglos.

[edit] Other Versions of the Legendarium

Gil-galad was originally, and briefly, conceived as a descendant of Fëanor.

Later, and through the writing of The Lord of the Rings, he was considered a son of Finrod Felagund, until Tolkien decided that Felagund was unmarried and childless.

A marginal note by Tolkien from around this time (the late 1950s) suggested that Gil-galad might be the son of Fingon. This suggestion was taken up by Tolkien's son and literary executor Christopher Tolkien in the published version of The Silmarillion, which states that Gil-galad is the son of Fingon. This parentage is also mentioned in Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife. Christopher later stated in The Peoples of Middle-earth that this decision to make Gil-galad a son of Fingon was an editorial mistake on his part, and did not represent his father's conception of the character. He suggested that it would have been better to have left Gil-galad's parentage obscure.

Tolkien's final decision for Gil-galad's parentage appears to have been that he was a son of Orodreth, who was at the same time changed from being a son of Finarfin to a son of Angrod.[11]This conception, however, was never incorporated into the written stories of The Silmarillion, and aspects of it — notably the downgrading of Orodreth into a son of Angrod — would have required considerable reworking of the existing text.

Karolina Węgrzyn - Scion of Kings son of Orodreth

[edit] Etymology

Gil-galad is a Sindarin name, meaning "Star of bright light". The name consists of the elements gil ("star") + galad ("radiance")[12]. According to a note this name was given to him because of the brightness of his eyes [1].

Gil-galad was his mother-name, and it was his preferred name in his youth. His father-name was Rodnor (pron. [ˈrodnor]), or in Quenya, Artanáro (pron. [ˌartaˈnaːro]).

As a High King of the Noldor, his epessë was Ereinion, "Scion of Kings" (from erain = "kings" and ion = "son").

[edit] Revised genealogy

 
 
 
 
 
 
Finarfin
 
Eärwen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Finrod
 
Angrod
 
Eldalótë
 
Aegnor
 
Galadriel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Orodreth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GIL-GALAD
 
 
 
Finduilas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


[edit] Portrayals in adaptations

2001: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring:

In the prologue, Gil-galad can be seen holding one of the three Elven rings. Later, he is seen wielding his spear Aeglos in the Battle of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men. His death is not shown, and he does not take down Sauron. He is played by Mark Ferguson.

[edit] See Also

Notes

  1. In the Silmarillion, Gil-galad's father was Fingon; in later notes Tolkien changed him to Orodreth, but never incorporated this change in a narrative. See #Other Versions of the Legendarium

[edit] References

  1. 1.0 1.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The War of the Jewels, "Part Two. The Later Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin (Chapter 15)"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Fifth Battle: Nirnaeth Arnoediad"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of Tuor and the Fall of Gondolin"
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Tale of Years of the Second Age"
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn"
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn"
  10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond"
  11. The Shibboleth of Fëanor (History of Middle Earth vol.XII)
  12. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Notes and Translations", in The Road Goes Ever On (J.R.R. Tolkien, Donald Swann), p. 73
Gil-galad
Born: c. F.A. 450 Died: S.A. 3441
Preceded by:
Turgon
High King of the Noldor
F.A. 510 - S.A. 3441
None
Title abandoned