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In [[fandom]], the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's [[secondary world]] or [[Wikipedia:fictional universe|fictional universe]] in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.<ref name=wiki/>
 
In [[fandom]], the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's [[secondary world]] or [[Wikipedia:fictional universe|fictional universe]] in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.<ref name=wiki/>
 
[[File:The Atlas of Middle-earth.jpg|thumb|Being actually ''The Atlas of '''Arda''''']]
 
[[File:The Atlas of Middle-earth.jpg|thumb|Being actually ''The Atlas of '''Arda''''']]
As a result, "Middle-earth" is used synonymously as "Arda" as a more recogniseable term for titles such as ''[[The Complete Guide to Middle-earth]]'' and ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]'', even while their scope is beyond the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor. Even [[Christopher Tolkien]], while publishing the early drafts and manuscripts of his father, he titled the series ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'',<ref name=wiki>{{webcite|articleurl=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-earth#Usage_and_misunderstandings|articlename=Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings|website=Wikipedia}}</ref> thus equating the term "Middle-earth" with the Legendarium. Wikipedia is also an example of this usage, with article names such as [[Wikipedia:Elf (Middle-earth)|Elf (Middle-earth)]] and the (somewhat erroneous) [[Wikipedia:Arda (Middle-earth)|Arda (Middle-earth)]].
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As a result, Middle-earth is used synonymously as "Arda" as a more recogniseable term for titles such as ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]'', even while its subject is beyond the scope of the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor. Even [[Christopher Tolkien]], while publishing the early drafts and manuscripts of his father, he titled the series ''[[The History of Middle-earth]]'',<ref name=wiki>{{webcite|articleurl=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-earth#Usage_and_misunderstandings|articlename=Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings|website=Wikipedia}}</ref> thus equating the term "Middle-earth" with the Legendarium. Wikipedia is also an example of this usage, with article names such as [[Wikipedia:Elf (Middle-earth)|Elf (Middle-earth)]] and the (somewhat erroneous) [[Wikipedia:Arda (Middle-earth)|Arda (Middle-earth)]].
  
The more proper but technical term "[[Arda]]", which refers to the whole world proper, first appeared in ''[[The Silmarillion]]''<ref name=wiki/>. It is sometimes used to appropriately refer to the world of Tolkien, seen in example in the names of ''[[Encyclopedia of Arda]]'' or ''[[Ardalambion]]''.
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The term "[[Arda]]", which refers to the whole world proper, first appeared in ''[[The Silmarillion]]''<ref name=wiki/> and is a more technical term. But the term "Arda" is sometimes appropriately used to refer to the world of Tolkien, seen in example in the names of ''[[Encyclopedia of Arda]]'' or ''[[Ardalambion]]''.
  
Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps to ''Lord of the Rings''. Actually these regions are just the [[Westlands]] of Middle-earth, being only the north-western portion of the continent. Actually how far Middle-earth extends to the [[East]] and the [[South]] of the map is unknown. Although [[Mordor]] is seen to the south-easter corner of the map, it doesn't mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Middle-earth"</ref> [[Karen Fonstad]] has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an [[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Ambarkanta Map V.png|early map by Tolkien]].<ref>{{HM|AME}}</ref>
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Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps to ''Lord of the Rings''. Actually these regions are just the [[Westlands]] of Middle-earth, being the north-western portion of the continent. Actually how far Middle-earth extends to the [[East]] and the [[South]] of the map is unknown. Although [[Mordor]] is seen to the south-easter corner of the map, it doesn't mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Middle-earth"</ref> [[Karen Fonstad]] has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an [[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Ambarkanta Map V.png|early map by Tolkien]].<ref>{{HM|AME}}</ref>
  
 
===Middle-earth and the Old World===
 
===Middle-earth and the Old World===

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