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As for the later legendarium, [[The Shire]] not only was conceptually based on rural England<ref>{{L|190}}</ref> but also was expressly stated to be "in this region"<ref name=L211>{{L|211}}</ref>, "the North-West of the [[Wikipedia:Old World|Old World]], east of the Sea".<ref>{{FR|Prologue}}</ref>  
 
As for the later legendarium, [[The Shire]] not only was conceptually based on rural England<ref>{{L|190}}</ref> but also was expressly stated to be "in this region"<ref name=L211>{{L|211}}</ref>, "the North-West of the [[Wikipedia:Old World|Old World]], east of the Sea".<ref>{{FR|Prologue}}</ref>  
  
[[File:Didier Willis - Middle-earth and Europe_projection.png|thumb|left|Experimental projection of the Westlands over Europe (by [[Didier Willis]])]]
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[[File:Didier Willis - Middle-earth and Europe_projection.png|thumb|left|Experimental projection of the Westlands over Europe]]
Concerning the Shire, Tolkien stated that he intended it to correspond about to the latitude of [[Oxford]], which would result to other Middle-earth locations to correspond (but not necessarily equate with) real-life locations. For instance, [[Minas Tirith]] would fall to about the latitude of [[Wikipedia:Florence|Florence]], and [[Pelargir]] and the mouths of Anduin to that of ancient [[Wikipedia:Troy|Troy]].<ref>{{L|294}}</ref> According to the annotations provided by [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] to [[Pauline Baynes]], Hobbiton is again approximately at the same latitude as Oxford, and Minas Tirith is about the latitude of [[wikipedia:Ravenna|Ravenna]]. The bottom of the map is about the latitude of [[wikipedia:Jerusalem|Jerusalem]], and [[Umbar]] about that of [[wikipedia:Cyprus|Cyprus]]. Minas Tirith, being approximately 900 miles east of Hobbiton, is located near [[wikipedia:Belgrade|Belgrade]].<ref>''The Guardian'', 23 October 2015, "[http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/oct/23/jrr-tolkien-middle-earth-annotated-map-blackwells-lord-of-the-rings  Tolkien's annotated map of Middle-earth discovered inside copy of Lord of the Rings]". An analysis of the map may also be found in "[http://www.tolkiendil.com/essais/geographie/carte_tolkien_baynes  Découverte d'une carte de la Terre du Milieu annotée par Tolkien pour Pauline Baynes]" (in French, with deciphered annotations also being provided in English).</ref>
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Concerning the Shire, Tolkien stated that he intended it to correspond about to the latitude of [[Oxford]], which would result to other Middle-earth locations to correspond (but not necessarily equate with) real-life locations. For instance, [[Minas Tirith]] would fall to about the latitude of [[Wikipedia:Florence|Florence]], and [[Pelargir]] and the mouths of Anduin to that of ancient [[Wikipedia:Troy|Troy]].<ref>{{L|294}}</ref> This enabled [[Andreas Moehn]] to make more correspondences, and even project the [[Westlands]] on a real map of Europe.<ref>{{webcite|website=Lalaith|articleurl=http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Grid.html|articlename=A Meridional Grid on the Middle-Earth Map|author=[[Andreas Moehn]]}}</ref>
  
Based on this information, it was made possible to make more correspondences, and even project the [[Westlands]] on a real map of Europe.<ref>{{webcite|website=Lalaith|articleurl=http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Grid.html|articlename=A Meridional Grid on the Middle-Earth Map|author=[[Andreas Moehn]]}}</ref>
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According to the annotations provided by [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] to [[Pauline Baynes]], Hobbiton is again approximately at the same latitude as Oxford, and Minas Tirith is about the latitude of [[wikipedia:Ravenna|Ravenna]]. The bottom of the map is about the latitude of [[wikipedia:Jerusalem|Jerusalem]], and [[Umbar]] about that of [[wikipedia:Cyprus|Cyprus]]. Minas Tirith, being approximately 900 miles east of Hobbiton, is located near [[wikipedia:Belgrade|Belgrade]].<ref>''The Guardian'', 23 October 2015, "[http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/oct/23/jrr-tolkien-middle-earth-annotated-map-blackwells-lord-of-the-rings  Tolkien's annotated map of Middle-earth discovered inside copy of Lord of the Rings]". An analysis of the map may also be found in "[http://www.tolkiendil.com/essais/geographie/carte_tolkien_baynes  Découverte d'une carte de la Terre du Milieu annotée par Tolkien pour Pauline Baynes]" (in French, with deciphered annotations also being provided in English).</ref>
  
 
On the other hand, Tolkien designed his maps to accommodate the mythology, and was conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth, as understood by contemporary archaeology and historical geology.<ref>{{L|169}}</ref><ref name=L211/>
 
On the other hand, Tolkien designed his maps to accommodate the mythology, and was conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth, as understood by contemporary archaeology and historical geology.<ref>{{L|169}}</ref><ref name=L211/>

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