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Khuzdul

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'''Khuzdul''', or '''Dwarvish''', was the secret language of the [[Dwarves]].
 
'''Khuzdul''', or '''Dwarvish''', was the secret language of the [[Dwarves]].
  
==Structure==
+
==History==
It appears to be structured, like the Semitic languages, around triconsonantal roots: ''kh-z-d'', ''b-n-d'', ''z-g-l''. Not much is known of the language, as the Dwarves kept it to themselves, except for their battle-cry: ''[[Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu!]]'' meaning ''Axes of the Dwarves!  The Dwarves are upon you!''
+
  
Among the [[Languages]], Khuzdul is unique in belonging to a separate language phylum, not related to the languages of [[Elves]].
+
It is said in ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' that [[Aulë]], the creator of the first Dwarves, taught them "the language he had devised for them". Not much is known of the language, as the Dwarves kept it to themselves, except for their battle-cry: ''[[Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu!]]'' meaning ''Axes of the Dwarves!  The Dwarves are upon you!''
Nevertheless there are many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of men, such as [[Taliska]], the language of the first and third houses of the [[Edain]]. This is because in the early days of Middle-Earth, before men crossed the mountains into [[Beleriand]], they had contact to the Dwarves of the [[Blue Mountains]] and further East. Taliska was the ancestor of [[Adûnaic]], the tongue of Númenor and the direct ancestor of the [[Common Speech]], and both languages still had Khuzdul influences.
+
  
The Dwarvish language sounds much like Hebrew, and indeed [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] noted some similarities between Dwarves and Jews: both were "at once natives and aliens in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue…" (''[[The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien|Letters]]'', 176). Another reason Hebrew was chosen as a basis for Khuzdul is that it is unlike any of the European languages, and thus sufficiently alien to western ears to show just how different the Dwarven speech was from the Elvish languages.
+
Among the [[languages]], Khuzdul is unique in belonging to a separate language phylum, not related to the languages of [[Elves]].
 
+
Nevertheless there are many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of men, such as [[Taliska]], the language of the first and third houses of the [[Edain]]. This is because in the early days of Middle-earth, before Men crossed the mountains into [[Beleriand]], they had contact with the Dwarves of the [[Blue Mountains]] and further East. Taliska was the ancestor of [[Adûnaic]], the tongue of Númenor and the direct ancestor of the [[Westron|Common Speech]], and both languages still had Khuzdul influences.
It is said in ''[[The Silmarillion]]'' that [[Aulë]], the creator of the first Dwarves, taught them "the language he had devised for them," which implies that Khuzdul is technically, in reality and fictionally, a constructed language.
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==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
The word "Khuzdul" is composed of the stem ''[[Khazâd|KH-Z-D]]'', and the adjectival ending ''-ul'', which has the meaning similar to "-ish" or "-ian". Tolkien also used the term ''Khazâdian'' (albeit sparingly).
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The word ''Khuzdul'' (also spelled ''Khuzdûl'' in late manuscripts<ref>{{PM|Dwarves}}, p. 321 (footnote 19)</ref><ref name=VT48>{{VT|48a}}, pp. 6, 24</ref>) is composed of the stem ''[[Khazâd|KH-Z-D]]'', and the adjectival ending ''-ul'', which has the meaning similar to "-ish" or "-ian".{{fact}}
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 +
==Other names==
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 +
Other names used by [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] for the language of the Dwarves include:
 +
*'''''Khazadian'''''<ref>{{SD|Drowning}}, p. 414</ref>
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*'''''[[Aulëan|Aulian]]'''''<ref>{{HM|LR}}, pp. 179, 197</ref>
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*'''''Nauglian'''''<ref>{{HM|LR}}, pp. 197, 277</ref>
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*'''''Naukarin'''''<ref>{{PE|18}}, pp. 28-9, 81</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Influences==
 +
 
 +
It appears to be structured, like the Semitic languages, around triconsonantal roots: ''kh-z-d'', ''b-n-d'', ''z-g-l''.
 +
 
 +
The Dwarvish language sounds much like Hebrew, and indeed [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] noted some similarities between Dwarves and Jews: both were "at once natives and aliens in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue&hellip;".<ref>{{L|176}}</ref> Another reason Hebrew was chosen as a basis for Khuzdul is that it is unlike any of the European languages, and thus sufficiently alien to western ears to show just how different the Dwarven speech was from the Elvish languages.{{fact}}
  
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
==Portrayal in adaptations==
 
===Neo-Khuzdul===
 
===Neo-Khuzdul===
For ''[[The Lord of the Rings: The Motion Picture Trilogy]]'', the linguist [[David Salo]] used what little is known of the Khuzdul to create enough of a language for use in the movies. This is usually referred to as neo-Khuzdul by [[Tolkienists]].  
+
For [[The Lord of the Rings (film series)|''The Lord of the Rings'' (film series)]], the linguist [[David Salo]] used what little is known of the Khuzdul to create enough of a language for use in the movies. This is usually referred to as neo-Khuzdul by [[Tolkienists]].  
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
* [[Helge Kåre Fauskanger]], ''[http://www.uib.no/people/hnohf/khuzdul.htm Khuzdul]'', [[Ardalambion]]
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* [[Helge Fauskanger]], ''[http://www.uib.no/people/hnohf/khuzdul.htm Khuzdul]'', [[Ardalambion]]
 
*[[Magnus Åberg]], ''[http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/md_khuzdul.html An analysis of Dwarvish]'', [[Mellonath Daeron]]
 
*[[Magnus Åberg]], ''[http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/md_khuzdul.html An analysis of Dwarvish]'', [[Mellonath Daeron]]
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*Jay Lawson, ''[https://sites.google.com/site/quasikhuzdul/Home Quasi-Khuzdul]''
  
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}

Revision as of 16:42, 10 December 2012

"I shan't call it the end, till we've cleared up the mess." — Sam
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Khuzdul, or Dwarvish, was the secret language of the Dwarves.

Contents

History

It is said in The Silmarillion that Aulë, the creator of the first Dwarves, taught them "the language he had devised for them". Not much is known of the language, as the Dwarves kept it to themselves, except for their battle-cry: Baruk Khazâd! Khazâd ai-mênu! meaning Axes of the Dwarves! The Dwarves are upon you!

Among the languages, Khuzdul is unique in belonging to a separate language phylum, not related to the languages of Elves. Nevertheless there are many similarities between Khuzdul and the native tongues of men, such as Taliska, the language of the first and third houses of the Edain. This is because in the early days of Middle-earth, before Men crossed the mountains into Beleriand, they had contact with the Dwarves of the Blue Mountains and further East. Taliska was the ancestor of Adûnaic, the tongue of Númenor and the direct ancestor of the Common Speech, and both languages still had Khuzdul influences.

Etymology

The word Khuzdul (also spelled Khuzdûl in late manuscripts[1][2]) is composed of the stem KH-Z-D, and the adjectival ending -ul, which has the meaning similar to "-ish" or "-ian".[source?]

Other names

Other names used by Tolkien for the language of the Dwarves include:

Influences

It appears to be structured, like the Semitic languages, around triconsonantal roots: kh-z-d, b-n-d, z-g-l.

The Dwarvish language sounds much like Hebrew, and indeed Tolkien noted some similarities between Dwarves and Jews: both were "at once natives and aliens in their habitations, speaking the languages of the country, but with an accent due to their own private tongue…".[7] Another reason Hebrew was chosen as a basis for Khuzdul is that it is unlike any of the European languages, and thus sufficiently alien to western ears to show just how different the Dwarven speech was from the Elvish languages.[source?]

Portrayal in adaptations

Neo-Khuzdul

For The Lord of the Rings (film series), the linguist David Salo used what little is known of the Khuzdul to create enough of a language for use in the movies. This is usually referred to as neo-Khuzdul by Tolkienists.

External links

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men", p. 321 (footnote 19)
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part Two" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 48, December 2005, pp. 6, 24
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Three: The Drowning of Anadûnê, with the Third Version of The Fall of Númenor, and Lowdham's Report on the Adunaic Language", p. 414
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, pp. 179, 197
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, pp. 197, 277
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Tengwesta Qenderinwa and Pre-Fëanorian Alphabets Part 2", in Parma Eldalamberon XVIII (edited by Christopher Gilson, Arden R. Smith, and Patrick H. Wynne), pp. 28-9, 81
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 176, (dated 8 December 1955)