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According to the background of the early legendarium, Noldorin derived from the Old Noldorin, the language spoken by the Gnomes/Noldoli in Valinor. That language was quite similar to Qenya, the language of the Lindar but had some differences.
A celtic-sounding language spoken by the Gnomes/Noldoli existed since the beginning of Tolkien's mythology. In the first stage, it was called Gnomish quite similar to later Noldorin/Sindarin but also quite different.
Noldorin with all its backstory existed even while TOlkien wrote LotR. The Elvish phrases and languages, while now called Sindarin, were 'Noldorin' in Tolkien's mind while writing them. It was only while writing the Appendices when he decided to retcon all the backstory and give 'Elvish' a new history and name, thus we have Sindarin.