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Middle-earth

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==Appendix==
 
==Appendix==
 
===Terminology===
 
===Terminology===
In [[fandom]], the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's [[secondary world]] or [[Wikipedia:fictional universe|fictional universe]] in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation in general.
+
In [[fandom]], the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's [[secondary world]] or [[Wikipedia:fictional universe|fictional universe]] in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.
  
This is unsurprising, as the ''continent'' of Middle-earth is the main setting of most of the stories of the [[legendarium]].  There are stories that take place in [[Aman]] (like the early chapters of ''[[The Silmarillion]]'') and [[Númenor]] (like the ''[[Akallabêth]]'' and ''[[Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife|Aldarion and Erendis]]''). However these are more recently-published works, and not as well-read and classic as ''[[The Hobbit]]'' and ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' that take place entirely in Middle-earth and its status as a continent is not clear.  
+
This is unsurprising, as the ''continent'' of Middle-earth is the main setting of most of the stories of the [[legendarium]].  There are stories that take place in [[Aman]] (like σομε chapters of ''[[The Silmarillion]]'') and [[Númenor]] (like the ''[[Akallabêth]]'' and ''[[Aldarion and Erendis: The Mariner's Wife|Aldarion and Erendis]]''). However these are more recently-published works, and not as well-read and classic as ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' which takes place entirely in Middle-earth; and its status as a continent is not clear from the narrative.  
  
 
The term '''Arda''', which is the name of the World proper in the legendarium, would be a more appropriate term but it is less known, and less recogniseable as it first appeared in ''The Silmarillion'', published in [[1977]]<ref>{{HM|S}}</ref> and as such, is a more technical term.
 
The term '''Arda''', which is the name of the World proper in the legendarium, would be a more appropriate term but it is less known, and less recogniseable as it first appeared in ''The Silmarillion'', published in [[1977]]<ref>{{HM|S}}</ref> and as such, is a more technical term.
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As a result, Middle-earth is used synonymously as "Arda" as a more recogniseable term for titles such as ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]'', even while its subject is beyond the scope of the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor.<ref>{{webcite|articleurl=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-earth#Usage_and_misunderstandings|articlename=Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings|website=Wikipedia}}</ref> Wikipedia is also an example of this usage, with article names such as [[Wikipedia:Elf (Middle-earth)|Elf (Middle-earth)]] and the (somewhat erroneous) [[Wikipedia:Arda (Middle-earth)|Arda (Middle-earth)]].
 
As a result, Middle-earth is used synonymously as "Arda" as a more recogniseable term for titles such as ''[[The Atlas of Middle-earth]]'', even while its subject is beyond the scope of the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor.<ref>{{webcite|articleurl=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-earth#Usage_and_misunderstandings|articlename=Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings|website=Wikipedia}}</ref> Wikipedia is also an example of this usage, with article names such as [[Wikipedia:Elf (Middle-earth)|Elf (Middle-earth)]] and the (somewhat erroneous) [[Wikipedia:Arda (Middle-earth)|Arda (Middle-earth)]].
  
There are exceptions where the term "Arda" is preferred to refer to the world of Tolkien, seen in example in the [[Encyclopedia of Arda]] or [[Ardalambion]].
+
There are exceptions where the term "Arda" is appropriately used to refer to the world of Tolkien, seen in example in the [[Encyclopedia of Arda]] or [[Ardalambion]].
  
Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps to ''Lord of the Rings''. Actually these regions are just the [[Westlands]] of Middle-earth, being the north-western portion of the continent. Actually how far Middle-earth extends to the [[East]] and the [[South]] of the map is unknown. Although [[Mordor]] is seen to the south-easter corner of the map, it doesn't mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south of Mordor. [[Karen Fonstad]] has attempted to show the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an [[:File:Steven White Jr. - Arda001.gif|early map by Tolkien]].<ref>{{HM|AME}}</ref>
+
Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps to ''Lord of the Rings''. Actually these regions are just the [[Westlands]] of Middle-earth, being the north-western portion of the continent. Actually how far Middle-earth extends to the [[East]] and the [[South]] of the map is unknown. Although [[Mordor]] is seen to the south-easter corner of the map, it doesn't mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, entry "Middle-earth"</ref> [[Karen Fonstad]] has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an [[:File:J.R.R. Tolkien - Ambarkanta Map V.png|early map by Tolkien]].<ref>{{HM|AME}}</ref>
  
 
===Correspondences to our world===
 
===Correspondences to our world===
 +
Tolkien envisioned his stories to take place on our world, in an imaginary historical period and contains the essentials of the northwestern Europe. He did not see it as a "remote globe in 'space'" as happened with contemporary fiction.<ref>{{L|183}}</ref>
  
 +
In his earliest drafts of the [[Legendarium]], ''[[The Book of Lost Tales]]'', the connection between the mythology has direct connections: the main character [[Ottor Wǽfre]] was intended to be the father of [[Hengest and Horsa]], and England was supposed to be former [[Tol Eressea]]. Ireland (the Isle of [[Iverin]] was a part that broke from it.<ref>{{LT2|VI}}</ref> [[Littleheart]] compares the [[Fall of Gondolin]] with the fall of "Bablon", "Ninwi" and "Trui".<Ref>{{LT2|III}}</ref> The [[Mannish]] language of [[Taliska]] was based on [[Gothic]].<ref>{{PE|19}}, "The Comparative Tales", p. 22</ref>
 +
 +
[[The Shire]] was based on rural England<ref>{{L|190}}</ref> but also was expressly stated to be "in this region"<ref name=L211>{{L|211}}</ref>, "the North-West of the Old World, east of the Sea".<ref>{{FR|Prologue}}</ref> Concerning the Shire, Tolkien stated that he intended it to correspond about to the latitide of [[Oxford]], which would result to other Middle-earth locations to correspond (but not necessarily equate with) real-life locations. For instance, [[Pelargir]] would be about the latitude of ancient [[Wikipedia:Troy|Troy]].<ref>{{L|294}}</ref> This enabled [[Andreas Moehn]] to make more correspondences, and even project the [[Westlands]] on a real map of Europe.<ref>{{webcite|website=Lalaith|articleurl=http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/Grid.html|articlename=A Meridional Grid on the Middle-Earth Map|author=[[Andreas Moehn]]}}</ref>
 +
 +
On the other hand, Tolkien designed his maps to accomodate the mythology, and was conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth, as understood by contemporary archeology and historical geology.<ref>{{L|169}}</ref><ref name=L211/>
 
===Portrayal in adaptations===
 
===Portrayal in adaptations===
 
{{stub}}
 
{{stub}}

Revision as of 11:25, 31 August 2014

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Middle-earth
Continent
250px
General Information
Other namesEnnorath, Endor
LocationArda, east of Belegaer
TypeContinent
DescriptionA continent set between two oceans
RegionsRohan, Gondor, Mordor, Arnor, Rivendell, Lothlórien, others
InhabitantsMen, Elves, Dwarves, Orcs, Hobbits, Ents, others
GalleryImages of Middle-earth
"The green earth, say you? That is a mighty matter of legend, though you tread it under the light of day!"
Aragorn[1]

Middle-earth (Q. Endor) was a large continent of Arda, situated between Aman to the West (across Belegaer), and the Land of the Sun to the East (across the East Sea).

It is here that many of the epic tales of Arda were played out, for it was there where the Children of Ilúvatar, Elves, Dwarves and Men came into being; and in the Westlands of Middle-earth they bitterly fought the Dark Lords.

Contents

Geography

Middle-earth is a large continent, a mass of land that occupies the central regions of Arda. It lays between two continents; Aman, the uttermost West from which it is separated by the ocean Belegaer, and the Land of the Sun, at the uttermost East which the East Sea separates.

The Westlands of Middle-earth

The Westlands are the most well-known regions of the continent, and the only which have been mapped. Of the Westlands, the western portion called Beleriand was drowned at the end of the First Age and survivors relocated to Lindon and Eriador from which it was separated by the Blue Mountains. Another region of the Westlands was Rhovanion separated by the Misty Mountains.

The southern part of the Westlands was around a large bay, including Belfalas, the area of Gondor, and Near Harad (Near South).

Arnor and Gondor before their decline, dominated the Westlands during the Third Age. Huge mountain ranges like the Grey Mountains and White Mountains separated these regions.

Of the East and South of Middle-earth not much is known, other than the names of Rhûn and Khand, east of Mordor, and the Far Harad (Far South); but how far they extended is unknown.

In the Elder Days, the East was occupied by the two large inland seas of Helcar and Ringil created by the demise of the Two Lamps; and of course Cuiviénen and Hildórien, the cradle of Elves and Men.

Another known name of the East was the Empty Lands. The eastern land-mass was encircled by ranges of mountains, the Red and the Yellow Mountains which mirrored the Blue and the Grey of the West respectively. There was also a mythical Last Desert; but its status or existence in the later years was unknown.

History

This is the geographical history. For events happening in Middle-earth, see Timeline.
Early Arda

Arda was initially a flat, symmetric shape, until the Valar (and Morgoth) created several seas and mountains. Two seas, Belegaer to the west and the East Sea, formed a central landmass in the centre of Arda, the earliest shape of what would be the Great Lands of Middle-earth. Major features of that landmass were two inland seas, the Sea of Helcar and the Sea of Ringil. Around them, massive mountain chains were formed, the Blue and Red Mountains to the north, and the Grey and Yellow Mountains to the south. The Mountains of the World were a smaller chain in the East.[2]

Eventually the Valar left the Great Lands for the Uttermost West, leaving Morgoth and his creatures from his fortress at Utumno behind the Iron Mountains. He would also erect the Misty Mountains to hinder the Vala Orome who hunted his creatures.[3]

File:Beleriand-eriador-fonstad.png
Western Middle-earth with deluged Beleriand

During the First Age and the ages preceding, the western side of Middle-earth was called Beleriand, stretching from the Ered Luin to the great ocean of Belegaer. On the northern edge of Beleriand were the fierce Ered Engrin, the Iron Mountains. Even further north was the freezing Dor Daidelos. Just southwest of the Ered Engrin was Hithlum, which was separated from the coast of Lammoth and Belegaer by the Ered Lómin, and from the rest of Beleriand to the south by the Ered Wethrin. The woven wood of Doriath rested directly south of the Thangorodrim and Dorthonion, southeast of Hithlum. To the West of Doriath were Taur-en-Faroth and the Falas, while to the east were Nan Elmoth and Thargelion before reaching the Ered Luin. To the south of Doriath were first the Andram, then Arvernien and the Bay of Balar. East of the Bay of Balar and extending ever further south into the unknown lands were the Taur-im-Duinath and Ossiriand.

East of the Ered Luin was a land encircled by four mountain ranges: the Ered Luin to the West, the Ered Engrin to the North, the Hithaeglir (Misty Mountains) to the East, and some of the White Mountains to the South. Passing even further East, over the Hithaeglir, you would come to Anduin (the Great River) and eventually Palisor, the Inland Sea of Helcar, the Orocarni, and the East Sea.

After the end of the First Age and the drowning of Beleriand, the geography east of the Ered Luin shifted. The Ered Luin themselves, now broken up and disfigured, marked the western border of Eriador, and thence Lindon and Belegaer itself. Eriador, now the Westernmost part of Middle-earth, was bordered on the East by the Hithaeglir, the Misty Mountains, which stretched down south to the White Mountains and the Bay of Belfalas. Across the Misty Mountains from Eriador was Rhovanion, which extended east to the Sea of Rhûn and the vast lands beyond. Within Rhovanion were the great forest of Mirkwood, the forest of Fangorn, and the many-rivered area that would become known as Gondor. To the east was the region of Mordor, encircled on three sides by mountains. To the far north of Rhovanion was the icy Forodwaith.

Names

The peoples called Middle-earth by several names. The Elves called the continent Endóre or Endor in Quenya meaning "middle land"; the Sindarin form was Ennor, also used in the plural ennorath "middle lands, lands of Middle-earth".

Other epithets of the continent were Hither Shores or Hither Lands contrasted to Aman beyond the sea. The Hobbits envisioned Middle-earth as the Wide World[4] and the Outer Lands[5] or Great Lands, since it was so much larger than the continent of Aman.[6].

Inspiration

Tolkien created Arda, including and especially Middle-earth, for his languages Quenya and Sindarin, especially the latter as it turned out. To Tolkien, a scholar of the Anglo-Saxon language, Middle-earth was the English translation of the Old English word middanġeard. This word was transformed in the Middle English midden-erd or middel-erd, and the Old Norse Midgard. This is English for what the Greeks called the οικουμένη (oikoumenē) or "the abiding place of men", the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds.[7]

The ancient peoples called the world "middle-earth" since it was imagined to be between the realm of the Giants below and the realm of the gods above. However in Tolkien's cosmology the name Middle-earth refers only to a continent, which (in the First and Second Ages) is set between two seas, Belegaer and the East Sea.

Henry Resnick quoted Tolkien saying that "Middle-earth is Europe".[8]

Appendix

Terminology

In fandom, the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's secondary world or fictional universe in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.

This is unsurprising, as the continent of Middle-earth is the main setting of most of the stories of the legendarium. There are stories that take place in Aman (like σομε chapters of The Silmarillion) and Númenor (like the Akallabêth and Aldarion and Erendis). However these are more recently-published works, and not as well-read and classic as The Lord of the Rings which takes place entirely in Middle-earth; and its status as a continent is not clear from the narrative.

The term Arda, which is the name of the World proper in the legendarium, would be a more appropriate term but it is less known, and less recogniseable as it first appeared in The Silmarillion, published in 1977[9] and as such, is a more technical term.

As a result, Middle-earth is used synonymously as "Arda" as a more recogniseable term for titles such as The Atlas of Middle-earth, even while its subject is beyond the scope of the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor.[10] Wikipedia is also an example of this usage, with article names such as Elf (Middle-earth) and the (somewhat erroneous) Arda (Middle-earth).

There are exceptions where the term "Arda" is appropriately used to refer to the world of Tolkien, seen in example in the Encyclopedia of Arda or Ardalambion.

Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps to Lord of the Rings. Actually these regions are just the Westlands of Middle-earth, being the north-western portion of the continent. Actually how far Middle-earth extends to the East and the South of the map is unknown. Although Mordor is seen to the south-easter corner of the map, it doesn't mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south.[11] Karen Fonstad has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an early map by Tolkien.[12]

Correspondences to our world

Tolkien envisioned his stories to take place on our world, in an imaginary historical period and contains the essentials of the northwestern Europe. He did not see it as a "remote globe in 'space'" as happened with contemporary fiction.[13]

In his earliest drafts of the Legendarium, The Book of Lost Tales, the connection between the mythology has direct connections: the main character Ottor Wǽfre was intended to be the father of Hengest and Horsa, and England was supposed to be former Tol Eressea. Ireland (the Isle of Iverin was a part that broke from it.[14] Littleheart compares the Fall of Gondolin with the fall of "Bablon", "Ninwi" and "Trui".[15] The Mannish language of Taliska was based on Gothic.[16]

The Shire was based on rural England[17] but also was expressly stated to be "in this region"[18], "the North-West of the Old World, east of the Sea".[19] Concerning the Shire, Tolkien stated that he intended it to correspond about to the latitide of Oxford, which would result to other Middle-earth locations to correspond (but not necessarily equate with) real-life locations. For instance, Pelargir would be about the latitude of ancient Troy.[20] This enabled Andreas Moehn to make more correspondences, and even project the Westlands on a real map of Europe.[21]

On the other hand, Tolkien designed his maps to accomodate the mythology, and was conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth, as understood by contemporary archeology and historical geology.[22][18]

Portrayal in adaptations

"...there is much else that may be told." — Glóin
This article or section is a stub. Please help Tolkien Gateway by expanding it.
The whole continent of Middle-earth as envisioned in Middle-earth Role Playing

Middle-earth has been depicted in a variety of adaptations of Tolkien's work -- the most prominent of which have been the Lord of the Rings and Hobbit film trilogies by Peter Jackson. Middle-earth has appeared in animation in Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings and Rankin/Bass' adaptations of The Hobbit and The Return of the King. Middle-earth has also been adapted for numerous video games such as The Lord of the Rings Online and War in the North and tabletop role-playing games like the Middle-earth Role Playing system by Iron Crown Enterprises.

Each adaptation has made changes, subtractions, or additions to Tolkien's creation, often adding new locations, creatures, or characters. For the most part, however, the overall geography and style of Tolkien's Middle-earth has been retained.

See Also

References

  1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Riders of Rohan"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta"
  3. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Misty Mountains"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Flies and Spiders"
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Beginning of Days"
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 151, (dated 18 September 1954)
  8. Tolkien Journal II, 2 p. 1
  9. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion
  10. "Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings", Wikipedia (accessed 27 January 2020)
  11. Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Middle-earth"
  12. Karen Wynn Fonstad (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth
  13. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 183, (undated, probably written 1956)
  14. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales"
  15. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "The Fall of Gondolin"
  16. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Quenya Phonology", in Parma Eldalamberon XIX (edited by Christopher Gilson), "The Comparative Tales", p. 22
  17. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 190, (dated 3 July 1956)
  18. 18.0 18.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 211, (dated 14 October 1958)
  19. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue"
  20. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 294, (dated 8 February 1967)
  21. Andreas Moehn, "A Meridional Grid on the Middle-Earth Map", Lalaith's Middle-earth Science Pages (accessed 27 January 2020)
  22. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 169, (dated 11 September 1955)
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