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Lenition

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'''Lenition''' is a phonological and grammatical aspect of [[Sindarin]] which reflects the phonological mutations of the language in its evolution from [[Old Sindarin]].
 
'''Lenition''' is a phonological and grammatical aspect of [[Sindarin]] which reflects the phonological mutations of the language in its evolution from [[Old Sindarin]].
 
==Historical background==
 
==Historical background==
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More specifically, the evolution of these sounds can be visualized in these examples:
 
More specifically, the evolution of these sounds can be visualized in these examples:
*p > b: OS *''ca'''p'''ro'' > S ''[[cabor]]'' "frog"
+
;p > b: OS *''kele'''p'''e'' > S ''[[celeb]]'' "silver"
*t > d: OS *''a'''t'''ar'' > S ''[[adar]]'' "father"
+
;t > d: OS *''a'''t'''ar'' > S ''[[adar]]'' "father"
*k > g: OS *''a'''k'''ar-'' > S ''[[agar]]'' "blood"
+
;k > g: OS ''[[beleka|bele'''k'''a]]'' > S ''[[beleg]]'' "great"
  
*b > v: OS *''A'''b'''ar'' > S ''[[Avar]]'' "refuser; Avar"<ref group="note" name="Q">Similar softening occurred in [[Quenya]] also.</ref>
+
;b > v: OS *''ja'''b'''asse'' > S ''[[Iavas]]'' "autumn"<ref group="note" name="Q">Similar softening occurred in [[Quenya]] also.</ref>
*d > dh: OS *''ba'''d'''ro'' > S ''[[badhor]]'' "brother"
+
;d > dh: OS *''ba'''d'''ro'' > S ''[[badhor]]'' "brother"
*g > -: OS *''jaga'' > *''jaȝa''<ref group="note">The intermediate stage of ''g'' to extinction was [[yogh]]</ref> > S ''[[]]'' "abyss"<ref group="note" name="Q"/>
+
;g > : OS *''khu'''g'''o'' > *''huȝo''<ref group="note">The intermediate stage of ''g'' to extinction was [[yogh]]</ref> > S ''[[]]'' "dog"<ref group="note" name="Q"/>
  
*m > v: OS *''ra'''m'''ia-'' > S ''[[revia-]]'' "to wander"
+
;m > v: OS *''ra'''m'''ia-'' > S ''[[revia-]]'' "to wander"
*s > -: OS *''thelese'' > *''thelehe'' > S ''[[thele]]'' "sister"
+
;s > : OS *''thele'''s'''e'' > *''thelehe'' > S ''[[thele]]'' "sister"
==Notes==
+
 
<references group="note"/>
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;w- > gw-: OS ''[[wende|'''w'''ende]]'' > S ''[[gwend]]'' "maiden"
 +
;kh- > h-: OS *'''''kh'''anda'' > S ''[[hand]]'' "intelligence"
 +
 
 +
==In compounds==
 +
As a consequence, this process took place also in Old Sindarin compounds, when the initial letter of a word was no longer initial in a compound. Even in later compounds that would be pure Sindarin, the lenition was solidified as a rule, envisioning retroactively the lenition process from a theoretical Old Sindarin compound.
 +
 
 +
For example the word ''[[athrabeth]]'' "debate, converse (lit. 'across-word')" can be analyzed both as a derivative of OS word *''athra'''p'''ettha'' but also as a compound of Sindarin words ''[[athra-]]'' "across" + [[peth]]'' "word".
 +
 
 +
The fact that the above sounds mutated when medially was solidified as a rule
 +
*[[thind]] + [[coll|'''c'''oll]] > [[Thingol]] (< ?OS *''Thinda'''k'''ollo'')
 +
*[[cair]] + [[tân|'''t'''ân]] > [[Cirdan]] (< ?OS *''Kiria'''t'''âno'')
 +
*[[fanui]] + [[dol|'''d'''ol]] > [[Fanuidhol]] (< ?OS *''Fanoi'''d'''olo'')
 +
*[[Edhel]] + [[sarn|'''s'''arn]] > [[Edhelharn]] (< ?OS *''Edelo'''s'''arno'')
 +
*[[harad|har-]] + [[Gondor|'''G'''ondor]] > [[Harondor]] (< ?OS *''Khara'''g'''onddor'')
 +
*[[ar|ar-]] + [[gwend|'''g'''wend]] > [[Arwen]] (< ?OS *''Arwende''; no ''g'' would evolve between ''ar-'' and ''wende'')
 +
*[[or-]] + [[hall|'''h'''all]] > [[orchal]] (< ?OS *''orkhalna''; ''kh'' would not lenite as ''h'' inside a word)
 +
==Grammatical and Syntactical significance==
 +
{{stub}}
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==Inspiration==
 +
Sindarin, being inspired from the Welsh language, also borrowed heavily from its [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_morphology#Initial_consonant_mutation mutation system]<Ref>[[Jim Allan]] (ed.) ''[[An Introduction to Elvish]]'' "Sindarin grammar"</ref>. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenition#Grammatical_lenition grammatical lenition] is generally prominent in the [[Celtic]] languages.
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
 
*[http://www.phy.duke.edu/~trenk/elvish/mutations.html Mutations in Sindarin] by [[Thorsten Renk]]; it also covers Lenition.
 
*[http://www.phy.duke.edu/~trenk/elvish/mutations.html Mutations in Sindarin] by [[Thorsten Renk]]; it also covers Lenition.
 
*[http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/sindarin.htm#mutations Soft mutation] from the [[Ardalambion]] article on Sindarin by [[Helge Fauskanger]]
 
*[http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/sindarin.htm#mutations Soft mutation] from the [[Ardalambion]] article on Sindarin by [[Helge Fauskanger]]
 +
*[http://www.fa-kuan.muc.de/SINDARIN.RXML Some Questions on Sindarin Lenition] by Alfred W. Tueting
 +
{{references|note}}
 
[[Category:Linguistic terms]]
 
[[Category:Linguistic terms]]
 
[[Category:Sindarin]]
 
[[Category:Sindarin]]

Latest revision as of 12:38, 5 November 2012

Lenition is a phonological and grammatical aspect of Sindarin which reflects the phonological mutations of the language in its evolution from Old Sindarin.

Contents

[edit] Historical background

Lenition refers to the mutation of medial consonants, occurring usually between two vowels (VCV). It affected the Old Sindarin sounds p, t, k, b, d, g, m and s.

The sounds w, kh were lenited only at the beginning of a word.

More specifically, the evolution of these sounds can be visualized in these examples:

p > b
OS *kelepe > S celeb "silver"
t > d
OS *atar > S adar "father"
k > g
OS beleka > S beleg "great"
b > v
OS *jabasse > S Iavas "autumn"[note 1]
d > dh
OS *badro > S badhor "brother"
g > ∅
OS *khugo > *huȝo[note 2] > S "dog"[note 1]
m > v
OS *ramia- > S revia- "to wander"
s > ∅
OS *thelese > *thelehe > S thele "sister"
w- > gw-
OS wende > S gwend "maiden"
kh- > h-
OS *khanda > S hand "intelligence"

[edit] In compounds

As a consequence, this process took place also in Old Sindarin compounds, when the initial letter of a word was no longer initial in a compound. Even in later compounds that would be pure Sindarin, the lenition was solidified as a rule, envisioning retroactively the lenition process from a theoretical Old Sindarin compound.

For example the word athrabeth "debate, converse (lit. 'across-word')" can be analyzed both as a derivative of OS word *athrapettha but also as a compound of Sindarin words athra- "across" + peth "word".

The fact that the above sounds mutated when medially was solidified as a rule

[edit] Grammatical and Syntactical significance

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[edit] Inspiration

Sindarin, being inspired from the Welsh language, also borrowed heavily from its mutation system[1]. The grammatical lenition is generally prominent in the Celtic languages.

[edit] External links

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Similar softening occurred in Quenya also.
  2. The intermediate stage of g to extinction was yogh

[edit] References

  1. Jim Allan (ed.) An Introduction to Elvish "Sindarin grammar"