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| image=[[File:Liz Danforth - Isildur.png|250px]]
 
| image=[[File:Liz Danforth - Isildur.png|250px]]
 
| caption="[[:File:Liz Danforth - Isildur.png|Isildur]]" by Liz Danforth
 
| caption="[[:File:Liz Danforth - Isildur.png|Isildur]]" by Liz Danforth
| pronun={{respell|noo|meh|nor|ee-ans}}
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| pronun={{respell|noo|meh|noor|ee-ans}}
| othernames=Men of Westernesse, Kings of Men, Men of Númenor, Men of the Sea, Mighty of the West, Sea-kings, Tall Men
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| othernames=Men of Westernesse
 
| origin=Descendants of the [[Edain]]
 
| origin=Descendants of the [[Edain]]
 
| location=[[Númenor]], [[Eriador]], [[Harad]], [[Umbar]], [[Pelargir]], later [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]]
 
| location=[[Númenor]], [[Eriador]], [[Harad]], [[Umbar]], [[Pelargir]], later [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]]
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| language=[[Adûnaic]] (native tongue), [[Quenya]], [[Sindarin]]  
 
| language=[[Adûnaic]] (native tongue), [[Quenya]], [[Sindarin]]  
 
| members=[[Elros]], [[Tar-Aldarion|Aldarion]], [[Ar-Pharazôn]], [[Elendil]], [[Isildur]]   
 
| members=[[Elros]], [[Tar-Aldarion|Aldarion]], [[Ar-Pharazôn]], [[Elendil]], [[Isildur]]   
| lifespan=Númenóreans - c. 200+ years<ref name=Line>{{UT|Kings}}</ref></br>[[Kings of Númenor]] - c. 400 years (later diminished)<ref name=Line/><br/>''[[#Characteristics|See below]]''
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| lifespan=up to 500 years
 
| distinctions=
 
| distinctions=
 
| height=Tall, typically 7 feet.<ref name=Dwarves>{{PM|X}}</ref>
 
| height=Tall, typically 7 feet.<ref name=Dwarves>{{PM|X}}</ref>
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| skin=
 
| skin=
 
| clothing=
 
| clothing=
| weapons=Bows<ref name=Description>{{UT|3}}, p. 170</ref>
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| weapons=
 
}}
 
}}
 
<center>{{quote|So great was the might and splendour of the Númenóreans that Sauron's own servants deserted him.|''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]]}}</center>
 
<center>{{quote|So great was the might and splendour of the Númenóreans that Sauron's own servants deserted him.|''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]]}}</center>
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Númenor was a monarchy. The King held the power of decision over the affairs of the state. However, there was an advisory body, the [[Council of the Sceptre]], which consisted of the Heir of the King and lords from the six regions of Númenor: [[Forostar]] (''Northlands''), [[Andustar]] (''Westlands''), [[Hyarnustar]] (''Southwestlands''), [[Hyarrostar]] (''Southeastlands''), [[Orrostar]] (''Eastlands'') and [[Mittalmar]] (''Inlands'').
 
Númenor was a monarchy. The King held the power of decision over the affairs of the state. However, there was an advisory body, the [[Council of the Sceptre]], which consisted of the Heir of the King and lords from the six regions of Númenor: [[Forostar]] (''Northlands''), [[Andustar]] (''Westlands''), [[Hyarnustar]] (''Southwestlands''), [[Hyarrostar]] (''Southeastlands''), [[Orrostar]] (''Eastlands'') and [[Mittalmar]] (''Inlands'').
  
There were two main political parties: Elendili or the [[Faithful]], led by the Lords of Andúnië, always loyal to the Elves. In the later years, they were a small group, oppressed by the opposing [[King's Men]] who rebelled against the Valar and their ban and set dominions among the Men of Middle-earth and laid heavy tribute upon them. As their number and power increased, they forced the Elendili to move from [[Andúnië]] to the eastern side of the island, at [[Rómenna]]. [[Pelargir]] was a harbour built where the river [[Sirith]] met [[Anduin]] and it was founded by the Faithful in {{SA|2350}}.
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There were two main political parties: Elendili or the [[Faithful]], led by the Lords of Andúnië, always loyal to the Elves. In the later years they were a small group, oppressed by the opposing [[King's Men]] who rebelled against the Valar and their ban and set dominions among the Men of Middle-earth and laid heavy tribute upon them. As their number and power increased, they forced the Elendili to move from [[Andúnië]] to the eastern side of the island, at [[Rómenna]]. [[Pelargir]] was a harbor built where the river [[Sirith]] met [[Anduin]] and it was founded by the Faithful in {{SA|2350}}.
 
===Rulership===
 
===Rulership===
 
{{main|Line of Elros}}
 
{{main|Line of Elros}}
Númenóreans from the [[Line of Elros]] had the right to inherit the [[Sceptre]] and thus become Rulers of Númenor. 25 [[King of Númenor|Kings]] and [[Ruling Queen of Númenor|Queens]] descendants of Elros ascended the throne. While the Númenóreans lived around 200 years, royal kindred had a double life span.  
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Númenóreans from the [[Line of Elros]] had right to inherit the [[Sceptre]] and thus become Rulers of Númenor. 25 [[King of Númenor|Kings]] and [[Ruling Queen of Númenor|Queens]] descendants of Elros ascended the throne. While the Númenóreans lived around 200 years, royal kindred had double life span.  
  
 
Of great importance was the [[Law of Succession in Númenor]] which established the heir to the throne. It started out as an inherited custom, which gave exclusive rights to the male descendants of Elros. Tar-Aldarion, the sixth ruler of Númenor, only had one daughter and replaced the principle of exclusive male heir with that of eldest progeny, of any gender; in {{SA|1075}} Tar-Ancalimë became the first ruling queen in the history of Númenor.  
 
Of great importance was the [[Law of Succession in Númenor]] which established the heir to the throne. It started out as an inherited custom, which gave exclusive rights to the male descendants of Elros. Tar-Aldarion, the sixth ruler of Númenor, only had one daughter and replaced the principle of exclusive male heir with that of eldest progeny, of any gender; in {{SA|1075}} Tar-Ancalimë became the first ruling queen in the history of Númenor.  
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*[[Tar-Ancalimë]], the first Ruling Queen of Númenor
 
*[[Tar-Ancalimë]], the first Ruling Queen of Númenor
 
*[[Tar-Minastir]], defeated [[Sauron]] alongside [[Gil-galad|Ereinion Gil-galad]]
 
*[[Tar-Minastir]], defeated [[Sauron]] alongside [[Gil-galad|Ereinion Gil-galad]]
*[[Ar-Belzagar]], the first ruler to take an Adûnaic name
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*[[Ar-Belzagar]], first ruler to take an Adûnaic name
 
*[[Ar-Adûnakhôr]], banned the speaking of Quenya and severed relationships with the Eldar
 
*[[Ar-Adûnakhôr]], banned the speaking of Quenya and severed relationships with the Eldar
 
*[[Ar-Pharazôn]], last in the line of rulers, whose kingship led directly to the [[Akallabêth|Downfall of Númenor]]
 
*[[Ar-Pharazôn]], last in the line of rulers, whose kingship led directly to the [[Akallabêth|Downfall of Númenor]]
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===Lords of Andúnië===
 
===Lords of Andúnië===
 
{{seealso|Lords of Andúnië}}
 
{{seealso|Lords of Andúnië}}
During the time of princess [[Silmariën]], the law of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnatic_primogeniture agnatic primogeniture] existed. She could not succeed her father as his eldest child, and her [[Tar-Meneldur|brother]] took up the [[Sceptre]]. In her honour was created the title "[[Lords of Andúnië]]", which was set upon [[Valandil (Lord of Andúnië)|Valandil]] her first son and his 18 descendants; the last one was [[Amandil]], father of [[Elendil]]. During the dark times of Númenor, the Lords were renowned for their friendship with the Eldar, and leaders of the [[Elendili]].
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During the time of princess [[Silmariën]] the law of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnatic_primogeniture agnatic primogeniture] existed. She could not succeed her father as his eldest child, and her [[Tar-Meneldur|brother]] took up the [[Sceptre]]. In her honor was created the title "[[Lords of Andúnië]]", which was set upon [[Valandil (Lord of Andúnië)|Valandil]] her first son and his 18 descendants; the last one was [[Amandil]], father of [[Elendil]]. During the dark times of Númenor, the Lords were renowned for their friendship with the Eldar, and leaders of the [[Elendili]].
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
At the foundation of Númenor, all the people held the Eldar in friendship. White ships from [[Tol Eressëa]] brought many gifts to the [[Bay of Andúnië]]: birds, flowers, and healing herbs, and a branch from [[Celeborn, White Tree|Celeborn]], the White Tree of Tol Eressëa, which grew at the court of the king of [[Armenelos]].   
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At the foundation of Númenor all the people held the Eldar in friendship. White ships from [[Tol Eressëa]] brought many gifts to the [[Bay of Andúnië]]: birds, flowers, and healing herbs, and a branch from [[Celeborn, White Tree|Celeborn]], the White Tree of Tol Eressëa, which grew at the court of the king of [[Armenelos]].   
  
As the fear of death crept into the hearts of the Dúnedain, the Firstborn became envied for their immortality. [[Tar-Atanamir]] was the first to speak against the Eldar and the Ban of the Valar. Little by little the Númenóreans abandoned the use of the [[Eldarin]] tongues. It was during the time of his son, King [[Tar-Ancalimon]], that the two parties were formed, the [[Elf-friends]] and the [[King's Men]]. Ar-Adûnakhôr was the first to choose an Adûnaic name and began to persecute the Faithful, punishing all those who would speak the Elven tongues openly. In the end, the Eldar came no more to the land of Númenor.  
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As the fear of death crept into the hearts of the Dúnedain, the Firstborn became envied for their immortality. [[Tar-Atanamir]] was the first to speak against the Eldar and the Ban of the Valar. Little by little the Númenóreans abandoned the use of the [[Eldarin]] tongues. It was during the time of his son, King [[Tar-Ancalimon]], that the two parties were formed, the [[Elf-friends]] and the [[King's Men]]. Ar-Adûnakhôr was the first to choose an Adûnaic name and began to persecute the Faithful, punishing all those who would speak the Elven tongues openly. In the end the Eldar came no more to the land of Númenor.  
  
 
===Dominion over the Men of Middle-earth===
 
===Dominion over the Men of Middle-earth===
 
<!--See also of Eriador#Elves and Númenóreans links here-->
 
<!--See also of Eriador#Elves and Númenóreans links here-->
 
[[Image:Paula DiSante - Ar-Pharazon Defies.JPG|thumb|right|[[Paula DiSante]] - ''Ar-Pharazon Defies'']]
 
[[Image:Paula DiSante - Ar-Pharazon Defies.JPG|thumb|right|[[Paula DiSante]] - ''Ar-Pharazon Defies'']]
Due to the fact that the Ban of the Valar restricted them from sailing [[Undying Lands|West]], the Númenóreans began to explore the eastern part of the [[Arda|world]], reaching the shores of Middle-earth in {{SA|600}} in [[Lindon]] and met with [[Gil-galad]]. The news spread swiftly and the [[Middle Men]] in [[Eriador]] were filled with wonder. The sailors met with twelve messengers on the [[Tower Hills]].<ref name=Aldarion>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>{{rp|213}}
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Due to the fact that the Ban of the Valar restricted them from sailing [[Undying Lands|West]], the Númenóreans began to explore the eastern part of the [[Arda|world]], reaching the shores of Middle-earth in {{SA|600}} in [[Lindon]] and met with [[Gil-galad]]. The news spread swiftly and the [[Middle Men]] in [[Eriador]] were filled with wonder. The sailors met with twelve messengers on the [[Tower Hills]].<ref>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
The Númenóreans began to cultivate their new friends who were into their [[Dark Years]], grown weak and fearful, and taught them agriculture, stonecraft, smithying and their language [[Adûnaic]] but failed to recognize the [[Pre-Númenórean]] forest-folk of [[Minhiriath]] as ‘kinsmen’, and confused them with [[Men of Shadow]] because it was not related to theirs.<ref name=Dwarves>{{PM|X}}</ref>{{rp|313-314}}
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The Númenóreans began to cultivate their new friends who were into their [[Dark Years]], grown weak and fearful, and taught them agriculture, stonecraft, smithying and their language [[Adûnaic]] but failed to recognize the [[Pre-Númenórean]] forest-folk of [[Minhiriath]] as ‘kinsmen’, and confused them with [[Men of Shadow]] because it was not related to theirs.<ref>{{PM|X}}</ref>
  
 
The Middle Men were comforted, populated the western shores. They revered the memory of the tall Sea-kings whom they remembered as gods hoping each time for their return.<ref>{{S|IV}}</ref>
 
The Middle Men were comforted, populated the western shores. They revered the memory of the tall Sea-kings whom they remembered as gods hoping each time for their return.<ref>{{S|IV}}</ref>
  
More and more Númenor became a great naval power, and the [[Guild of Venturers]] established [[Vinyalondë]] (early 9th century).<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref> The Pre-Númenóreans were patient until the tree-felling by [[Aldarion]] became devastating;<ref name="GC">{{UT|Galadriel}}</ref> slowly, hostility was growing, and the dark men out of the mountains were thrusting into [[Enedwaith]] in support of their kinsmen.<ref name=Aldarion></ref>{{rp|206}}
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More and more Númenor became a great naval power, and the [[Guild of Venturers]] established [[Vinyalondë]] (early 9th century).<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref> The Pre-Númenóreans were patient until the tree-felling by [[Aldarion]] became devastating;<ref name="GC">{{UT|Galadriel}}</ref> slowly, hostility was growing, and the dark men out of the mountains were thrusting into [[Enedwaith]] in support of their kinsmen.<ref name="A">{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
 
Around that time, the Númenórean [[Drúedain]] became uneasy and urged Aldarion not to go, foreseeing the mischief to come. They did not succeed and one after another they took ships towards Middle-earth.<ref>{{UT|Druedain}}</ref>
 
Around that time, the Númenórean [[Drúedain]] became uneasy and urged Aldarion not to go, foreseeing the mischief to come. They did not succeed and one after another they took ships towards Middle-earth.<ref>{{UT|Druedain}}</ref>
  
In {{SA|820}} Vinyalondë was overthrown by great seas and plundered by hostile men. Men near the coasts were growing afraid of the Númenóreans or were openly hostile and Aldarion heard rumours of some lord in Middle-earth who hated them. As Gil-galad warned [[Tar-Meneldur]] that this instigator was a servant of the [[Sauron|Enemy]].<ref name=Aldarion></ref>{{rp|199-200}}
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In {{SA|820}} Vinyalondë was overthrown by great seas and plundered by hostile men. Men near the coasts were growing afraid of the Númenóreans, or were openly hostile and Aldarion heard rumours of some lord in Middle-earth who hated them. As Gil-galad warned [[Tar-Meneldur]] that this instigator was a servant of the [[Sauron|Enemy]].<ref name="A"/>
  
Aldarion's successors continued his works and even fought with the pre-Númenóreans until they attacked and ambushed the Númenóreans when they could.<ref name=Description></ref> They became their enemies giving no thought to husbandry or replanting. The Númenóreans wrecked the banks, the shorelines, great tracks and roads whom they drove into the forests northwards and southwards from the [[Gwathló]]<ref name="GC"/> and continued battling and destroying what lied ahead of them, pushing into [[Minhiriath]] and [[Enedwaith]], establishing themselves inland as far as the river [[Glanduin]] (the southern boundary of [[Eregion]]), beyond which pre-Númenóreans and hostile peoples lived, a remnant of the peoples that had dwelt in the vales of the White Mountains in ages past<ref name=Appendices>{{App|Men}}</ref><ref name="GC"/> The natives overcame their fear of the Elves and fled from Minhiriath into the dark woods of the great [[Eryn Vorn|Cape of Eryn Vorn]] (south of the mouth of [[Baranduin]]). Those from Enedwaith took refuge in the eastern mountains ([[Dunland]]).<ref name="GC"/>
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Aldarion's successors continued his works and even fought with the pre-Númenóreans<ref>{{UT|Numenor}}</ref> until they attacked and ambushed the Númenóreans when they could. They became their enemies giving no thought to husbandry or replanting. The Númenóreans wrecked the banks, the shorelines, great tracks and roads whom they drove into the forests northwards and southwards from the [[Gwathló]]<ref name="GC"/> and continued battling and destroying what lied ahead of them, pushing into [[Minhiriath]] and [[Enedwaith]], establishing themselves inland as far as the river [[Glanduin]] (the southern boundary of [[Eregion]]), beyond which pre-Númenóreans and hostile peoples lived, a remnant of the peoples that had dwelt in the vales of the White Mountains in ages past<ref>{{App|Languages}}</ref><ref name="GC"/> The natives overcame their fear of the Elves and fled from Minhiriath into the dark woods of the great [[Cape of Eryn Vorn]] (south of the mouth of [[Baranduin]]). Those from Enedwaith took refuge in the eastern mountains ([[Dunland]]).<ref name="GC"/>
  
 
[[Sauron]] recruited pre-Númenóreans and in the early second millennium he increased pressure on the West, left his stronghold in [[Rhûn]] and relocated in [[Mordor]], drawing closer to the Númenórean sphere of influence. Sauron welcomed by the natives and used the haters of Númenor as spies and guides for his raiders who caused havoc and burned their settlements. He had not enough force to assault the forts at the Haven or along the banks of the [[Gwathló]]. However his regular troops attempted to conquest Eriador, hunting and killing Middle Men and the Elves and by {{SA|1700}} had mastered all Eriador, up to the River [[Lhûn]] and besieged [[Rivendell]].<ref name="GC"/>
 
[[Sauron]] recruited pre-Númenóreans and in the early second millennium he increased pressure on the West, left his stronghold in [[Rhûn]] and relocated in [[Mordor]], drawing closer to the Númenórean sphere of influence. Sauron welcomed by the natives and used the haters of Númenor as spies and guides for his raiders who caused havoc and burned their settlements. He had not enough force to assault the forts at the Haven or along the banks of the [[Gwathló]]. However his regular troops attempted to conquest Eriador, hunting and killing Middle Men and the Elves and by {{SA|1700}} had mastered all Eriador, up to the River [[Lhûn]] and besieged [[Rivendell]].<ref name="GC"/>
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They explored the coasts of Middle-earth far southward establishing landing and trading posts that grew into cruel vice-kingdoms which left many rumours in the legends of Men, although the Eldar did not know about them<ref>{{PM|Akallabeth}}</ref> In the south they found a useful natural haven already called [[Umbar]] by the natives.
 
They explored the coasts of Middle-earth far southward establishing landing and trading posts that grew into cruel vice-kingdoms which left many rumours in the legends of Men, although the Eldar did not know about them<ref>{{PM|Akallabeth}}</ref> In the south they found a useful natural haven already called [[Umbar]] by the natives.
  
The Númenóreans founded [[Pelargir]] in {{SA|2350}} and discovered the pre-Númenóreans [[Oathbreakers|Men of the Mountains]] near [[Dunharrow]] who eventually repented when Sauron left from Mordor and the power of Gil-galad had grown great.<ref name="Rings">{{S|Rings}}</ref>
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The Númenóreans founded [[Pelargir]] in {{SA|2350}} and discovered the pre-Númenóreans [[Oathbreakers|Men of the Mountains]] near [[Dunharrow]]<ref>{{HM|RK}}</ref> who eventually repented when Sauron left from Mordor and the power of Gil-galad had grown great.<ref name="Rings">{{S|Rings}}</ref>
  
As the shadow spread over Númenor, [[Tar-Ciryatan]] sailed to Middle-earth, bringing numerous treasures back to Númenor. Later more lands were occupied, plundered or forced to pay heavy tribute in return for the lives of their inhabitants. Towards the end of the kingdom, when their religion had changed and human sacrifices were made towards [[Morgoth|Melkor]], many of the victims were people of Middle-earth taken as prisoners. Because of these acts they were looked upon in fear, called the "Death" itself and the Men of Middle-earth trembled at the sight of a mighty Númenórean ship on the waters of [[Belegaer]]. However, the Faithful shared not the behaviour of the King's Men and though they also built a port in Middle-earth, named Pelargir, it was not for the sake of plundering but meant to be a haven far from those of the opposing party.
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As the shadow spread over Númenor, [[Tar-Ciryatan]] sailed to Middle-earth, bringing numerous treasures back to Númenor. Later more lands were occupied, plundered or forced to pay heavy tribute in return for the lives of their inhabitants. Towards the end of the kingdom, when their religion had changed and human sacrifices were made towards [[Morgoth|Melkor]], many of the victims were people of Middle-earth taken as prisoners. Because of these acts they were looked upon in fear, called the "Death" itself and the Men of Middle-earth trembled at the sight of a mighty Númenórean ship on the waters of [[Belegaer]]. However, the Faithful shared not the behavior of the King's Men and though they also built a port in Middle-earth, named Pelargir, it was not for the sake of plundering, but meant to be a haven far from those of the opposing party.
  
 
When the [[Elendili]] established the [[Realms in Exile]], many Men turned from evil and became subject to them even though the pre-Númenóreans were not friendly to them and never learned to distinguish between the [[King's Men]] and the [[Faithful]].<ref name="Rings"/> During this time the [[King of the Dead|King of the Mountains]] first swore allegiance to [[Isildur]] even though he and many other men were still influenced by their old allegiance to Sauron.  
 
When the [[Elendili]] established the [[Realms in Exile]], many Men turned from evil and became subject to them even though the pre-Númenóreans were not friendly to them and never learned to distinguish between the [[King's Men]] and the [[Faithful]].<ref name="Rings"/> During this time the [[King of the Dead|King of the Mountains]] first swore allegiance to [[Isildur]] even though he and many other men were still influenced by their old allegiance to Sauron.  
  
When Sauron returned Isildur summoned the Men of the Mountains to fulfil their oath, but they would not because they still feared Sauron. They hid in the mountains, isolated until slowly dwindling in the barren hills they became the [[Oathbreakers|Dead Men of Dunharrow]].
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When Sauron returned Isildur summoned the Men of the Mountains to fulfill their oath, but they would not because they still feared Sauron. They hid in the mountains, isolated, until slowly dwindling in the barren hills they became the [[Oathbreakers|Dead Men of Dunharrow]].
  
 
===Sauron's Influence===
 
===Sauron's Influence===
The only daughter of the king [[Tar-Palantir]], a friend of the Eldar who tried to restore the old ways, was [[Tar-Míriel]]. According to the [[Law of Succession in Númenor|New Law]], she had the right to inherit the throne, but her cousin Pharazôn forced her into marriage, and took the Sceptre for himself, becoming known as Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, the most proud and powerful of all the kings. He desired not only immortality as the ones before he had, but also the dominion over the entire world. For this, he gathered a great fleet and opposed the greatest opponent in the path of his task: Sauron.  
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 +
The only daughter of the king [[Tar-Palantir]], a friend of the Eldar who tried to restore the old ways, was [[Tar-Míriel]]. According to the [[Law of Succession in Númenor|New Law]] she had the right to inherit the throne, but her cousin Pharazôn forced her into marriage, and took the Sceptre for himself, becoming known as Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, the most proud and powerful of all the kings. He desired not only immortality as the ones before him had, but also the dominion over the entire world. For this he gathered a great fleet and opposed the greatest opponent in the path of his task: Sauron.  
  
 
So mighty were the Númenóreans that the servants of Sauron fled even before the battle began and their leader was taken as a prisoner back to the island of Elenna. Through numerous lies he poisoned the mind of the king and became master of his council, changing even the religion of the Númenóreans and turning them into servants of the dark [[Morgoth]].  And because he assured Ar-Pharazôn that if he ever reached Aman he would become immortal, the last king gathered once more a great host of ships and sailed to break the Ban of the Valar.
 
So mighty were the Númenóreans that the servants of Sauron fled even before the battle began and their leader was taken as a prisoner back to the island of Elenna. Through numerous lies he poisoned the mind of the king and became master of his council, changing even the religion of the Númenóreans and turning them into servants of the dark [[Morgoth]].  And because he assured Ar-Pharazôn that if he ever reached Aman he would become immortal, the last king gathered once more a great host of ships and sailed to break the Ban of the Valar.
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Pharazôn's attempt to reach Valinor and his previous preparations for war with the Eldar raised the anger of [[Manwë]] who sent his eagle-shaped storm clouds to Númenor. Lightning struck the land, including the temple of Melkor, where human sacrifices were made. Because Sauron himself stood in their path and was not hurt by them, the Númenóreans were deceived even more into thinking he was their rightful god.
 
Pharazôn's attempt to reach Valinor and his previous preparations for war with the Eldar raised the anger of [[Manwë]] who sent his eagle-shaped storm clouds to Númenor. Lightning struck the land, including the temple of Melkor, where human sacrifices were made. Because Sauron himself stood in their path and was not hurt by them, the Númenóreans were deceived even more into thinking he was their rightful god.
  
Ar-Pharazôn sailed at the head of his fleet known as the [[Great Armament]], led by the flagship [[Alcarondas]], set course towards Valinor and reached Tol Eressëa. His pride fooled him into thinking that the inhabitants of Aman would not stand in his way, because the land was quiet and peaceful, and thus he set camp near the [[Túna]] hill. But Manwë, the Elder King, was aware of what transpired, and the Valar then laid down the Guardianship of Arda. Ilúvatar responded by catastrophically changing the shape of Arda. The Númenóreans present in Valinor were buried under the hills which fell upon them, and on the great island, fire erupted from the top of Meneltarma. The land crumbled into pieces and a great wave swept over it and buried the island at the bottom of the sea. Its people were taken by the waters, and this tragedy brought an end to the Númenórean realm, in {{SA|3319}}.
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Ar-Pharazôn sailed at the head of his fleet known as the [[Great Armament]], led by the flagship [[Alcarondas]], set course towards Valinor and reached Tol Eressëa. His pride fooled him into thinking that the inhabitants of Aman would not stand in his way, because the land was quiet and peaceful, and thus he set camp near the [[Túna]] hill. But Manwë, the Elder King, was aware of what transpired, and the Valar then laid down the Guardianship of Arda. Ilúvatar responded by catastrophically changing the shape of Arda. The Númenóreans present in Valinor were buried under the hills which fell upon them, and on the great island fire was erupted from the top of Meneltarma. The land crumbled into pieces and a great wave swept over it and buried the island at the bottom of the sea. Its people were taken by the waters, and this tragedy brought an end to the Númenórean realm, in {{SA|3319}}.
  
 
===Epilogue===
 
===Epilogue===
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The only ones to survive the Downfall of Númenor were Elendil and his sons, [[Isildur]] and [[Anárion]], along with the few people of the Elendili. They escaped the [[Akallabêth]] with nine ships, a seedling of [[Nimloth of Númenor|Nimloth]], which Isildur had rescued the night before its destruction and the Seven [[Seeing-stones]]. Cast ashore by the storm on the western lands of Middle-earth, they founded the Númenórean realms in exile: [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]]. Their war with Sauron continued in the lands of Middle-earth.  Fighting side by side with the Elves and the [[Dwarves]] they opposed and defeated him during the [[War of the Last Alliance]].
 
The only ones to survive the Downfall of Númenor were Elendil and his sons, [[Isildur]] and [[Anárion]], along with the few people of the Elendili. They escaped the [[Akallabêth]] with nine ships, a seedling of [[Nimloth of Númenor|Nimloth]], which Isildur had rescued the night before its destruction and the Seven [[Seeing-stones]]. Cast ashore by the storm on the western lands of Middle-earth, they founded the Númenórean realms in exile: [[Arnor]] and [[Gondor]]. Their war with Sauron continued in the lands of Middle-earth.  Fighting side by side with the Elves and the [[Dwarves]] they opposed and defeated him during the [[War of the Last Alliance]].
  
Long after the Fall, there was a belief among those who survived it that the Holy Mountain Meneltarma was not swallowed by the waters but instead raised to be a new island of its own. The heirs of Elendil built great ships once more and set on its search, not only because they yearned for their home, but also because from that point, the top of Meneltarma, Tol Eressëa could be spotted and their hearts still desired to reach the West, against all warnings. But they never found the top of Meneltarma and their voyages served only to discover that Arda was a round world.
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Long after the Fall there was a belief among those who survived it that the Holy Mountain Meneltarma was not swallowed by the waters, but instead raised to be a new island of its own. The heirs of Elendil built great ships once more and set on its search, not only because they yearned for their home, but also because from that point, the top of Meneltarma, Tol Eressëa could be spotted and their hearts still desired to reach the West, against all warnings. But they never found the top of Meneltarma and their voyages served only to discover that Arda was a round world.
 
==Culture==
 
==Culture==
The Númenóreans were extremely skilled in arts and craft, with the forging of weapons and armour; although they were a peaceful people, their weapons, armour, and horse-riding skills could not be contested anywhere else in [[Arda]], save for the [[Valar]]. But the Númenóreans were not warmongers, hence the chief art on the island became that of ship-building and sea-craft. The Númenóreans became great mariners, exploring the world in all directions save for the westward, where the [[Ban of the Valar]] was in force. They often travelled to the shores of Middle-earth, teaching the men there the art and craft, and introduced farming as to improve their everyday lives.
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The Númenóreans were extremely skilled in arts and craft, with the forging of weapons and armour; although they were a peaceful people, their weapons, armour, and horse-riding skills could not be contested anywhere else in [[Arda]], save for the [[Valar]]. But the Númenóreans were not warmongers, hence the chief art on the island became that of ship-building and sea-craft. The Númenóreans became great mariners, exploring the world in all directions save for the westward, where the [[Ban of the Valar]] was in force. They often traveled to the shores of Middle-earth, teaching the men there the art and craft, and introduced farming as to improve their everyday lives.
  
The Númenóreans spoke [[Adunaic]], a [[Mannish]] language that descended from the Mannish languages spoken in [[Beleriand]]. However, their forefathers, the Edain, had learned [[Sindarin]] which was passed on to Númenor. As a language of lore, it changed only a little with the millennia. Educated Númenóreans also studied [[Quenya]], having a prestige above all other tongues.<ref name=Appendices></ref>
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The Númenóreans spoke [[Adunaic]], a [[Mannish]] language that descended from the Mannish languages spoken in [[Beleriand]]. However their forefathers, the Edain, had learned [[Sindarin]] which was passed on to Númenor. As a language of lore, it changed only a litte with the millennia. Educated Númenóreans also studied [[Quenya]], having a prestige above all other tongues.<ref>{{App|Men}}</ref>
  
 
Respected as a law was the [[Ban of the Valar]], which stated that Númenóreans should never sail West more than the limit of their sight when looking after their shores. As the fear of death filled more and more the hearts of the Númenóreans, they sailed further away from the island, until finally the last king, Ar-Pharazôn, broke the Ban in his attempt to reach [[Tol Eressëa]] out of the false belief that dwelling in that place granted immortality.   
 
Respected as a law was the [[Ban of the Valar]], which stated that Númenóreans should never sail West more than the limit of their sight when looking after their shores. As the fear of death filled more and more the hearts of the Númenóreans, they sailed further away from the island, until finally the last king, Ar-Pharazôn, broke the Ban in his attempt to reach [[Tol Eressëa]] out of the false belief that dwelling in that place granted immortality.   
 
===Religion and Tradition===
 
===Religion and Tradition===
  
Towards the middle of Mittalmar stood the Mountain [[Meneltarma]], the sacred place on which [[Ilúvatar|Eru]] was worshipped. Its flattened top was wide enough to contain a great crowd during the three yearly ceremonies ([[Erukyermë]], [[Erulaitalë]] and [[Eruhantalë]]). These took place in absolute silence while climbing its slopes. Soon after {{SA|3262}} these religious beliefs were abandoned and the worshipping of [[Morgoth|Melkor]] began. It was done in a cylindrical temple near the city of Armenelos built especially for this, and it involved sacrificing men and women over a great fire, whose first flames were lit from the [[White Tree of Tol Eressëa]].
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Towards the middle of Mittalmar stood the Mountain [[Meneltarma]], the sacred place on which [[Ilúvatar|Eru]] was worshiped. Its flattened top was wide enough to contain a great crowd during the three yearly ceremonies ([[Erukyermë]], [[Erulaitalë]] and [[Eruhantalë]]). These took place in absolute silence while climbing its slopes. Soon after {{SA|3262}} these religious beliefs were abandoned and the worshiping of [[Morgoth|Melkor]] began. It was done in a cylindrical temple near the city of Armenelos built especially for this, and it involved sacrificing men and women over a great fire, whose first flames were lit from the [[White Tree of Tol Eressëa]].
  
 
Whenever ships sailed from Númenor, the custom of the [[Green Bough of Return]] took place. A branch from the [[Fragrant Trees|Fragrant Tree]] [[Oiolairë]] was set at the prow as a symbol of good fortune by a Númenórean woman, close relative to the captain of the ship. [[Erendis]], wife of Tar-Aldarion, refused to do so in disagreement with her husband's frequent voyages towards Middle-earth, breaking this tradition for the first time.
 
Whenever ships sailed from Númenor, the custom of the [[Green Bough of Return]] took place. A branch from the [[Fragrant Trees|Fragrant Tree]] [[Oiolairë]] was set at the prow as a symbol of good fortune by a Númenórean woman, close relative to the captain of the ship. [[Erendis]], wife of Tar-Aldarion, refused to do so in disagreement with her husband's frequent voyages towards Middle-earth, breaking this tradition for the first time.
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Many of the inhabitants of Númenor were fishermen. Along with the grains cultivated in Orrostar, fish was the main food source for the Númenóreans.
 
Many of the inhabitants of Númenor were fishermen. Along with the grains cultivated in Orrostar, fish was the main food source for the Númenóreans.
  
The Dúnedain were skilled in riding and loved horses. They could even call them in their thoughts if bound by friendship. Númenor had no paved roads so that the carriages could move on them more easily. From the [[Noldor]] they learned the art of forging swords, axes, spears, knives, but mostly bows; their arrows resembled dark clouds falling upon the enemies.  
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The Dúnedain were skilled in riding and loved horses. They could even call them in their thoughts, if bound by friendship. Númenor had no paved roads, so that the carriages could move on them more easily. From the [[Noldor]] they learned the art of forging swords, axes, spears, knives, but mostly bows; their arrows resembled dark clouds falling upon the enemies.  
  
 
The Númenóreans, were skilled in the art of husbandry, breeding great horses that roamed across the open plains in Mittalmar.  
 
The Númenóreans, were skilled in the art of husbandry, breeding great horses that roamed across the open plains in Mittalmar.  
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The average Númenórean was taller than two [[Ranga]]r or 6'4". Elendil was the tallest of Men who escaped the Downfall (mentioned to be almost 2.5 [[rangar]] tall, 7'11" or 2.41 m)<ref>{{UT|Linear}}</ref>
 
The average Númenórean was taller than two [[Ranga]]r or 6'4". Elendil was the tallest of Men who escaped the Downfall (mentioned to be almost 2.5 [[rangar]] tall, 7'11" or 2.41 m)<ref>{{UT|Linear}}</ref>
  
[[Christopher Tolkien]] noted that Tolkien developed his thinking on the longevity of Númenóreans: originally he suggested that Númenóreans not of the [[Line of Elros]] lived for 200 years - or three times normal men - with royal kindred living 400 years. However, in later writings this was changed to a smaller difference between royals and non-royals, with Númenóreans living "five times" that of normal men, or 300-350 years. Those of the House of Elros were consistenly at c. 400 years, although this was later diminished due to their rebellion.<ref name=Line/> This longer lifespan resulted in an older age of adulthood: 25 years.<ref name=Aldarion></ref>{{rp|174}}
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While most Númenóreans lived around 350 years, royal kindred live 400 years. This longer lifespan resulted in an older age of adulthood: 25 years.<ref>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
 
==Names==
 
==Names==
 
In their own language, the Númenóreans were named '''Adûnâim'''.<ref>{{HM|SD}}, p. 426</ref>
 
In their own language, the Númenóreans were named '''Adûnâim'''.<ref>{{HM|SD}}, p. 426</ref>
  
The Númenóreans were also known as '''High Men'''.<ref name=Dwarves>
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The Númenóreans were also known as '''High Men'''.<ref>{{HM|PM}}, pp. 312, 427</ref><ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 101</ref> (Cf. [[Middle Men]]). They were also known as Sea-kings, Men of the Sea and Lords of the Sea<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, p. 297</ref>
</ref>{{rp|312, 427}}<ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 101</ref> (Cf. [[Middle Men]]). They were also known as "Sea-kings", "Men of the Sea" and "Lords of the Sea".<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, p. 297</ref>
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==See also==
 
==See also==
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*[[Black Númenóreans]]
 
*[[Black Númenóreans]]
 
*[[Dúnedain]]
 
*[[Dúnedain]]
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*[[Númenor]]
 
*[[Akallabêth]]
 
*[[Akallabêth]]
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
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[[Category:Edain]]
 
[[Category:Edain]]
 
[[Category:Men]]
 
[[Category:Men]]
[[Category:Númenóreans]]
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[[Category:Númenóreans| ]]
 
[[fi:Númenorilaiset]]
 
[[fi:Númenorilaiset]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/peuples/hommes/numenoreens]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/peuples/hommes/numenoreens]]

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