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'''na''' is the [[Quenya]] verb for "to be"<ref>''[[The Road Goes Ever On, A Song Cycle]]'', [[Namárië]]</ref>.  
 
'''na''' is the [[Quenya]] verb for "to be"<ref>''[[The Road Goes Ever On, A Song Cycle]]'', [[Namárië]]</ref>.  
  
Also, ''ná'' means "yes, it is so"<ref>{{VT|49}}, p. 28</ref>
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Also, ''ná'' means "yes, it is so"<ref>{{VT|49a}}, p. 28</ref>
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
 
[[Sundocarmë|Root]] [[NA2]]<Ref>{{HM|LR}}, [[The Etymologies]]</ref>
 
[[Sundocarmë|Root]] [[NA2]]<Ref>{{HM|LR}}, [[The Etymologies]]</ref>
 
==Forms==
 
==Forms==
Various attested forms of "to be"<ref>{{VT|42}}</ref><ref>{{VT|49}}</ref>
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Various attested forms of "to be"<ref>{{VT|42a}}</ref><ref>{{VT|49a}}</ref>
 
*''ná'' "is"
 
*''ná'' "is"
**''nánye/nanye'' “I am”
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**''nánye/nanye'' "I am"
 
**''nalye'' "you are" (polite)
 
**''nalye'' "you are" (polite)
**''natye'' “you are” (familiar)
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**''natye'' "you are" (familiar)
**''nás “it is”,
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**''nás "it is"
**''náse'' (s)he is”
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**''náse'' "(s)he is"
**''nalme'' “we are”
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**''nalme'' "we are"
 
**''nát'' "they (dual) are"
 
**''nát'' "they (dual) are"
 
**''nar/nár'' "they are"
 
**''nar/nár'' "they are"
 
*''náne/né'' "was"
 
*''náne/né'' "was"
**''anen'' “I was”,
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**''anen'' "I was"
**''anel'' “you were”
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**''anel'' "you were"
 
**''nése'' "he was"
 
**''nése'' "he was"
**''anes'' (s)he/it was”
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**''anes'' "(s)he/it was"
 
**''nét'' "they (dual) were"
 
**''nét'' "they (dual) were"
 
**''náner/nér'' "they were"
 
**''náner/nér'' "they were"
 
*''uva/nauva'' "will be"
 
*''uva/nauva'' "will be"
**''nauvan'' "I will be
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**''nauvan'' "I will be"
 
*''anaie'' "has been"
 
*''anaie'' "has been"
  
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==Syntax==
 
==Syntax==
''Na'' is following the sentece. When used in imperative, it precedes the adjective.<ref>{{VT|43}}, p.14</ref>
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''Na'' is following the sentece. When used in imperative, it precedes the adjective.<ref>{{VT|43a}}, p.14</ref>
 
*''na aire'' "be holy"
 
*''na aire'' "be holy"
 
*''aire na'' "it is holy"
 
*''aire na'' "it is holy"

Revision as of 16:12, 1 August 2010

na is the Quenya verb for "to be"[1].

Also, means "yes, it is so"[2]

Etymology

Root NA2[3]

Forms

Various attested forms of "to be"[4][5]

  • "is"
    • nánye/nanye "I am"
    • nalye "you are" (polite)
    • natye "you are" (familiar)
    • nás "it is"
    • náse "(s)he is"
    • nalme "we are"
    • nát "they (dual) are"
    • nar/nár "they are"
  • náne/né "was"
    • anen "I was"
    • anel "you were"
    • nése "he was"
    • anes "(s)he/it was"
    • nét "they (dual) were"
    • náner/nér "they were"
  • uva/nauva "will be"
    • nauvan "I will be"
  • anaie "has been"
  • náve "being" (infinitive/gerund)[6]
  • na "let it be"
    • nai "be it that"

Syntax

Na is following the sentece. When used in imperative, it precedes the adjective.[7]

  • na aire "be holy"
  • aire na "it is holy"

See also

References

  1. The Road Goes Ever On, A Song Cycle, Namárië
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part Three" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 49, June 2007, p. 28
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Lost Road and Other Writings, The Etymologies
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, "The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor" (edited by Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 42, July 2001
  5. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings — Part Three" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 49, June 2007
  6. J.R.R. Tolkien, "Words, Phrases and Passages in Various Tongues in The Lord of the Rings", in Parma Eldalamberon XVII (edited by Christopher Gilson)
  7. J.R.R. Tolkien, "'Words of Joy': Five Catholic Prayers in Quenya — Part One" (edited by Patrick H. Wynne, Arden R. Smith, and Carl F. Hostetter), in Vinyar Tengwar, Number 43, January 2002, p.14

External links