Tolkien Gateway

La

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'''la''' or '''lá''' (whenever stressed)<ref>{{VT|42}}, p.33</ref> is a negation adverb meaning "no, not"
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'''''la''''' or '''''lá''''' (whenever stressed) is a negation adverb meaning "no, not".<ref name=VT42e>{{VT|42e}}, pp. 32-33</ref>
  
 
The word can get pronominal endings as if a negative verb when a verb is not expressed, apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood , as in English "I do not".
 
The word can get pronominal endings as if a negative verb when a verb is not expressed, apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood , as in English "I do not".
  
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
[[Sundocarmë|Root]] [[LA]]<ref>{{VT|45}}, p.25</ref>
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[[Sundocarmë|Root]] [[LA]]<ref>{{VT|45a}}, p. 25</ref>
 
==Forms==
 
==Forms==
 
*''ala, [[á]]la'' "do not!"
 
*''ala, [[á]]la'' "do not!"
 
**''ala[[lye]]''<ref>{{VT|43}}</ref>
 
**''ala[[lye]]''<ref>{{VT|43}}</ref>
 
**''ala[[me]]'' "do not to us"
 
**''ala[[me]]'' "do not to us"
*''la[[nye]]'' "I do not, am not" (''[[mel]]in [[sé]] [[apa]] '''lanye''' [[hé]]'' *“I love him but I do not him [that one]”)<ref>{{VT|49}}, p.15</ref>
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*''la[[nye]]'' "I do not, am not" (''[[mel]]in [[sé]] [[apa]] '''lanye''' [[hé]]'' *“I love him but I do not him [that one]”)<ref>{{VT|49a}}, p. 15</ref>
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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*''[[al-]]''
 
*''[[al-]]''
 
==Other versions==
 
==Other versions==
In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, ''lá'' had the opposite meaning "yes"<ref>{{VT|42}}, pp.32-33</ref>
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In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, ''lá'' had the opposite meaning "yes".<ref name=VT42e/>
  
 
Tolkien considered that the negation could receive tense markers however he later reconsidered it. The tenses where ''la'' was attested are:
 
Tolkien considered that the negation could receive tense markers however he later reconsidered it. The tenses where ''la'' was attested are:
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*''lauva'' (future)
 
*''lauva'' (future)
 
==Inspiration==
 
==Inspiration==
In Arabic languages, "no" is ''la'a'', although it is unknown if [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] thought of this connection.{{or}}
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In Arabic languages, "no" is ''la'a''. [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] said himself that this negative form "''appears in [[Wikipedia:Semitic languages|Semitic]]''".<ref name=VT42e/>
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:La}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:La}}
 
[[category:Quenya words]]
 
[[category:Quenya words]]

Revision as of 19:52, 15 June 2011

la or (whenever stressed) is a negation adverb meaning "no, not".[1]

The word can get pronominal endings as if a negative verb when a verb is not expressed, apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood , as in English "I do not".

Etymology

Root LA[2]

Forms

See also

Other versions

In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, had the opposite meaning "yes".[1]

Tolkien considered that the negation could receive tense markers however he later reconsidered it. The tenses where la was attested are:

  • la (aorist)
  • laia (present)
  • láne (past)
  • alaie (perfect)
  • lauva (future)

Inspiration

In Arabic languages, "no" is la'a. Tolkien said himself that this negative form "appears in Semitic".[1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Bill Welden, "Negation in Quenya", in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, pp. 32-33
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Addenda and Corrigenda to the Etymologies — Part One" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter and Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 45, November 2003, p. 25
  3. Vinyar Tengwar, Number 43, January 2002
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part Three" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 49, June 2007, p. 15