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Long Winter

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==History==
 
==History==
 
===Rohan===
 
===Rohan===
King [[Helm Hammerhand]] was trapped in the [[Hornburg]], where he was forced to make desperate raids on the Dunlendings led by [[Wulf]] in order to get food. Gondor was unable to send help as its coasts and east flank were under attack. In the north the people of [[Arnor]] also suffered greatly, dying of hunger.
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In {{TA|2758}}, [[Easterlings]] and [[Dunlendings]] (led by [[Wulf]]) attacked [[Rohan]] from both the north-west and east; not only was [[Gondor]] unable to help due its war with the [[Corsairs of Umbar|Corsairs]], but the Dunlendings were strengthened with the enemies of Gondor who had travelled up the rivers [[Isen]] and [[Lefnui]]. The [[Rohirrim]] were defeated; [[Kings of Rohan|King]] [[Helm Hammerhand]]'s son, [[Haleth (son of Helm)|Haleth]], was killed; and Wulf sat in [[Meduseld]] declaring himself King.<ref name="Eorl"/>
  
The winter ended in March T.A. 2759, when great floods of smeltwater allowed Helm's nephew [[Fréaláf Hildeson]] to oust the Dunlendings from Rohan, and Gondor now could come for help so that Rohan was soon cleared.
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The Long Winter compounded the problems: Rohan was under snow for five months with both the Rohirrim and their enemies suffering grievously from famine. Meanwhile, King Helm took refuge in the [[Hornburg]] and the ravine behind (becoming known as [[Helm's Deep]]): at [[Yule]] a great counsel was held, and, against the King's advice, [[Háma]], Helm's younger son, went out in a sortie and was lost in the snow. King Helm himself would secretly go out to enemy camps, clad in white, and slay many men with his bare hands - before he left he would always blow his great horn, striking fear into the hearts of his enemies. One day, the men heard Helm's great horn blowing in the [[Deeping-coomb]], but when they came to him, they saw that he had died, standing upright.<ref name="Eorl"/>
  
===Gondor===
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Come March {{TA|2759}}, the Long Winter ended and [[Fréaláf Hildeson]], Helm's sister-son and new King of Rohan, came from [[Dunharrow]] and took back [[Edoras]], catching the Dunlendings unaware and killing [[Wulf]]; the Dunlendings and Easterlings were driven out of Rohan (including [[Isengard]]), or else they had perished. The melted snow caused great floods with the [[Entwash]] becoming a vast fen; and in the spring, once [[Beregond (Steward of Gondor)|Beregond]], son of [[Stewards of Gondor|Steward]] [[Beren (Steward of Gondor)|Beren]], had defeated the invaders from the south, [[Gondor]] sent aid to [[Rohan]].
Although the Long Winter did not affect [[Gondor]] directly, it did have an indirect affect. In {{TA|2758}}, fleets of [[Corsairs of Umbar|Corsairs]] and [[Haradrim]] began to assail the coasts of Gondor as far north as the mouth of the [[Isen|River Isen]];<ref name="Stewards">{{App|Stewards}}</ref> due to the dual perils of the Long Winter and the war with the Dunlendings, the [[Rohirrim]] were unable to send help.<ref name="Elendil">{{PM|Elendil}}, p. 205</ref>
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Due to Rohan's weakness, Beren gives keys to Orthanc to Saurman (2759)
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===Gondor===
 +
Although the Long Winter did not affect [[Gondor]] directly, it did have an indirect affect: in {{TA|2758}}, three fleets<ref name="Eorl"/> of [[Corsairs of Umbar|Corsairs]] and [[Haradrim]] began to assail the coasts of Gondor as far north as the [[Isen|River Isen]];<ref name="Steward">{{App|Stewards}}</ref> due to the dual perils of the Long Winter and the war with the Dunlendings, the [[Rohirrim]] were unable to send help.<ref name="Elendil">{{PM|Elendil}}, p. 205</ref>
  
Gondor sends aid in the spring.
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After [[Beregond (Steward of Gondor)|Beregond]] had defeated the invaders, Gondor began to recover to its former power. However, in {{TA|2758}}, seeing [[Rohan]]'s weakness, the [[Stewards of Gondor|Steward]], [[Beren (Steward of Gondor)|Beren]] gave the keys to [[Orthanc]] to the [[Wizards|wizard]] [[Saruman]].<ref name="Steward">{{App|Stewards}}</ref>
  
 
===The Shire===
 
===The Shire===
It is told in both the [[Appendix B|Tale of Years]] and the [[The Lord of the Rings Prologue|Prologue]] that the Long Winter resulted in the deaths of many thousands of [[Hobbits]] in [[The Shire]].<ref name="Prologue">{{FR|Hobbits}}</ref> Although [[Gandalf]] came to the aid of the Hobbits,<ref name="B">{{App|B2}}</ref> a dreadful famine followed the Long Winter, known as the [[Days of Dearth]], which lasted into {{TA|2960}}.
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It is told in both [[Appendix B|The Tale of Years]] and the [[The Lord of the Rings Prologue|Prologue]] that the Long Winter resulted in the deaths of many thousands of [[Hobbits]] in [[The Shire]].<ref name="Prologue">{{FR|Hobbits}}</ref> Although the [[Wizards|wizard]] [[Gandalf]] came to the aid of the Hobbits,<ref name="B">{{App|B2}}</ref> a dreadful famine followed the Long Winter, known as the [[Days of Dearth]], which lasted into {{TA|2960}}.
  
The Long Winter had a more indirect effect on the history of The Shire, [[The One Ring]] and [[Middle-earth]]: it was during the Long Winter that Gandalf first became fond of [[Hobbits]] and their affairs, which indirectly led to Gandalf's selection of [[Bilbo Baggins]] to go on the [[Quest of Erebor]]:
+
The Long Winter had a more indirect effect on the history of The Shire, [[The One Ring]] and [[Middle-earth]]: it was during the Long Winter that Gandalf first became fond of [[Hobbits]] and their affairs, which indirectly led to Gandalf's selection of [[Bilbo Baggins]] to go on the [[The Hobbit#Synopsis|Quest of Erebor]]:  
{{quote|<nowiki>'</nowiki>And then there was the Shire-folk. I began to have a warm place in my heart for them in the Long Winter, which none of you can remember. They were very hard put to it then: one of the worst pinches they have been in, dying of cold, and starving in the dreadful dearth that followed. But that was the time to see their courage, and their pity one for another. It was by their pity as much as their tough uncomplaining courage that they survived. I wanted them to survive. [...] And anyway you must begin at some point, with some on person. I dare say he was "chosen" and I was only chosen to choose him; but I picked out Bilbo.<nowiki>'</nowiki>|[[Gandalf]] speaking to [[Pippin]]<ref name="UT">{{UT|Erebor}}</ref><ref name="Annotated Hobbit">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]] and [[Douglas A. Anderson]], ''[[The Annotated Hobbit]]'', "Appendix A. The Quest of Erebor", p. 370</ref>}}
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{{quote|<nowiki>'</nowiki>And then there was the Shire-folk. I began to have a warm place in my heart for them in the Long Winter, which none of you can remember. They were very hard put to it then: one of the worst pinches they have been in, dying of cold, and starving in the dreadful dearth that followed. But that was the time to see their courage, and their pity one for another. It was by their pity as much as their tough uncomplaining courage that they survived. I wanted them to survive. [...] And anyway you must begin at some point, with some on person. I dare say he was "chosen" and I was only chosen to choose him; but I picked out Bilbo.<nowiki>'</nowiki>|[[Gandalf]] speaking to [[Peregrin Took|Pippin]]<ref name="UT">{{UT|Erebor}}</ref><ref name="Annotated Hobbit">[[J.R.R. Tolkien]] and [[Douglas A. Anderson]], ''[[The Annotated Hobbit]]'', "Appendix A. The Quest of Erebor", p. 370</ref>}}
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[Fell Winter (Third Age)|Fell Winter]] ({{TA|2911}}-[[Third Age 2912|2912]])
 
*[[Fell Winter (Third Age)|Fell Winter]] ({{TA|2911}}-[[Third Age 2912|2912]])

Revision as of 19:54, 1 September 2010

Long Winter
Event
LocationEriador, Dunland, Rohan
DateNovember to March, T.A. 2758 - 2759
ResultThousands of lives lost in Rohan and The Shire
ParticipantsHobbits, Dunlendings, Rohirrim
DescriptionLong, cold winter; Rohan covered in snow for five months
The Long Winter (November T.A. 2758 to March 2759[1]) was an extremely cold and long-lasting winter in Middle-earth, covering Eriador, Dunland and Rohan.

Contents

History

Rohan

In T.A. 2758, Easterlings and Dunlendings (led by Wulf) attacked Rohan from both the north-west and east; not only was Gondor unable to help due its war with the Corsairs, but the Dunlendings were strengthened with the enemies of Gondor who had travelled up the rivers Isen and Lefnui. The Rohirrim were defeated; King Helm Hammerhand's son, Haleth, was killed; and Wulf sat in Meduseld declaring himself King.[1]

The Long Winter compounded the problems: Rohan was under snow for five months with both the Rohirrim and their enemies suffering grievously from famine. Meanwhile, King Helm took refuge in the Hornburg and the ravine behind (becoming known as Helm's Deep): at Yule a great counsel was held, and, against the King's advice, Háma, Helm's younger son, went out in a sortie and was lost in the snow. King Helm himself would secretly go out to enemy camps, clad in white, and slay many men with his bare hands - before he left he would always blow his great horn, striking fear into the hearts of his enemies. One day, the men heard Helm's great horn blowing in the Deeping-coomb, but when they came to him, they saw that he had died, standing upright.[1]

Come March T.A. 2759, the Long Winter ended and Fréaláf Hildeson, Helm's sister-son and new King of Rohan, came from Dunharrow and took back Edoras, catching the Dunlendings unaware and killing Wulf; the Dunlendings and Easterlings were driven out of Rohan (including Isengard), or else they had perished. The melted snow caused great floods with the Entwash becoming a vast fen; and in the spring, once Beregond, son of Steward Beren, had defeated the invaders from the south, Gondor sent aid to Rohan.

Gondor

Although the Long Winter did not affect Gondor directly, it did have an indirect affect: in T.A. 2758, three fleets[1] of Corsairs and Haradrim began to assail the coasts of Gondor as far north as the River Isen;[2] due to the dual perils of the Long Winter and the war with the Dunlendings, the Rohirrim were unable to send help.[3]

After Beregond had defeated the invaders, Gondor began to recover to its former power. However, in T.A. 2758, seeing Rohan's weakness, the Steward, Beren gave the keys to Orthanc to the wizard Saruman.[2]

The Shire

It is told in both The Tale of Years and the Prologue that the Long Winter resulted in the deaths of many thousands of Hobbits in The Shire.[4] Although the wizard Gandalf came to the aid of the Hobbits,[5] a dreadful famine followed the Long Winter, known as the Days of Dearth, which lasted into T.A. 2960.

The Long Winter had a more indirect effect on the history of The Shire, The One Ring and Middle-earth: it was during the Long Winter that Gandalf first became fond of Hobbits and their affairs, which indirectly led to Gandalf's selection of Bilbo Baggins to go on the Quest of Erebor:

"'And then there was the Shire-folk. I began to have a warm place in my heart for them in the Long Winter, which none of you can remember. They were very hard put to it then: one of the worst pinches they have been in, dying of cold, and starving in the dreadful dearth that followed. But that was the time to see their courage, and their pity one for another. It was by their pity as much as their tough uncomplaining courage that they survived. I wanted them to survive. [...] And anyway you must begin at some point, with some on person. I dare say he was "chosen" and I was only chosen to choose him; but I picked out Bilbo.'"
Gandalf speaking to Pippin[6][7]

See Also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The House of Eorl"
  2. 2.0 2.1 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A, "The Númenorean Kings", "Gondor and the Heirs of Anárion", "The Stewards"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Heirs of Elendil", p. 205
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue", "Concerning Hobbits"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix B, "The Third Age"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Quest of Erebor"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien and Douglas A. Anderson, The Annotated Hobbit, "Appendix A. The Quest of Erebor", p. 370