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Lenition

(Difference between revisions)
(Historical background)
(Historical background)
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'''Lenition''' is a phonological and grammatical aspect of [[Sindarin]] which reflects the phonological mutations of the language in its evolution from [[Old Sindarin]].
 
'''Lenition''' is a phonological and grammatical aspect of [[Sindarin]] which reflects the phonological mutations of the language in its evolution from [[Old Sindarin]].
 
==Historical background==
 
==Historical background==
Lenition refers to the mutation of the consonants occurring usually between two vowels (VCV). It affected the Old Sindarin sounds '''p, t, k, b, d, g, m''' and '''s'''.  
+
Lenition refers to the mutation of medial consonants, occurring usually between two vowels (VCV). It affected the Old Sindarin sounds '''p, t, k, b, d, g, m''' and '''s'''.  
  
 
The sounds '''w, kh''' were lenited only at the beginning of a word.
 
The sounds '''w, kh''' were lenited only at the beginning of a word.
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*k > g: OS *''a'''k'''ar-'' > S ''[[agar]]'' "blood"
 
*k > g: OS *''a'''k'''ar-'' > S ''[[agar]]'' "blood"
  
*b > v: OS *''A'''b'''ar'' > S ''[[Avar]]'' "refuser; Avar"
+
*b > v: OS *''A'''b'''ar'' > S ''[[Avar]]'' "refuser; Avar"<ref group="note" name="Q">Similar softening occurred in [[Quenya]] also.</ref>
 
*d > dh: OS *''ba'''d'''ro'' > S ''[[badhor]]'' "brother"
 
*d > dh: OS *''ba'''d'''ro'' > S ''[[badhor]]'' "brother"
*g > -: OS *''
+
*g > -: OS *''jaga'' > *''jaȝa''<ref group="note">The intermediate stage of ''g'' to extinction was [[yogh]]</ref> > S ''[[iâ]]'' "abyss"<ref group="note" name="Q"/>
  
 
*m > v: OS *''ra'''m'''ia-'' > S ''[[revia-]]'' "to wander"
 
*m > v: OS *''ra'''m'''ia-'' > S ''[[revia-]]'' "to wander"
 +
*s > -: OS *''thelese'' > *''thelehe'' > S ''[[thele]]'' "sister"
 +
==Notes==
 +
<references group="note"/>
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Revision as of 16:49, 25 May 2011

"...there is much else that may be told." — Glóin
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Lenition is a phonological and grammatical aspect of Sindarin which reflects the phonological mutations of the language in its evolution from Old Sindarin.

Historical background

Lenition refers to the mutation of medial consonants, occurring usually between two vowels (VCV). It affected the Old Sindarin sounds p, t, k, b, d, g, m and s.

The sounds w, kh were lenited only at the beginning of a word.

More specifically, the evolution of these sounds can be visualized in these examples:

  • p > b: OS *capro > S cabor "frog"
  • t > d: OS *atar > S adar "father"
  • k > g: OS *akar- > S agar "blood"
  • m > v: OS *ramia- > S revia- "to wander"
  • s > -: OS *thelese > *thelehe > S thele "sister"

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Similar softening occurred in Quenya also.
  2. The intermediate stage of g to extinction was yogh

External links