Tolkien Gateway

I-affection

(Difference between revisions)
(Examples)
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*''[[said]]'' "private" + ''-ia'' > ''[[seidia-|s''ei''d'''i'''a-]] "to set aside"<ref>{{VT|42}} p.20</ref>
 
*''[[said]]'' "private" + ''-ia'' > ''[[seidia-|s''ei''d'''i'''a-]] "to set aside"<ref>{{VT|42}} p.20</ref>
  
The same effect is seen with the feminine ending ''[[-ien]]'' as seen in
+
The same effect is seen with other endings such as ''[[-ien]]'' or ''[[-ian]]'' as seen in
 +
*''[[Balar]]'' an island + ''-iand'' > ''[[Beleriand|B''e''l''e''r'''i'''and]]'' "Land of Balar"
 
*''[[loth]]'' "flower" + ''-ien'' > ''[[Luthien|L''u''th'''i'''en]]'' "Daughter of the flowers"<ref>{{PE|17}}</ref>
 
*''[[loth]]'' "flower" + ''-ien'' > ''[[Luthien|L''u''th'''i'''en]]'' "Daughter of the flowers"<ref>{{PE|17}}</ref>
 +
*''[[or]]'' "over" + ''[[i]]'' "the" > ''[[erin|''e''r'''i'''n]]'' "on the"
 
Another ending which causes umlaut is ''[[-il]]''
 
Another ending which causes umlaut is ''[[-il]]''
 
*[[AM1]] + ''-il'' > ''[[emil|''e''m'''i'''l]]'' "mother"<ref>{{VT|45a}} p.5</ref>
 
*[[AM1]] + ''-il'' > ''[[emil|''e''m'''i'''l]]'' "mother"<ref>{{VT|45a}} p.5</ref>

Revision as of 16:30, 11 January 2011

I-affection or Umlaut is a phonological phenomenon which is an integral part of the Sindarin language.

The phenomenon refers to the vowels of a word to be 'slid' higher and fronter to another vowel, usually e, drawn because of a following i (usually near the end of the word) in a sort of vowel harmony. This started to occur after the stage called "Old Sindarin".

Umlaut has a grammatical significance in Sindarin since it is how plural of nouns is formed.

Examples

The following verbs show how the vowels of the word-stems slid into e because of the affection of i.

The same effect is seen with other endings such as -ien or -ian as seen in

Another ending which causes umlaut is -il

Plural

See also: Sindarin#Pluralization

The Primitive Quendian plural ending was retained in Quenya and Old Sindarin. In the later stages the *-i affected the previous vowels, especially the preceding one[4]

Then, all final vowels were apocoped in Sindarin, including the plural markers. All traced of plural were simply the affected vowels.

To summarize this, the envisioned history of word adar pl. edair would be like this:

  • OS *atari "fathers" > *edeiri > *edeir > edair

In a different form it is seen in Ilkorin. For example adar pl. edrin, aman pl. emnin, boron pl. burnin, gangel pl. genglin and thorn > thurin.

Inspiration

The phenomenon is common in German and in Welsh, on which Sindarin is based on. For example the plural of W. bard (< ancient *bardos) is beird (< *bardoi)[4]


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