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Gondor Sindarin

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<center>{{quote|Many used some other tongue than the [[Westron|Common Speech]], but it was not long before [[Peregrin Took|he]] learned at least what was meant by "Ernil i Pheriannath"...|Pippin in [[Minas Tirith]]<ref name="MT">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', ''[[The Return of the King]]'', "[[Minas Tirith (chapter)|Minas Tirith]]"</ref>}}</center>  
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<center>{{quote|Many used some other tongue than the [[Westron|Common Speech]], but it was not long before [[Peregrin Took|he]] learned at least what was meant by "Ernil i Pheriannath"...|Pippin in [[Minas Tirith]]<ref name="MT">{{RK|MT}}</ref>}}</center>  
'''Gondor Sindarin'''<ref name="PE17100">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Christopher Gilson]] (ed.), "Words, Phrases and Passages in ''The Lord of the Rings''", published in [[Parma Eldalamberon]] 17 (July [[2007]]), page 100</ref> was a dialect of [[Sindarin|the Elven language]] spoken by the [[Gondorians|Men]] of [[Gondor]].  
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'''Gondor Sindarin'''<ref name="PE17100">{{PE|Eldarin}}, page 100</ref> was a dialect of [[Sindarin|the Elven language]] spoken by the [[Gondorians|Men]] of [[Gondor]].  
  
 
==Differences==
 
==Differences==
[[Westron]] was the first language of Gondor. The nobility usually learned Sindarin, and used it to be polite to other nobles and strangers alike.<ref name="L347">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 347]] (dated [[17 December|December 17]], [[1972]])</ref> Because it was both an acquired and a learned language, it had some notable differences with "regular" [[Third Age]] Sindarin.  
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[[Westron]] was the first language of Gondor. The nobility usually learned Sindarin, and used it to be polite to other nobles and strangers alike.<ref name="L347">{{L|347}}</ref> Because it was both an acquired and a learned language, it had some notable differences with "regular" [[Third Age]] Sindarin.  
 
===Phonetical===
 
===Phonetical===
Like any acquired language, the second language's sound range is directly influenced by the speaker's original sound range. Westron did not possess ''ch''<ref name="CE49">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (ed.), ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'', "[[Cirion and Eorl]]", note 49</ref> or ''y'',<ref name="AppE"/> and pronounced them differently.
+
Like any acquired language, the second language's sound range is directly influenced by the speaker's original sound range. Westron did not possess ''ch''<ref name="CE49">{{UT|Cirion}}, note 49</ref> or ''y'',<ref name="AppE"/> and pronounced them differently.
  
===="Y"====
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The ''y'' was pronounced by Sindarin Elves as [[wikipedia:International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]] [y], a [[wikipedia:Close front rounded vowel|close front rounded vowel]]. Of all languages, only Sindarin had this sound, so it was problematic for speakers of other tongues. Gondorians generally pronounced it as an ''i'',<ref name="AppE">{{App|Vowels}}</ref> though it was sometimes substituted with an ''e'', as in the Gondorian plural for ''[[onod]]'', ''ened'' (rather than the usual ''enyd'').<ref name="L144">{{L|144}}</ref>
The ''y'' was pronounced by Sindarin Elves as [[wikipedia:International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]] [y], a [[wikipedia:Close front rounded vowel|close front rounded vowel]]. Of all languages, only Sindarin had this sound, so it was problematic for speakers of other tongues. Gondorians generally pronounced it as an ''i'',<ref name="AppE">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[The Lord of the Rings]] ''[[The Return of the King]]'', [[Appendix E]]</ref> though it was sometimes substituted with an ''e'', as in the Gondorian plural for ''[[onod]]'', ''ened'' (rather than the usual ''enyd'').<ref name="L144">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 144]] (dated [[25 April|April 25]], [[1954]])</ref>
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===="CH"====
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Also frequent in Sindarin was the ''ch'', the [[wikipedia:velar fricative|velar fricative]], which the Gondorians also encountered among [[pre-Númenórean]] placenames such as [[Erech]]<ref name="L297">{{L|297}}</ref> and [[Eilenach]].<ref name="CE51">{{UT|Cirion}}, note 51</ref>
Also frequent in Sindarin was the ''ch'', the [[wikipedia:velar fricative|velar fricative]], which the Gondorians also encountered among [[pre-Númenórean]] placenames such as [[Erech]]<ref name="L297">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 297]] (dated August, [[1967]])</ref> and [[Eilenach]].<ref name="CE51">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (ed.), ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'', "[[Cirion and Eorl]]", note 51</ref>
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The most notable use of the voiceless velar fricative was in the name of Gondor's new northern neighbour, [[Rohan]]. Originally envisioned as ''Rochand'', in Gondor this became ''Rohan''. Though [[Rohirric|the tongue of the Éothéod]] did possess the voiced ''ch'', it adopted the southern use.<ref name="CE49"/> The voiced velar fricative, which is found in ''Rochand'', was pronounced as a sounded ''h'',<ref name="L144"/> while the voiceless variant, at the end of words, was pronounced as a ''k''. Those very learned would pronounce them correct, but forcibly so.<ref name="CE49"/>
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The most notable use of the voiceless velar fricative was in the name of Gondor's new northern neighbour, [[Rohan]]. Originally envisioned as ''Rochand'', in Gondor this became ''Rohan''. Though [[Rohirric|the tongue of the Éothéod]] did possess the voiced ''ch'', it adopted the southern use.<ref name="CE49"/> The voiced velar fricative, found in ''Rochand'', was pronounced as a sounded ''h'',<ref name="L144"/> while the voiceless variant, at the end of words, was pronounced as a ''k''. Those very learned would pronounced them correct, but forcibly so.<ref name="CE49"/>
  
 
===Philological===
 
===Philological===
Another notable difference from regular Sindarin was purely [[wikipedia:Philology|philological]]. Those Gondorians learned in lore wished to speak like [[Noldor]], and the Sindarin they spoke in the [[First Age]] was [[North Sindarin]]. At least one feature from North Sindarin was reintroduced: whereas "true Sindarin of the Elves" changed both the voiced and voiceless combination of a [[wikipedia:sonorant|sonorant consonant]] and a [[wikipedia:Fricative consonant|spirant]] to a long sonorant, the Gondor Sindarin retained the spirant. Thus in the case of the former, ''[[malt]]'' ("gold") and ''[[orn]]'' ("tree") became ''[[Mallorn]]'', in Gondor this remained ''Malthorn''.<ref name="VT4227">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Carl F. Hostetter]] (ed.), "[[The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor]]", published in [[Vinyar Tengwar 42]] (July [[2001]]), pages 5-31, esp. 27</ref><ref>[[Carl F. Hostetter]], ''[http://www.elvish.org/Tengwestie/articles/Hostetter/sindll.phtml The Two Phonetic Values of ''ll'' in Elvish Sindarin in ''The Lord of the Rings'']'', published on [http://www.elvish.org/Tengwestie/ Tengwestië], [[7 December|December 7]], [[2003]]</ref>
+
Another notable difference from regular Sindarin was purely [[wikipedia:Philology|philological]]. Those Gondorians learned in lore wished to speak like [[Noldor]], and the Sindarin they spoke in the [[First Age]] was [[North Sindarin]]. At least one feature from North Sindarin was reintroduced: whereas "true Sindarin of the Elves" changed both the voiced and voiceless combination of a [[wikipedia:sonorant|sonorant consonant]] and a [[wikipedia:Fricative consonant|spirant]] to a long sonorant, the Gondor Sindarin retained the spirant. Thus in the case of the former, ''[[malt]]'' ("gold") and ''[[orn]]'' ("tree") became ''[[Mallorn]]'', in Gondor this remained ''Malthorn''.<ref name="VT4227">{{VT|42a}}, pages 5-31, esp. 27</ref><ref>[[Carl F. Hostetter]], ''[http://www.elvish.org/Tengwestie/articles/Hostetter/sindll.phtml The Two Phonetic Values of ''ll'' in Elvish Sindarin in ''The Lord of the Rings'']'', published on [http://www.elvish.org/Tengwestie/ Tengwestië], [[7 December|December 7]], [[2003]]</ref>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==

Latest revision as of 14:11, 10 July 2018

"Many used some other tongue than the Common Speech, but it was not long before he learned at least what was meant by "Ernil i Pheriannath"..."
― Pippin in Minas Tirith[1]

Gondor Sindarin[2] was a dialect of the Elven language spoken by the Men of Gondor.

Contents

[edit] Differences

Westron was the first language of Gondor. The nobility usually learned Sindarin, and used it to be polite to other nobles and strangers alike.[3] Because it was both an acquired and a learned language, it had some notable differences with "regular" Third Age Sindarin.

[edit] Phonetical

Like any acquired language, the second language's sound range is directly influenced by the speaker's original sound range. Westron did not possess ch[4] or y,[5] and pronounced them differently.

The y was pronounced by Sindarin Elves as IPA [y], a close front rounded vowel. Of all languages, only Sindarin had this sound, so it was problematic for speakers of other tongues. Gondorians generally pronounced it as an i,[5] though it was sometimes substituted with an e, as in the Gondorian plural for onod, ened (rather than the usual enyd).[6]

Also frequent in Sindarin was the ch, the velar fricative, which the Gondorians also encountered among pre-Númenórean placenames such as Erech[7] and Eilenach.[8]

The most notable use of the voiceless velar fricative was in the name of Gondor's new northern neighbour, Rohan. Originally envisioned as Rochand, in Gondor this became Rohan. Though the tongue of the Éothéod did possess the voiced ch, it adopted the southern use.[4] The voiced velar fricative, found in Rochand, was pronounced as a sounded h,[6] while the voiceless variant, at the end of words, was pronounced as a k. Those very learned would pronounced them correct, but forcibly so.[4]

[edit] Philological

Another notable difference from regular Sindarin was purely philological. Those Gondorians learned in lore wished to speak like Noldor, and the Sindarin they spoke in the First Age was North Sindarin. At least one feature from North Sindarin was reintroduced: whereas "true Sindarin of the Elves" changed both the voiced and voiceless combination of a sonorant consonant and a spirant to a long sonorant, the Gondor Sindarin retained the spirant. Thus in the case of the former, malt ("gold") and orn ("tree") became Mallorn, in Gondor this remained Malthorn.[9][10]

[edit] See also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Return of the King, "Minas Tirith"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings: Eldarin Roots and Stems", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson), page 100
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 347, (dated 17 December 1972)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", note 49
  5. 5.0 5.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix E, "Pronunciation of Words and Names", "Vowels"
  6. 6.0 6.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 144, (dated 25 April 1954)
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 297, (dated August 1967)
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "Cirion and Eorl and the Friendship of Gondor and Rohan", note 51
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, pages 5-31, esp. 27
  10. Carl F. Hostetter, The Two Phonetic Values of ll in Elvish Sindarin in The Lord of the Rings, published on Tengwestië, December 7, 2003