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King's Letter

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{{Footnotes}}
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{{font|[http://at.mansbjorkman.net/parmaite.htm Tengwar Parmaite] by [[Måns Björkman]]}}
 
The '''King's Letter''' was a letter sent by King [[Aragorn|Elessar]], to be published in an epilogue to ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', but this idea was dropped. It is the longest known sample of both [[Sindarin]] prose and [[Tengwar]].  
 
The '''King's Letter''' was a letter sent by King [[Aragorn|Elessar]], to be published in an epilogue to ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', but this idea was dropped. It is the longest known sample of both [[Sindarin]] prose and [[Tengwar]].  
  
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The omitted epilogue was finally published in ''[[Sauron Defeated]]'', and tells the story of [[Samwise Gamgee|Sam]] and his children in [[Fourth Age 16|the year 16]] of the [[Fourth Age]]. At this time, only eight of Sam's thirteen children are born, [[Daisy Gardner|Daisy]] being the youngest.  
 
The omitted epilogue was finally published in ''[[Sauron Defeated]]'', and tells the story of [[Samwise Gamgee|Sam]] and his children in [[Fourth Age 16|the year 16]] of the [[Fourth Age]]. At this time, only eight of Sam's thirteen children are born, [[Daisy Gardner|Daisy]] being the youngest.  
  
One night, Sam gathers his children around the fire to tell them of a letter he received, from King Elessar far away. It was black, the letters were golden, and it was wrapped in silk. In the letter, Elessar greets Samwise and his children, and tells them he will ride to the [[Fornost Erain|North]]. He would meet all those interested on the [[Brandywine Bridge]]. He would not enter [[the Shire]], as he himself banned Men from entering the Hobbits' land.  
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One night, Sam gathers his children around the fire to tell them of a letter he received, from King Elessar far away. It was black, the letters were golden, and it was wrapped in silk. In the letter, Elessar greets Samwise and his children, and tells them he will ride to the [[Fornost Erain|North]]. He would meet all those interested on the [[Brandywine Bridge]]. He would not enter [[the Shire]], as he himself banned Men from entering the Hobbits' land.
  
 
==Versions==
 
==Versions==
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==Significance==
 
==Significance==
 
===Tengwar===
 
===Tengwar===
These texts are the longest known examples of Sindarin Tengwar, and added several symbols to the alphabet. Comma's, colons, brackets and periods were previously unknown, and the third letter contained information on numnerals. Though numerals were already published in ''[[Quettar]]'', their order - left to right - was not. So 1436 and 16 appear as 6341 and 61 here.  
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These texts are the longest known examples of Sindarin Tengwar, and added several symbols to the alphabet. Comma's, colons, brackets and periods were previously unknown, and the third letter contained information on numerals.  
  
 
The letter also provided the correct tengwar for diphtongs. These are as following:
 
The letter also provided the correct tengwar for diphtongs. These are as following:
* '''AE''': written as ''[[yanta]]'' + /a/-[[tehtar|tehta]]
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* '''AE''': written as {{tg|lD}} ''[[yanta]]'' + /a/-[[tehtar|tehta]]
* '''AI''': written as ''[[anna]]'' + /a/-[[tehtar|tehta]]
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* '''AI''': written as {{tg|hD}} ''[[anna]]'' + /a/-tehta
* '''EI''': written as ''[[anna]]'' + /e/-[[tehtar|tehta]]
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* '''EI''': written as {{tg|hF}} ''[[anna]]'' + /e/-tehta
* '''IE''': written as /i/-short carrier amd the /e/ on top of the following consonant
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* '''IE''': written as {{tg|1B}} /i/-short carrier amd the /e/ on top of the following consonant
* '''UI''': written as ''[[anna]]'' + u-[[tehtar|tehta]]
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* '''UI''': written as {{tg|hJ}} ''[[anna]]'' + u-tehta
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Though numerals were already published in ''[[Quettar]]'' ([[1982#February|1982]]), the Letter employs a quite different shape for the characters<ref>Reconstructed and analyzed [http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/md_kl_num.html here] by [[Per Lindberg]]</ref>. We also see
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the order of the numerals - right to left. So 1436 and 16 appear as [6341] and [61] here.
  
 
===Sindarin===
 
===Sindarin===
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1 N.R. = {{SR|1420}} = {{TA|3020}} (not {{TA|3021}} as [[Christopher Tolkien]] suggests in a footnote).  
 
1 N.R. = {{SR|1420}} = {{TA|3020}} (not {{TA|3021}} as [[Christopher Tolkien]] suggests in a footnote).  
  
Note that this corresponds to the abandoned calendaric system displayed in PM which was abandoned and contradicts that of the Appendices were 31 echuir should represent [[24 February]].
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Note that this corresponds to the abandoned calendaric system displayed in ''The Peoples of Middle-earth'' which was abandoned and contradicts that of the Appendices were 31 echuir should represent [[24 February]].<ref>[[Andreas Moehn]] [http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Time.html The Reckoning of Time]</ref>
  
==References==
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{{references}}
* {{HM|SD}}, "[[The Epilogue]]"
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* {{SD|Epilogue}}
 
* [[Wayne G. Hammond]], [[Christina Scull]], ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator]]'', pages 201-2
 
* [[Wayne G. Hammond]], [[Christina Scull]], ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator]]'', pages 201-2
 
* [[J.R.R. Tolkien]], "The King's Letter", ([[Marquette University|Marquette]] MS Tolkien 3/9/35 1r), published in [[Vinyar Tengwar 29]] (May [[1993]]), cover  
 
* [[J.R.R. Tolkien]], "The King's Letter", ([[Marquette University|Marquette]] MS Tolkien 3/9/35 1r), published in [[Vinyar Tengwar 29]] (May [[1993]]), cover  
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* [[Carl F. Hostetter]], "The ''King's Letter'', An Historical and Comparative Analysis", published in [[Vinyar Tengwar 31]] (September [[1993]]), pages 12-34
 
* [[Carl F. Hostetter]], "The ''King's Letter'', An Historical and Comparative Analysis", published in [[Vinyar Tengwar 31]] (September [[1993]]), pages 12-34
  
[[Category:Books within the Legendarium]]
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[[Category:Books and documents within the legendarium]]

Revision as of 01:10, 21 January 2013

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Tengwar Parmaite by Måns Björkman

The King's Letter was a letter sent by King Elessar, to be published in an epilogue to The Lord of the Rings, but this idea was dropped. It is the longest known sample of both Sindarin prose and Tengwar.

Contents

Position in the story

The omitted epilogue was finally published in Sauron Defeated, and tells the story of Sam and his children in the year 16 of the Fourth Age. At this time, only eight of Sam's thirteen children are born, Daisy being the youngest.

One night, Sam gathers his children around the fire to tell them of a letter he received, from King Elessar far away. It was black, the letters were golden, and it was wrapped in silk. In the letter, Elessar greets Samwise and his children, and tells them he will ride to the North. He would meet all those interested on the Brandywine Bridge. He would not enter the Shire, as he himself banned Men from entering the Hobbits' land.

Versions

Three versions of the actual letter exist. The first and third were published with the epilogue in Sauron Defeated. The second version was first published as the cover image of Vinyar Tengwar 29, and later reproduced as image 199 in J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator.

First version

The first version is written in a vowel-mode which employs tengwar for vowels, like the Mode of Beleriand. The text goes:

Aragorn Strider The Elfstone, King of Gondor and Lord of the Westlands, will approach the Bridge of Baranduin on the eighth day of Spring, or in the Shire-reckoning the second day of April. And he desires to greet there all his friends. In especial he desires to see Maser Samwise, Mayor of the Shire, and Rose his wife; and Elanor, Rose, Goldilocks, and Daisy his daughters; and Frodo, Merry, Pippin and Hamfast his sons.
To Samwise and Rose the King's greeting from Minas Tirith, the thirty-first day of the Stirring, being the twenty-third of February in their reckoning.
A•E•
Elessar Telcontar: Aragorn Arathornion Edhelharn, aran Gondor ar Hîr i Mbair Annui, anglennatha i Varanduiniant erin dolothen Ethuil, egor ben genediad Drannail erin Gwirith edwen. Ar e aníra ennas suilannad mhellyn în phain: edregol e aníra tírad i Cherdir Perhael (i sennui Panthael estathar aen) Condir i Drann, ar Meril bess dîn, ar Elanor, Meril, Glorfinniel, ar Eirien sellath dîn; ar Iorhael, Gelir, Cordof, ar Baravorn, ionnath dîn.
A Pherhael ar am Meril suilad uin aran o Minas Tirith nelchaenen uin Echuir.
A•E•

The translation misses one line: (i sennui Panthael estathar aen). This translates as "who ought to be called Fullwise", referring to Samwise's name, meaning "Halfwise".

Second Version

This second version polishes up some minor mistakes and corrections in the first, but omits the date and place of the letter, and ar Arnor has been added after the first Gondor. It is also written in the vowel mode.

Third Version

This version, included in a second sketch of the epilogue, uses vowel-tehtar instead of the vowel-tengwar of the previous mode. The text itself is slightly different from the second version. The word order of the first sentence is changed, and in the postscript, the year is added: 1436 of the Shire Reckoning in the English version, and 16 in the Stewards' Reckoning. The signature, which could not exist of two vowels in this mode, is written Ar•El•

Significance

Tengwar

These texts are the longest known examples of Sindarin Tengwar, and added several symbols to the alphabet. Comma's, colons, brackets and periods were previously unknown, and the third letter contained information on numerals.

The letter also provided the correct tengwar for diphtongs. These are as following:

  • AE: written as lD
yanta + /a/-tehta
  • AI: written as hD
anna + /a/-tehta
  • EI: written as hF
anna + /e/-tehta
  • IE: written as 1B
/i/-short carrier amd the /e/ on top of the following consonant
  • UI: written as hJ
anna + u-tehta

Though numerals were already published in Quettar (1982), the Letter employs a quite different shape for the characters[1]. We also see the order of the numerals - right to left. So 1436 and 16 appear as [6341] and [61] here.

Sindarin

These texts show the use of various formation unknown prior to publication, such as the use of the gerund after another verb, word order, passive sentences, and various names.

The following Sindarin names appear in the versions of this letter:

  • Aragorn
  • Arathornion, "Arathornsson"
  • Edhelharn, "Elessar, Elfstone"
  • Perhael, "Samwise", though this had already appeared in the Ringbearer's Praise in the chapter The Field of Cormallen.
  • Panthael, "Fullwise"
  • Meril, "Rose". This name was used in early writings for the lady of Tol Eressëa, Meril-i-Turinqi.
  • Glorfinniel, "Goldilocks"
  • Eirien, "Daisy", reminiscient of Arien.
  • Iorhael, "Frodo". In the Ringbearer's Praise, Frodo Baggins was called Taur (lenited Daur) instead.
  • Gelir, "Merry"
  • Cordof, "Pippin"
  • Baravorn, "Hamfast"
  • i Drann, "The Shire"
  • i Varanduiniant, "Brandywine Bridge"

Calendar

The dating system of the letter is not described in the Appendices but can be found in the The Peoples of Middle-earth. It is a system where "dates were usually given in official documents by the Seasons, but the old month-names ... remained in private and popular use."

The "thirty-first day of Stirring" (echuir) of 16 N.R. represents 23 February of S.R. 1436; the "eighth day of Spring" (ethuil) 17 N.R. represents 2 April S.R. 1436.

1 N.R. = S.R. 1420 = T.A. 3020 (not T.A. 3021 as Christopher Tolkien suggests in a footnote).

Note that this corresponds to the abandoned calendaric system displayed in The Peoples of Middle-earth which was abandoned and contradicts that of the Appendices were 31 echuir should represent 24 February.[2]

References

  1. Reconstructed and analyzed here by Per Lindberg
  2. Andreas Moehn The Reckoning of Time

J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part One: The End of the Third Age: XI. The Epilogue"