A term to refer to the languages of Men, as opposed to the Elvish tongues, or those of the other races of Middle-earth. By far the most prominent Mannish languageis Westron, also called the Common Speech.
Most Mannish names are presented by Tolkien in real-life languages. The most known example is Westron, which is always translated into modern English.
This logic went one step further by also presenting all languages akin to Westron in languages related to English, so that their "understandability" by the protagonists be simulated to the English reader.
- Rohirric, the language of the Rohirrim was translated by Anglo-Saxon, as Rohirric is an archaic relative of Westron, much as Anglo-Saxon is an archaic relative of English;
- The tongue of Dale (from which came the names of the Dwarves of Durin's Folk), was translated into Old Norse, a language related to Anglo-Saxon and modern English as Dalish was related to Rohirric and Westron;
- The hobbit names of the Stoors, Buckland as well as some Bree-land names are Celtic;
- Few "heathen" names related to Rhovanion (such as "Vidugavia") are Gothic, indicating a relationship to Dalish.
Mannish languages unrelated to Westron, were left in their "genuine" form.