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|Location||Arda, east of Belegaer|
|Realms||Rohan, Gondor, Mordor, Arnor, Rivendell, Lothlórien, others|
|Inhabitants||Men, Elves, Dwarves, Orcs, Hobbits, Ents, others|
|Description||A continent set between two oceans|
|Other names||Ennorath, Endor|
|Etymology||Old English middanġeard|
- "The green earth, say you? That is a mighty matter of legend, though you tread it under the light of day!"
- ― Aragorn
Middle-earth is a large continent, a mass of land that occupies the central regions of Arda. It lays between two continents; Aman, the uttermost West from which it is separated by the ocean Belegaer, and the Land of the Sun, at the uttermost East which the East Sea separates.
The Westlands are the most well-known regions of the continent, and the only which have been mapped in great detail. Of the Westlands, the western portion called Beleriand was drowned at the end of the First Age and survivors relocated to Lindon and Eriador from which it was separated by the Blue Mountains. Another region of the Westlands was Rhovanion separated by the Misty Mountains.
In the years before their decline, the kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor dominated the Westlands during the Third Age. These realms were separated by great mountain ranges such as the White Mountains and the Misty Mountains.
Another known name of the East was the Empty Lands. Through the north-east of Middle-earth ran the Red Mountains, and to the south-east the Yellow Mountains, which mirrored the Blue Mountains and the Grey Mountains of the north-west and south-west respectively. On the shores of the Sea of Helcar near to the Red Mountains was Cuiviénen, the cradle of the Elves. In the far east between the Red Mountains and the Yellow Mountains there were the Mountains of the Wind, and between these mountains and the easternmost shores of Middle-earth there stood Hildórien, the cradle of Men. There was also a mythical Last Desert in the "East of East", but its status or existence in the later years was unknown.
- This is the geographical history. For events happening in Middle-earth, see Timeline.
Arda was initially a flat, symmetric shape, until the Valar (and Morgoth) created several seas and mountains. Two seas, Belegaer to the west and the East Sea, formed a central landmass in the centre of Arda, the earliest shape of what would be the Great Lands of Middle-earth. Major features of that landmass were two inland seas, the Sea of Helcar and the Sea of Ringil. Around them, massive mountain chains were formed, the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to the north, and the Grey Mountains and Yellow Mountains to the south. The Mountains of the Wind were a smaller chain in the East, standing south of the Red Mountains and north of the Yellow Mountains.
Eventually the Valar left the Great Lands for the Uttermost West, leaving Morgoth and his creatures from his fortress at Utumno behind the Iron Mountains. He would also erect the Misty Mountains between the Blue Mountains and Red Mountains to hinder the Vala Orome who hunted his creatures. In later days during the War for the Sake of the Elves, the Yellow Mountains and the Mountains of the Wind would be lost, and the Sea of Ringil would merge with the East Sea, separating Middle-earth from the new continent known as the Dark Lands. To the west the shores of the Great Sea advanced upon the land as well, forming the Great Gulf between the lands of Beleriand and the lands of the south. The Straits of the World linked the Great Gulf with the Inland Sea of Helcar, serving as a boundary of sorts for the northern and southern lands of Middle-earth.
During the First Age and the ages preceding, the western side of Middle-earth was called Beleriand, stretching from the Ered Luin to the great ocean of Belegaer. On the northern edge of Beleriand were the fierce Ered Engrin, the Iron Mountains. Even further north was the freezing Dor Daedeloth. Just southwest of the Ered Engrin was Hithlum, which was separated from the coast of Lammoth and Belegaer by the Ered Lómin, and from the rest of Beleriand to the south by the Ered Wethrin. The woven wood of Doriath rested directly south of the Thangorodrim and Dorthonion, southeast of Hithlum. To the West of Doriath were Taur-en-Faroth and the Falas, while to the east were Nan Elmoth and Thargelion before reaching the Ered Luin. To the south of Doriath were first the Andram, then Arvernien and the Bay of Balar. East of the Bay of Balar and extending ever further south into the unknown lands were the Taur-im-Duinath and Ossiriand.
East of the Ered Luin was a land encircled by four mountain ranges: the Ered Luin to the West, the Ered Engrin to the North, the Misty Mountains to the East, and some of the White Mountains to the South. Passing even further East, over the Hithaeglir, you would come to the Great River Anduin and eventually Palisor, the Inland Sea of Helcar, the Orocarni, and the East Sea.
After the end of the First Age and the drowning of Beleriand, the geography east of the Ered Luin shifted. The Sea of Helcar drained into the Great Gulf through the Straits of the World, and was lost forever. The Ered Luin themselves, now broken up and disfigured, marked the western border of Eriador, and thence Lindon and Belegaer itself. Eriador, now the Westernmost part of Middle-earth, was bordered on the East by the Misty Mountains, which stretched down south to the White Mountains and the newly formed Bay of Belfalas, the remnants of the Great Gulf. Across the Misty Mountains from Eriador was Rhovanion, which extended east to the Sea of Rhûn and the vast lands of Rhûn beyond. Within Rhovanion were the great forest of Mirkwood, the forest of Fangorn, and the many-rivered area that would become known as Gondor. To the east was the region of Mordor, encircled on three sides by mountains. To the far north of Rhovanion was the icy Forodwaith, and where the Great Sea had advanced at its most there was the Icebay of Forochel.
The coasts of Middle-earth were changed once more in the cataclysm of the Downfall of Númenor. In many places the Great Sea advanced upon the land, and in some places it shrank back. Lindon especially suffered great loss of land at this time, while to the south the eastern and southern shores of the Bay of Belfalas shrank back, putting the city of Pelargir much farther inland than it had once been. The Anduin river found new paths to the sea afterwards, forming the Ethir Anduin.
The peoples called Middle-earth by several names. The Elves called the continent Endóre or Endor in Quenya meaning "middle land"; the Sindarin form was Ennor, also used in the plural ennorath "middle lands, lands of Middle-earth".=
Other epithets of the continent were Hither Shores or Hither Lands contrasted to Aman beyond the sea. The Hobbits envisioned Middle-earth as the Wide World and the Outer Lands or Great Lands, since it was so much larger than the continent of Aman..
Tolkien created Arda, including and especially Middle-earth, for his languages Quenya and Sindarin, especially the latter as it turned out. To Tolkien, a scholar of the Anglo-Saxon language, Middle-earth was the English translation of the Old English word middanġeard. This word was transformed in the Middle English midden-erd or middel-erd, and the Old Norse Midgard. This is English for what the Greeks called the οικουμένη (oikoumenē) or "the abiding place of men", the physical world as opposed to the unseen worlds.=
The ancient peoples called the world "middle-earth" since it was imagined to be between the realm of the Giants below and the realm of the gods above. However in Tolkien's cosmology the name Middle-earth refers only to a continent, which (in the First and Second Ages) is set between two seas, Belegaer and the East Sea.
The continent of Middle-earth is the main setting of most of the stories of the legendarium. There are a few stories that take place in Aman (like some chapters of The Silmarillion) and Númenor (like the Akallabêth and Aldarion and Erendis).
In fandom, the term "Middle-earth" is used to refer to Tolkien's secondary world or fictional universe in general, including its pantheon and cosmology. Tolkien himself used the term loosely at times to refer to his creation.
As a result, Middle-earth is used synonymously as "Arda" as a more recogniseable term for titles such as The Atlas of Middle-earth, even while its subject is beyond the scope of the strict geographical definition of the continent of Endor. Even Christopher Tolkien, while publishing the early drafts and manuscripts of his father, he titled the series The History of Middle-earth, thus equating the term "Middle-earth" with the Legendarium. Wikipedia is also an example of this usage, with article names such as Elf (Middle-earth) and the (somewhat erroneous) Arda (Middle-earth).
The term "Arda", which refers to the whole world proper, first appeared in The Silmarillion and is a more technical term. But the term "Arda" is sometimes appropriately used to refer to the world of Tolkien, seen in example in the names of Encyclopedia of Arda or Ardalambion.
Another misuse of the term is the equation of "Middle-earth" with the mapped regions, as seen in the maps to Lord of the Rings. Actually these regions are just the Westlands of Middle-earth, being the north-western portion of the continent. Actually how far Middle-earth extends to the East and the South of the map is unknown. Although Mordor is seen to the south-easter corner of the map, it doesn't mean it belongs to the south-eastern Middle-earth, as there are presumably other lands to the east and south. Karen Fonstad has attempted to reconstruct the entirety of the continent, beyond the Westlands, based on an early map by Tolkien.
 Middle-earth and the Old World
In his earliest drafts of the Legendarium, The Book of Lost Tales, the mythology had more direct connections with our history: Littleheart compares the Fall of Gondolin with the fall of "Bablon", "Ninwi" and "Trui". The Mannish language of Taliska was based on Gothic. Britain was supposed to be former Tol Eressea that was driven towards the Great Lands, with Ireland (the Isle of Iverin) being a part that broke from it. The main character Ottor Wǽfre was intended to be the father of legendary figures Hengest and Horsa who conquered England from the Guidlin, the Brithonin and the Rumhoth. In a later sketch, the Elves were from the region of Luthany before it was pulled out of the mainland and became an island.
Tolkien envisioned his stories to take place on our world, in an imaginary historical period and contains the essentials of the northwestern Europe. He did not see his stories to happen on a "remote globe in 'space'" as was the case with other contemporary fiction.
As for the later legendarium, The Shire not only was conceptually based on rural England but also was expressly stated to be "in this region", "the North-West of the Old World, east of the Sea".
Concerning the Shire, Tolkien stated that he intended it to correspond about to the latitude of Oxford, which would result to other Middle-earth locations to correspond (but not necessarily equate with) real-life locations. For instance, Minas Tirith would fall to about the latitude of Florence, and Pelargir and the mouths of Anduin to that of ancient Troy. According to the annotations provided by J.R.R. Tolkien to Pauline Baynes, Hobbiton is again approximately at the same latitude as Oxford, and Minas Tirith is about the latitude of Ravenna. The bottom of the map is about the latitude of Jerusalem, and Umbar about that of Cyprus. Minas Tirith, being approximately 900 miles east of Hobbiton, is located near Belgrade.
On the other hand, Tolkien designed his maps to accommodate the mythology, and was conscious that they did not fit the ancient Earth, as understood by contemporary archaeology and historical geology.
 Portrayal in adaptations
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Middle-earth has been depicted in a variety of adaptations of Tolkien's work -- the most prominent of which have been the Lord of the Rings and Hobbit film trilogies by Peter Jackson. Middle-earth has appeared in animation in Ralph Bakshi's The Lord of the Rings and Rankin/Bass' adaptations of The Hobbit and The Return of the King. Middle-earth has also been adapted for numerous video games such as The Lord of the Rings Online and War in the North and tabletop role-playing games like the Middle-earth Role Playing system by Iron Crown Enterprises.
Each adaptation has made changes, subtractions, or additions to Tolkien's creation, often adding new locations, creatures, or characters. For the most part, however, the overall geography and style of Tolkien's Middle-earth has been retained.
 See also
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, The Two Towers, "The Riders of Rohan"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta"
- ↑ Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Misty Mountains"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Shaping of Middle-earth, "V. The Ambarkanta"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "The Tale of Years of the Second Age" p. 183
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Hobbit, "Flies and Spiders"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Beginning of Days"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Akallabêth: The Downfall of Númenor"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 151, (dated 18 September 1954)
- ↑ Tolkien Journal II, 2 p. 1
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Middle-earth - Usage and misunderstandings", Wikipedia (accessed 7 December 2016)
- ↑ Robert Foster, The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, entry "Middle-earth"
- ↑ Karen Wynn Fonstad (1991), The Atlas of Middle-earth
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "The Fall of Gondolin"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, "Quenya Phonology", in Parma Eldalamberon XIX (edited by Christopher Gilson), "The Comparative Tales", p. 22
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, "The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 183, (undated, probably written 1956)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 190, (dated 3 July 1956)
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 211, (dated 14 October 1958)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, "Prologue"
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 294, (dated 8 February 1967)
- ↑ The Guardian, 23 October 2015, "Tolkien's annotated map of Middle-earth discovered inside copy of Lord of the Rings". An analysis of the map may also be found in "Découverte d'une carte de la Terre du Milieu annotée par Tolkien pour Pauline Baynes" (in French, with deciphered annotations also being provided in English).
- ↑ Andreas Moehn, "A Meridional Grid on the Middle-Earth Map", Lalaith's Middle-earth Science Pages (accessed 7 December 2016)
- ↑ J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 169, (dated 11 September 1955)