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<center>{{quote|So great was the might and splendour of the Númenóreans that Sauron's own servants deserted him.|''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]]}}</center>
 
<center>{{quote|So great was the might and splendour of the Númenóreans that Sauron's own servants deserted him.|''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'', [[Appendix A]]}}</center>
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<!--See also of Eriador#Elves and Númenóreans links here-->
 
<!--See also of Eriador#Elves and Númenóreans links here-->
 
[[Image:Paula DiSante - Ar-Pharazon Defies.JPG|thumb|right|[[Paula DiSante]] - ''Ar-Pharazon Defies'']]
 
[[Image:Paula DiSante - Ar-Pharazon Defies.JPG|thumb|right|[[Paula DiSante]] - ''Ar-Pharazon Defies'']]
Due to the fact that the Ban of the Valar restricted them from sailing [[Undying Lands|West]], the Númenóreans began to explore the eastern part of the [[Arda|world]], reaching the shores of Middle-earth in {{SA|600}} in [[Lindon]] and met with [[Gil-galad]]. The news spread swiftly and the [[Middle Men]] in [[Eriador]] were filled with wonder. The sailors met with twelve messengers on the [[Tower Hills]].<ref name=Aldarion>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>{{rp|213}}
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Due to the fact that the Ban of the Valar restricted them from sailing [[Undying Lands|West]], the Númenóreans began to explore the eastern part of the [[Arda|world]], reaching the shores of Middle-earth in {{SA|600}} in [[Lindon]] and met with [[Gil-galad]]. The news spread swiftly and the [[Middle Men]] in [[Eriador]] were filled with wonder. The sailors met with twelve messengers on the [[Tower Hills]].<ref>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
The Númenóreans began to cultivate their new friends who were into their [[Dark Years]], grown weak and fearful, and taught them agriculture, stonecraft, smithying and their language [[Adûnaic]] but failed to recognize the [[Pre-Númenórean]] forest-folk of [[Minhiriath]] as ‘kinsmen’, and confused them with [[Men of Shadow]] because it was not related to theirs.<ref name=Dwarves>{{PM|X}}</ref>{{rp|313-314}}
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The Númenóreans began to cultivate their new friends who were into their [[Dark Years]], grown weak and fearful, and taught them agriculture, stonecraft, smithying and their language [[Adûnaic]] but failed to recognize the [[Pre-Númenórean]] forest-folk of [[Minhiriath]] as ‘kinsmen’, and confused them with [[Men of Shadow]] because it was not related to theirs.<ref>{{PM|X}}</ref>
  
 
The Middle Men were comforted, populated the western shores. They revered the memory of the tall Sea-kings whom they remembered as gods hoping each time for their return.<ref>{{S|IV}}</ref>
 
The Middle Men were comforted, populated the western shores. They revered the memory of the tall Sea-kings whom they remembered as gods hoping each time for their return.<ref>{{S|IV}}</ref>
  
More and more Númenor became a great naval power, and the [[Guild of Venturers]] established [[Vinyalondë]] (early 9th century).<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref> The Pre-Númenóreans were patient until the tree-felling by [[Aldarion]] became devastating;<ref name="GC">{{UT|Galadriel}}</ref> slowly, hostility was growing, and the dark men out of the mountains were thrusting into [[Enedwaith]] in support of their kinsmen.<ref name=Aldarion></ref>{{rp|206}}
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More and more Númenor became a great naval power, and the [[Guild of Venturers]] established [[Vinyalondë]] (early 9th century).<ref>{{UT|Cirion}}</ref> The Pre-Númenóreans were patient until the tree-felling by [[Aldarion]] became devastating;<ref name="GC">{{UT|Galadriel}}</ref> slowly, hostility was growing, and the dark men out of the mountains were thrusting into [[Enedwaith]] in support of their kinsmen.<ref name="A">{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
 
Around that time, the Númenórean [[Drúedain]] became uneasy and urged Aldarion not to go, foreseeing the mischief to come. They did not succeed and one after another they took ships towards Middle-earth.<ref>{{UT|Druedain}}</ref>
 
Around that time, the Númenórean [[Drúedain]] became uneasy and urged Aldarion not to go, foreseeing the mischief to come. They did not succeed and one after another they took ships towards Middle-earth.<ref>{{UT|Druedain}}</ref>
  
In {{SA|820}} Vinyalondë was overthrown by great seas and plundered by hostile men. Men near the coasts were growing afraid of the Númenóreans or were openly hostile and Aldarion heard rumours of some lord in Middle-earth who hated them. As Gil-galad warned [[Tar-Meneldur]] that this instigator was a servant of the [[Sauron|Enemy]].<ref name=Aldarion></ref>{{rp|199-200}}
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In {{SA|820}} Vinyalondë was overthrown by great seas and plundered by hostile men. Men near the coasts were growing afraid of the Númenóreans or were openly hostile and Aldarion heard rumours of some lord in Middle-earth who hated them. As Gil-galad warned [[Tar-Meneldur]] that this instigator was a servant of the [[Sauron|Enemy]].<ref name="A"/>
  
Aldarion's successors continued his works and even fought with the pre-Númenóreans until they attacked and ambushed the Númenóreans when they could.<ref name=Description></ref> They became their enemies giving no thought to husbandry or replanting. The Númenóreans wrecked the banks, the shorelines, great tracks and roads whom they drove into the forests northwards and southwards from the [[Gwathló]]<ref name="GC"/> and continued battling and destroying what lied ahead of them, pushing into [[Minhiriath]] and [[Enedwaith]], establishing themselves inland as far as the river [[Glanduin]] (the southern boundary of [[Eregion]]), beyond which pre-Númenóreans and hostile peoples lived, a remnant of the peoples that had dwelt in the vales of the White Mountains in ages past<ref name=Appendices>{{App|Men}}</ref><ref name="GC"/> The natives overcame their fear of the Elves and fled from Minhiriath into the dark woods of the great [[Eryn Vorn|Cape of Eryn Vorn]] (south of the mouth of [[Baranduin]]). Those from Enedwaith took refuge in the eastern mountains ([[Dunland]]).<ref name="GC"/>
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Aldarion's successors continued his works and even fought with the pre-Númenóreans<ref>{{UT|Numenor}}</ref> until they attacked and ambushed the Númenóreans when they could. They became their enemies giving no thought to husbandry or replanting. The Númenóreans wrecked the banks, the shorelines, great tracks and roads whom they drove into the forests northwards and southwards from the [[Gwathló]]<ref name="GC"/> and continued battling and destroying what lied ahead of them, pushing into [[Minhiriath]] and [[Enedwaith]], establishing themselves inland as far as the river [[Glanduin]] (the southern boundary of [[Eregion]]), beyond which pre-Númenóreans and hostile peoples lived, a remnant of the peoples that had dwelt in the vales of the White Mountains in ages past<ref>{{App|Languages}}</ref><ref name="GC"/> The natives overcame their fear of the Elves and fled from Minhiriath into the dark woods of the great [[Cape of Eryn Vorn]] (south of the mouth of [[Baranduin]]). Those from Enedwaith took refuge in the eastern mountains ([[Dunland]]).<ref name="GC"/>
  
 
[[Sauron]] recruited pre-Númenóreans and in the early second millennium he increased pressure on the West, left his stronghold in [[Rhûn]] and relocated in [[Mordor]], drawing closer to the Númenórean sphere of influence. Sauron welcomed by the natives and used the haters of Númenor as spies and guides for his raiders who caused havoc and burned their settlements. He had not enough force to assault the forts at the Haven or along the banks of the [[Gwathló]]. However his regular troops attempted to conquest Eriador, hunting and killing Middle Men and the Elves and by {{SA|1700}} had mastered all Eriador, up to the River [[Lhûn]] and besieged [[Rivendell]].<ref name="GC"/>
 
[[Sauron]] recruited pre-Númenóreans and in the early second millennium he increased pressure on the West, left his stronghold in [[Rhûn]] and relocated in [[Mordor]], drawing closer to the Númenórean sphere of influence. Sauron welcomed by the natives and used the haters of Númenor as spies and guides for his raiders who caused havoc and burned their settlements. He had not enough force to assault the forts at the Haven or along the banks of the [[Gwathló]]. However his regular troops attempted to conquest Eriador, hunting and killing Middle Men and the Elves and by {{SA|1700}} had mastered all Eriador, up to the River [[Lhûn]] and besieged [[Rivendell]].<ref name="GC"/>
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They explored the coasts of Middle-earth far southward establishing landing and trading posts that grew into cruel vice-kingdoms which left many rumours in the legends of Men, although the Eldar did not know about them<ref>{{PM|Akallabeth}}</ref> In the south they found a useful natural haven already called [[Umbar]] by the natives.
 
They explored the coasts of Middle-earth far southward establishing landing and trading posts that grew into cruel vice-kingdoms which left many rumours in the legends of Men, although the Eldar did not know about them<ref>{{PM|Akallabeth}}</ref> In the south they found a useful natural haven already called [[Umbar]] by the natives.
  
The Númenóreans founded [[Pelargir]] in {{SA|2350}} and discovered the pre-Númenóreans [[Oathbreakers|Men of the Mountains]] near [[Dunharrow]] who eventually repented when Sauron left from Mordor and the power of Gil-galad had grown great.<ref name="Rings">{{S|Rings}}</ref>
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The Númenóreans founded [[Pelargir]] in {{SA|2350}} and discovered the pre-Númenóreans [[Oathbreakers|Men of the Mountains]] near [[Dunharrow]]<ref>{{HM|RK}}</ref> who eventually repented when Sauron left from Mordor and the power of Gil-galad had grown great.<ref name="Rings">{{S|Rings}}</ref>
  
 
As the shadow spread over Númenor, [[Tar-Ciryatan]] sailed to Middle-earth, bringing numerous treasures back to Númenor. Later more lands were occupied, plundered or forced to pay heavy tribute in return for the lives of their inhabitants. Towards the end of the kingdom, when their religion had changed and human sacrifices were made towards [[Morgoth|Melkor]], many of the victims were people of Middle-earth taken as prisoners. Because of these acts they were looked upon in fear, called the "Death" itself and the Men of Middle-earth trembled at the sight of a mighty Númenórean ship on the waters of [[Belegaer]]. However, the Faithful shared not the behaviour of the King's Men and though they also built a port in Middle-earth, named Pelargir, it was not for the sake of plundering but meant to be a haven far from those of the opposing party.
 
As the shadow spread over Númenor, [[Tar-Ciryatan]] sailed to Middle-earth, bringing numerous treasures back to Númenor. Later more lands were occupied, plundered or forced to pay heavy tribute in return for the lives of their inhabitants. Towards the end of the kingdom, when their religion had changed and human sacrifices were made towards [[Morgoth|Melkor]], many of the victims were people of Middle-earth taken as prisoners. Because of these acts they were looked upon in fear, called the "Death" itself and the Men of Middle-earth trembled at the sight of a mighty Númenórean ship on the waters of [[Belegaer]]. However, the Faithful shared not the behaviour of the King's Men and though they also built a port in Middle-earth, named Pelargir, it was not for the sake of plundering but meant to be a haven far from those of the opposing party.
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===Sauron's Influence===
 
===Sauron's Influence===
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The only daughter of the king [[Tar-Palantir]], a friend of the Eldar who tried to restore the old ways, was [[Tar-Míriel]]. According to the [[Law of Succession in Númenor|New Law]], she had the right to inherit the throne, but her cousin Pharazôn forced her into marriage, and took the Sceptre for himself, becoming known as Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, the most proud and powerful of all the kings. He desired not only immortality as the ones before he had, but also the dominion over the entire world. For this, he gathered a great fleet and opposed the greatest opponent in the path of his task: Sauron.  
 
The only daughter of the king [[Tar-Palantir]], a friend of the Eldar who tried to restore the old ways, was [[Tar-Míriel]]. According to the [[Law of Succession in Númenor|New Law]], she had the right to inherit the throne, but her cousin Pharazôn forced her into marriage, and took the Sceptre for himself, becoming known as Ar-Pharazôn the Golden, the most proud and powerful of all the kings. He desired not only immortality as the ones before he had, but also the dominion over the entire world. For this, he gathered a great fleet and opposed the greatest opponent in the path of his task: Sauron.  
  
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The Númenóreans were extremely skilled in arts and craft, with the forging of weapons and armour; although they were a peaceful people, their weapons, armour, and horse-riding skills could not be contested anywhere else in [[Arda]], save for the [[Valar]]. But the Númenóreans were not warmongers, hence the chief art on the island became that of ship-building and sea-craft. The Númenóreans became great mariners, exploring the world in all directions save for the westward, where the [[Ban of the Valar]] was in force. They often travelled to the shores of Middle-earth, teaching the men there the art and craft, and introduced farming as to improve their everyday lives.
 
The Númenóreans were extremely skilled in arts and craft, with the forging of weapons and armour; although they were a peaceful people, their weapons, armour, and horse-riding skills could not be contested anywhere else in [[Arda]], save for the [[Valar]]. But the Númenóreans were not warmongers, hence the chief art on the island became that of ship-building and sea-craft. The Númenóreans became great mariners, exploring the world in all directions save for the westward, where the [[Ban of the Valar]] was in force. They often travelled to the shores of Middle-earth, teaching the men there the art and craft, and introduced farming as to improve their everyday lives.
  
The Númenóreans spoke [[Adunaic]], a [[Mannish]] language that descended from the Mannish languages spoken in [[Beleriand]]. However, their forefathers, the Edain, had learned [[Sindarin]] which was passed on to Númenor. As a language of lore, it changed only a little with the millennia. Educated Númenóreans also studied [[Quenya]], having a prestige above all other tongues.<ref name=Appendices></ref>
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The Númenóreans spoke [[Adunaic]], a [[Mannish]] language that descended from the Mannish languages spoken in [[Beleriand]]. However, their forefathers, the Edain, had learned [[Sindarin]] which was passed on to Númenor. As a language of lore, it changed only a little with the millennia. Educated Númenóreans also studied [[Quenya]], having a prestige above all other tongues.<ref>{{App|Men}}</ref>
  
 
Respected as a law was the [[Ban of the Valar]], which stated that Númenóreans should never sail West more than the limit of their sight when looking after their shores. As the fear of death filled more and more the hearts of the Númenóreans, they sailed further away from the island, until finally the last king, Ar-Pharazôn, broke the Ban in his attempt to reach [[Tol Eressëa]] out of the false belief that dwelling in that place granted immortality.   
 
Respected as a law was the [[Ban of the Valar]], which stated that Númenóreans should never sail West more than the limit of their sight when looking after their shores. As the fear of death filled more and more the hearts of the Númenóreans, they sailed further away from the island, until finally the last king, Ar-Pharazôn, broke the Ban in his attempt to reach [[Tol Eressëa]] out of the false belief that dwelling in that place granted immortality.   
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The average Númenórean was taller than two [[Ranga]]r or 6'4". Elendil was the tallest of Men who escaped the Downfall (mentioned to be almost 2.5 [[rangar]] tall, 7'11" or 2.41 m)<ref>{{UT|Linear}}</ref>
 
The average Númenórean was taller than two [[Ranga]]r or 6'4". Elendil was the tallest of Men who escaped the Downfall (mentioned to be almost 2.5 [[rangar]] tall, 7'11" or 2.41 m)<ref>{{UT|Linear}}</ref>
  
[[Christopher Tolkien]] noted that Tolkien developed his thinking on the longevity of Númenóreans: originally he suggested that Númenóreans not of the [[Line of Elros]] lived for 200 years - or three times normal men - with royal kindred living 400 years. However, in later writings this was changed to a smaller difference between royals and non-royals, with Númenóreans living "five times" that of normal men, or 300-350 years. Those of the House of Elros were consistenly at c. 400 years, although this was later diminished due to their rebellion.<ref name=Line/> This longer lifespan resulted in an older age of adulthood: 25 years.<ref name=Aldarion></ref>{{rp|174}}
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[[Christopher Tolkien]] noted that Tolkien developed his thinking on the longevity of Númenóreans: originally he suggested that Númenóreans not of the [[Line of Elros]] lived for 200 years - or three times normal men - with royal kindred living 400 years. However, in later writings this was changed to a smaller difference between royals and non-royals, with Númenóreans living "five times" that of normal men, or 300-350 years. Those of the House of Elros were consistenly at c. 400 years, although this was later diminished due to their rebellion.<ref name=Line/> This longer lifespan resulted in an older age of adulthood: 25 years.<ref>{{UT|Aldarion}}</ref>
  
 
==Names==
 
==Names==
 
In their own language, the Númenóreans were named '''Adûnâim'''.<ref>{{HM|SD}}, p. 426</ref>
 
In their own language, the Númenóreans were named '''Adûnâim'''.<ref>{{HM|SD}}, p. 426</ref>
  
The Númenóreans were also known as '''High Men'''.<ref name=Dwarves>
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The Númenóreans were also known as '''High Men'''.<ref>{{HM|PM}}, pp. 312, 427</ref><ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 101</ref> (Cf. [[Middle Men]]). They were also known as Sea-kings, Men of the Sea and Lords of the Sea<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, p. 297</ref>
</ref>{{rp|312, 427}}<ref>{{PE|17}}, p. 101</ref> (Cf. [[Middle Men]]). They were also known as "Sea-kings", "Men of the Sea" and "Lords of the Sea".<ref>{{HM|Guide}}, p. 297</ref>
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==See also==
 
==See also==
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*[[Black Númenóreans]]
 
*[[Black Númenóreans]]
 
*[[Dúnedain]]
 
*[[Dúnedain]]
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*[[Númenor]]
 
*[[Akallabêth]]
 
*[[Akallabêth]]
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
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[[Category:Edain]]
 
[[Category:Edain]]
 
[[Category:Men]]
 
[[Category:Men]]
[[Category:Númenóreans]]
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[[Category:Númenóreans| ]]
 
[[fi:Númenorilaiset]]
 
[[fi:Númenorilaiset]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/peuples/hommes/numenoreens]]
 
[[fr:encyclo/peuples/hommes/numenoreens]]

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