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La

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la or (whenever stressed)[1] is a negation adverb meaning "no, not"

The word can get pronominal endings as if a negative verb when a verb is not expressed, apparently where the phrase "is not" is followed by a noun or an adjective as a predicate, or where some verb is understood , as in English "I do not".

Etymology

Root LA[2]

Forms

See also

Other versions

In another conceptual phase of Tolkien's, had the opposite meaning "yes"[5]

Tolkien considered that the negation could receive tense markers however he later reconsidered it. The tenses where la was attested are:

  • la (aorist)
  • laia (present)
  • láne (past)
  • alaie (perfect)
  • lauva (future)

Inspiration

In Arabic languages, "no" is la'a, although it is unknown if Tolkien thought of this connection.Template:Or

References

  1. Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, p.33
  2. Vinyar Tengwar, Number 45, November 2003, p.25
  3. Vinyar Tengwar, Number 43, January 2002
  4. Vinyar Tengwar, Number 49, June 2007, p.15
  5. Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001, pp.32-33