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Iúmonna Gold Galdre Bewunden

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Iúmonna Gold Galdre Bewunden is a poem by J.R.R. Tolkien. The Old English title of the poem is taken from a line of verse contained within Beowulf, which in modern English reads: "the gold of men of long ago enmeshed in enchantment" (l. 3052).[1]

The poem was published by Tolkien in three different versions. The first version was published in January 1923 within The Gryphon (n.s.4, no.4) as "Iúmonna Gold Galdre Bewunden". A heavily revised version, although bearing the same title, was then published in the Oxford Magazine 55, no.15 (4 March 1937). The third version, differing little from the second but bearing the title "The Hoard", was finally published in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book in 1962.

The original 1923 version was reprinted in in Douglas A. Anderson's The Annotated Hobbit. Both the 1923 and 1937 versions were reprinted in Beowulf and the Critics in 2002 along with one intermediate version.[2]

See also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 235, (dated 6 December 1961)
  2. Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull (2006), The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide, p. 383