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J.R.R. Tolkien/temp

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Professor Dr. '''John Ronald Reuel Tolkien''' [[wikipedia:CBE|CBE]] ([[1982]] - [[1973]]) is the subject of [[Tolkien Gateway: About|Tolkien Gateway]]. His life, his works, his family: everything about the man whom fans have named affectionately '''the Professor''' can be found here.  
 
Professor Dr. '''John Ronald Reuel Tolkien''' [[wikipedia:CBE|CBE]] ([[1982]] - [[1973]]) is the subject of [[Tolkien Gateway: About|Tolkien Gateway]]. His life, his works, his family: everything about the man whom fans have named affectionately '''the Professor''' can be found here.  
  
Besides creating [[Arda]], [[The Little Kingdom]], and many other wonderful worlds, Tolkien's reading of [[Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics|Beowulf]] was groundbreaking, and stands as ''the'' interpretation of the epic poem to this day{{fact}}.  
+
Besides creating [[Arda]], the [[Little Kingdom]], and many other wonderful worlds, Tolkien's reading of [[Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics|Beowulf]] was groundbreaking, and stands as ''the'' interpretation of the epic poem to this day.<ref name="FaHPre">J.R.R. Tolkien, [[Alan Bliss]] (ed.), ''[[Finn and Hengest]]'', "Preface"</ref>
 
==Life==
 
==Life==
 
===Youth===
 
===Youth===
 
====South Africa====
 
====South Africa====
 +
Since the [[Tolkien Family|Tolkien family]]'s move from Saxony several generations earlier<ref name="L165">J.R.R. Tolkien, [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 165]] (dated June [[1955]])</ref>, much had changed. The family's fortune and fame, gathered by the construction of piano's, was gone in the days of [[John Benjamin Tolkien]].<ref name="Bio910">[[Humphrey Carpenter]], ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography]]'', pages 9-10</ref>. His son [[Arthur Tolkien|Arthur]] worked at a [[Birmingham]] office of Lloyds Bank, but there was little chance of promotion.<ref name="Bio910"/> A golden opportunity came when gold and diamonds were discovered in [[South Africa]]; bank clerks were in high demand to battle the growing fraud and corruption.<ref name="Birzer">Bradley J. Birzer, "Tolkien: Man Behind the Myth", published in ''Christian History'', volume 22 (2003), issue 2</ref> Arthur, who had been seeing [[Mabel Suffield]] for some time, moved to Bloemfontein. Mabel came several years later, in [[1891]].<ref name="Bio910">
 
====Birmingham====
 
====Birmingham====
 
====Oxford====
 
====Oxford====
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===Names===
 
===Names===
 
====John====
 
====John====
The name ''John'' was a custom in the [[Tolkien]] family. It was usually given to the eldest son of the eldest son. Tolkien's father, [[Arthur Tolkien|Arthur]], was the first son of [[John Benjamin Tolkien|John Benjamin]]'s second marriage; the first son of his first marriage, John, died with only three daughters. As of that moment, the name ''John'' went to Arthur's descendants.<ref name="L309">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 309]] (dated [[January 2]], [[1969]])</ref> It passed to Tolkien's first son, [[John Tolkien|John]], who became a priest and left no children,<ref>[[Humphrey Carpenter]], ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography]]'', page 202</ref> so the name ''John'' has effectively lost its hereditary signififance.
+
The name ''John'' was a custom in the [[Tolkien]] family. It was usually given to the eldest son of the eldest son. Tolkien's father, [[Arthur Tolkien|Arthur]], was the first son of [[John Benjamin Tolkien|John Benjamin]]'s second marriage; the first son of his first marriage, John, died with only three daughters. As of that moment, the name ''John'' went to Arthur's descendants.<ref name="L309">J.R.R. Tolkien, [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 309]] (dated [[January 2]], [[1969]])</ref> It passed to Tolkien's first son, [[John Tolkien|John]], who became a priest and left no children,<ref>[[Humphrey Carpenter]], ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography]]'', page 202</ref> so the name ''John'' has effectively lost its hereditary signififance.
  
The name, though Romish in nature, had at first no religious connotations. However, because his birthday ([[January 3]]) wasthe [[wikipedia:Octave (liturgical)|Octave]] of [[wikipedia:John the Evangelist|John the Evangelist]], Tolkien chose him as his patron.<ref name="L309"/>  
+
The name, though Romish in nature, had at first no religious connotations. However, because his birthday ([[January 3]]) was the [[wikipedia:Octave (liturgical)|Octave]] of [[wikipedia:John the Evangelist|John the Evangelist]], Tolkien chose him as his patron.<ref name="L309"/>  
 
====Ronald====
 
====Ronald====
Arthur Tolkien's first choice for his eldest son's second child was Benjamin, after his father. Tolkien's mother, [[Mabel Suffield|Mabel]], who was confident she would receive a daughter, chose ''Rosalind''. This would become ''Ronald'' when the child turned out to be a boy.<ref name="L309"/> Tolkien often used this name as his first name; most of his letters to [[Edith Tolkien|Edith]] were signed ''Ronald'', or simply ''R.''.<ref>[[J.R.R. Tolkien]], [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 1]], note 7 (dated October [[1914]])</ref>   
+
Arthur Tolkien's first choice for his eldest son's second child was Benjamin, after his father. Tolkien's mother, [[Mabel Suffield|Mabel]], who was confident she would receive a daughter, chose ''Rosalind''. This would become ''Ronald'' when the child turned out to be a boy.<ref name="L309"/> Tolkien often used this name as his first name; most of his letters to [[Edith Tolkien|Edith]] were signed ''Ronald'', or simply ''R.''.<ref>J.R.R. Tolkien, [[Humphrey Carpenter]], [[Christopher Tolkien]] (eds.), ''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien]]'', [[Letter 1]], note 7 (dated October [[1914]])</ref>   
 
====Reuel====
 
====Reuel====
 
Despite its [[wikipedia:Raguel (name)|obvious biblical connotations]], the name ''Reuel'' does not come from any of the people mentioned in the Bible; instead, it was the surname of a friend of John Benjamin.<ref name="L309"/> He gave it to his son Arthur, and both his sons, John and [[Hilary Tolkien|Hilary]] had it. Even most their male children and grandchildren have it. Though this family friend was never identified, Tolkien recalled the name being of Norman origin.<ref name="L309"/> In this light, it might be an early anglification of the surname ''Rouel'', which means "(maker of) small wheels/circular objects".<ref>Marie-Thérèse Morlet, ''Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille'' (1991), translated from the French: "''en général « petite roue », a désigné en anc[ien] fr[ançais] et moy[en] fr[ançais] différents objets en forme de roue, peut être un surnom de fabricant.''"</ref> The "biblical" ''Reuel'' means "Friend of God".<ref>[[wikipedia:Patrick Hanks|Patrick Hanks]],  Kate Hardcastle, Flavia Hodges, ''A Dictionary of First Names", [[Oxford University Press]] (2003)</ref>
 
Despite its [[wikipedia:Raguel (name)|obvious biblical connotations]], the name ''Reuel'' does not come from any of the people mentioned in the Bible; instead, it was the surname of a friend of John Benjamin.<ref name="L309"/> He gave it to his son Arthur, and both his sons, John and [[Hilary Tolkien|Hilary]] had it. Even most their male children and grandchildren have it. Though this family friend was never identified, Tolkien recalled the name being of Norman origin.<ref name="L309"/> In this light, it might be an early anglification of the surname ''Rouel'', which means "(maker of) small wheels/circular objects".<ref>Marie-Thérèse Morlet, ''Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille'' (1991), translated from the French: "''en général « petite roue », a désigné en anc[ien] fr[ançais] et moy[en] fr[ançais] différents objets en forme de roue, peut être un surnom de fabricant.''"</ref> The "biblical" ''Reuel'' means "Friend of God".<ref>[[wikipedia:Patrick Hanks|Patrick Hanks]],  Kate Hardcastle, Flavia Hodges, ''A Dictionary of First Names", [[Oxford University Press]] (2003)</ref>

Revision as of 11:02, 13 November 2008

Photograph of J.R.R. Tolkien.jpg
J.R.R. Tolkien
Biographical information
BornJanuary 3, 1892
DiedSeptember 2, 1973
EducationUniversity of Oxford
OccupationProfessor of Old and Middle English
LocationOxford, Leeds, England
WebsiteThe Tolkien Estate
"I felt that Tolkien was like an iceberg, something to be reckoned with above water in both its brilliance and mass and yet so much more below the surface."
Clyde Kilby[1]

Professor Dr. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (1982 - 1973) is the subject of Tolkien Gateway. His life, his works, his family: everything about the man whom fans have named affectionately the Professor can be found here.

Besides creating Arda, the Little Kingdom, and many other wonderful worlds, Tolkien's reading of Beowulf was groundbreaking, and stands as the interpretation of the epic poem to this day.[2]

Contents

Life

Youth

South Africa

Since the Tolkien family's move from Saxony several generations earlier[3], much had changed. The family's fortune and fame, gathered by the construction of piano's, was gone in the days of John Benjamin Tolkien.[4]. His son Arthur worked at a Birmingham office of Lloyds Bank, but there was little chance of promotion.[4] A golden opportunity came when gold and diamonds were discovered in South Africa; bank clerks were in high demand to battle the growing fraud and corruption.[5] Arthur, who had been seeing Mabel Suffield for some time, moved to Bloemfontein. Mabel came several years later, in 1891.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag It passed to Tolkien's first son, John, who became a priest and left no children,[6] so the name John has effectively lost its hereditary signififance.

The name, though Romish in nature, had at first no religious connotations. However, because his birthday (January 3) was the Octave of John the Evangelist, Tolkien chose him as his patron.[7]

Ronald

Arthur Tolkien's first choice for his eldest son's second child was Benjamin, after his father. Tolkien's mother, Mabel, who was confident she would receive a daughter, chose Rosalind. This would become Ronald when the child turned out to be a boy.[7] Tolkien often used this name as his first name; most of his letters to Edith were signed Ronald, or simply R..[8]

Reuel

Despite its obvious biblical connotations, the name Reuel does not come from any of the people mentioned in the Bible; instead, it was the surname of a friend of John Benjamin.[7] He gave it to his son Arthur, and both his sons, John and Hilary had it. Even most their male children and grandchildren have it. Though this family friend was never identified, Tolkien recalled the name being of Norman origin.[7] In this light, it might be an early anglification of the surname Rouel, which means "(maker of) small wheels/circular objects".[9] The "biblical" Reuel means "Friend of God".[10]

Tolkien

Other Names

Teacherhood

As an Author

The Philologist

The Veteran

The Christian

Portrayal in Adaptations

Ian Bellman as Tolkien (left)

2004: The Question of God: Sigmund Freud & C.S. Lewis:

Ian Bellman plays Tolkien in this documentary about convinced atheist Sigmund Freud and influential Christian writer (though not so at first) C.S. Lewis. Tolkien is introduced in a segment recounting Lewis' first experience of faith, a walk at Addison Walk the two had with Hugo Dyson. Tolkien is further shown in group shots of the Inklings, though he does not have any lines.

2005: C.S. Lewis: Beyond Narnia:

In this film, also about Lewis, Ben Lambert and Robert Hickson play the younger and older Tolkien.

Bibliograpgy

Arda

Other fiction

Academic Works

Posthumous Publications

Audio Recordings

See Also

References

  1. Clyde Kilby, Tolkien and The Silmarillion, Preface
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Alan Bliss (ed.), Finn and Hengest, "Preface"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 165 (dated June 1955)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, pages 9-10
  5. Bradley J. Birzer, "Tolkien: Man Behind the Myth", published in Christian History, volume 22 (2003), issue 2
  6. Humphrey Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, page 202
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named L309
  8. J.R.R. Tolkien, Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 1, note 7 (dated October 1914)
  9. Marie-Thérèse Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de famille (1991), translated from the French: "en général « petite roue », a désigné en anc[ien] fr[ançais] et moy[en] fr[ançais] différents objets en forme de roue, peut être un surnom de fabricant."
  10. Patrick Hanks, Kate Hardcastle, Flavia Hodges, A Dictionary of First Names", Oxford University Press (2003)