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Mannish

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A term to refer to the languages of [[Men]], as opposed to the [[Elvish]] tongues, or those of the other races of [[Middle-earth]]. By far the most prominent Mannish languageis [[Westron]], also called the [[Common Speech]].
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{{sources}}
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'''Mannish''' is a term used to refer to the languages of [[Men]], as opposed to the [[Elvish]] tongues, or those of the other races of [[Middle-earth]]. By far the most prominent Mannish language was [[Westron]].
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==History==
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Languages of Men started in [[Hildórien]]. When the [[Edain]] divided to migrate to the west. The groups that would eventually be known as [[House of Bëor]] and [[House of Hador|House of Marach]], used [[Taliska|one language]]. The third tribe, that wold be later known as the [[House of Haleth]], used an unrelated tongue.
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During the march, the tribes left behind various descendants in [[Eriador]] who continued their languages. In [[Beleriand]] the House of Beor quickly adopted [[Sindarin]]. However the language of Hador retained and was influenced by [[Khuzdul]].<ref>{{PM|Dwarves}}</ref>
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The language of the [[House of Hador]] during the [[Second Age]] evolved into [[Adûnaic]].<ref>{{SD|Notion}}</ref> Meanwhile the descendants of the First Age in the Westlands became the [[Éothéod]] from whom ultimately derives the [[Rohirric]] language. The language of the House of Haleth also left descendants that were known as [[Pre-Númenórean]] languages.<ref name="Drú">{{UT|Druedain}}</ref><ref name="AppF"/>
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Early Adûnaic mingled with many words of the languages of lesser men and became a Common Speech that spread thence along the coasts among all that had dealings with Westernesse<ref name="AppF">{{App|F}}</ref>.
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After the Downfall, the faithful considered Sindarin their mother tongue and used the Common Speech in their dealings with other folk and in the government of their wide realms; but they enlarged the language and enriched it with many words drawn from the Elven-tongues.<ref name="AppF"/>
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==Schematic==
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*Languages of the First and Third Houses of the [[Atanatári]]
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**[[Taliska]] (two dialects; [[House of Bëor|Beor]] and [[House of Hador|Hador]])
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***[[Adûnaic]]
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****Black Adûnaic of [[Black Númenóreans]]
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****[[Westron]] or "Common Speech" (influenced by [[Sindarin]], and languages of [[Eriador]])
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*****[[Hobbitish]] (influenced by languages of [[Northmen]])
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**Languages of [[Middle Men]] of [[Eriador]] during the [[Second Age]]
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**Languages of [[Northmen]]
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***[[Dalish]]
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***[[Rohirric]]
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*Language of the Second House of the Atanatári (see [[Pre-Númenórean]])
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**[[Haladin]] language
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**[[Dunlendish]]
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*[[Drúedain|Drûg]] languages
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**Language of the Drúedain of [[Brethil]]
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**Language of the Woses of [[Drúadan Forest]]
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*Many [[Haradrim|Haradric]] languages
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*Many tongues of [[Easterlings]]
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==Translation==
 
==Translation==
 
Tolkien used real-life languages and names to present Mannish. The most known example is Westron, which is always replaced with modern English.  
 
Tolkien used real-life languages and names to present Mannish. The most known example is Westron, which is always replaced with modern English.  
  
This logic went one step further by also presenting all languages akin to Westron in languages related to English, so that their "understandability" by the protagonists is simulated to the English reader. Since English belongs to the germanic family, most names Tolkien uses are germanic (Norse, Gothic etc) with some celtic exceptions.  
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This logic went one step further by also presenting all languages akin to Westron in languages related to English, so that their "understandability" by the protagonists is simulated to the English reader. Since English belongs to the Germanic family, most names Tolkien used are Germanic ([[Norse]], [[Gothic]], et cetera) with some Celtic exceptions.  
  
*[[Rohirric]], the language of the [[Rohirrim]] was replaced by Anglo-Saxon, as Rohirric is an archaic relative of Westron, much as Anglo-Saxon is an archaic relative of English;  
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*Ancient names related to '''[[Rhovanion (Realm)|Rhovanion]]''' (such as "[[Vidugavia]]") are '''[[Gothic]],'''' indicating a relationship to Dalish but not recognizable by Westron.
*The tongue of [[Dale]] (from which came the names of the [[Dwarves]] of [[Durin's Folk]]), was translated into Old Norse, a language related to Anglo-Saxon and modern English as Dalish was related to Rohirric and Westron;  
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*'''[[Rohirric]]''', the language of the [[Rohirrim]] was replaced by '''[[Old English]]''', as Rohirric is an archaic relative of Westron, much as Anglo-Saxon is an archaic relative of English;  
*The hobbit names of the [[Stoors]], [[Buckland]] as well as some [[Bree-land]] names are Celtic;
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*The '''[[Dalish]]''', the tongue of [[Dale]] (from which came the names of the [[Dwarves]] of [[Durin's Folk]]), was translated into '''Old Norse''', a language related to Anglo-Saxon and modern English as Dalish was related to Rohirric and Westron;  
*Few "heathen" names related to [[Rhovanion]] (such as "[[Vidugavia]]") are Gothic, indicating a relationship to Dalish but not recognisable by Westron.
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*The '''[[hobbitish]]''' names of the [[Stoors]], [[Buckland]] as well as some [[Bree-land]] names are '''[[Celtic]]''';
  
Mannish languages unrelated to Westron that sounded alien to the protagonists, were left in their "genuine" form.
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Mannish languages unrelated to Westron that sounded alien to the protagonists (such as [[Dunlendish]]), were left in their "genuine" form.
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
*[http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/mannish.htm Various Mannish languages] in [[Ardalambion]] (discusses their genuine forms)
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*[[Helge Fauskanger]], "[http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/mannish.htm Various Mannish languages]", [[Ardalambion]]  
[[Category:Languages]]
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*[[Andreas Möhn]], "[http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Fr_Atani.html Etymologies of Atani languages]", Lalaith's Science Pages
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{{references}}
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[[Category:Mannish| ]]
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[[fr:langues/langues humaines]]

Revision as of 09:26, 27 September 2012

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Mannish is a term used to refer to the languages of Men, as opposed to the Elvish tongues, or those of the other races of Middle-earth. By far the most prominent Mannish language was Westron.

Contents

History

Languages of Men started in Hildórien. When the Edain divided to migrate to the west. The groups that would eventually be known as House of Bëor and House of Marach, used one language. The third tribe, that wold be later known as the House of Haleth, used an unrelated tongue.

During the march, the tribes left behind various descendants in Eriador who continued their languages. In Beleriand the House of Beor quickly adopted Sindarin. However the language of Hador retained and was influenced by Khuzdul.[1]

The language of the House of Hador during the Second Age evolved into Adûnaic.[2] Meanwhile the descendants of the First Age in the Westlands became the Éothéod from whom ultimately derives the Rohirric language. The language of the House of Haleth also left descendants that were known as Pre-Númenórean languages.[3][4]

Early Adûnaic mingled with many words of the languages of lesser men and became a Common Speech that spread thence along the coasts among all that had dealings with Westernesse[4].

After the Downfall, the faithful considered Sindarin their mother tongue and used the Common Speech in their dealings with other folk and in the government of their wide realms; but they enlarged the language and enriched it with many words drawn from the Elven-tongues.[4]

Schematic

Translation

Tolkien used real-life languages and names to present Mannish. The most known example is Westron, which is always replaced with modern English.

This logic went one step further by also presenting all languages akin to Westron in languages related to English, so that their "understandability" by the protagonists is simulated to the English reader. Since English belongs to the Germanic family, most names Tolkien used are Germanic (Norse, Gothic, et cetera) with some Celtic exceptions.

  • Ancient names related to Rhovanion (such as "Vidugavia") are Gothic,' indicating a relationship to Dalish but not recognizable by Westron.
  • Rohirric, the language of the Rohirrim was replaced by Old English, as Rohirric is an archaic relative of Westron, much as Anglo-Saxon is an archaic relative of English;
  • The Dalish, the tongue of Dale (from which came the names of the Dwarves of Durin's Folk), was translated into Old Norse, a language related to Anglo-Saxon and modern English as Dalish was related to Rohirric and Westron;
  • The hobbitish names of the Stoors, Buckland as well as some Bree-land names are Celtic;

Mannish languages unrelated to Westron that sounded alien to the protagonists (such as Dunlendish), were left in their "genuine" form.

External links

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Sauron Defeated, "Part Two: The Notion Club Papers"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Drúedain"
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F