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Old English

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'''Old English''' (sometimes called '''Anglo-Saxon''', though [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] disliked the term) was the ancestor language of modern English. It was also the mother language of characters [[Ælfwine]] and [[Eriol]].
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[[Image:Dwarfrunes.JPEG|thumb|The Anglo-Saxon runes as used in ''[[The Hobbit]]'']]
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'''Old English''' (also called '''Anglo-Saxon''', though [[J.R.R. Tolkien]] apparently avoided the term<ref>[[T.A. Shippey]] (2000), ''[[J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century]]'', p. xii</ref>) was the ancestor language of modern English. It was also the mother language of characters [[Ælfwine]] and [[Eriol]].
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Anglo-Saxon was typically written in a [[Runes|runic script]] before the introduction of the Latin alphabet.
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
[[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at at Pembroke College from [[1925]] to [[1945]]. He was strongly influenced by Old English literature such as [[Beowulf]] and favoured especially the Mercian dialect. Tolkien wrote in Old English several texts of his legendarium, which he (fictionally) attributed to Ælfwine. One of the, the ''[[Earliest Annals of Valinor]]'' have been published in ''[[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]'' and although they are commented and edited by [[Christopher Tolkien]], the translation is not given.
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Tolkien was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at at Pembroke College from [[1925]] to [[1945]]. He favored especially the Mercian dialect and was strongly influenced by Old English literature such as ''[[Beowulf]]''.
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In earlier notes concerning the ''[[The Book of Lost Tales Part Two]]'', Tolkien commented that Old English was the only language the Elves of [[Eressëa]] could talk to Men, and that was how they talked to Ælfwine. The Elves learned Old English while living with Men in [[Luthany]].
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Tolkien wrote in Old English several texts of his legendarium, which he (fictionally) attributed to Ælfwine such as the ''[[Earliest Annals of Valinor]]''; they were published more recently in ''[[The Shaping of Middle-earth]]'' and are commented and edited by [[Christopher Tolkien]]. These texts have been criticized because Christopher Tolkien did not provide a translation and they remain understandable only by Anglo-Saxon students.
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In those works, Eriol gave several Old English names to several elements of the legendarium; in some of them, Tolkien attempted to imitate the Elvish sound and form, but with a new meaning. For example [[Angband]] is rendered as ''Engbend'' "cruel-bond", [[Balrog]] as ''Bealuwearg'' "baleful-monster" or [[Silmaril]] as ''Sigelmaerels'' (actually referring to the [[Nauglamír]]). At least one name, ''[[Mickleburg]]'', survived in the published ''[[Silmarillion]]''.
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Anglo-Saxon runes were used on the [[Thrór's Map]] in ''[[The Hobbit]]'' to display the [[Cirth]] as used by the [[Dwarves]].
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Tolkien devised a [[Tengwar]] mode for Old English, for texts written by [[Edwin Lowdham]] in ''[[The Strange Case of Arundel Lowdham]]'' ([http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/mdtci.html#DTS50 DTS50] and [http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/mdtci.html#DTS51 DTS51]).
  
 
==Rohirric==
 
==Rohirric==
For ''[[Lord of the Rings]]'', Tolkien used several Anglo-Saxon names and words, which represented [[Rohirric]], the language of the [[Rohirrim]]. This simulated the archaic sense the [[Hobbits]] (who spoke [[Hobbitish]] [[Westron]]) felt with the Rohirrim.
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For ''[[Lord of the Rings]]'', Tolkien used several Anglo-Saxon names and words, which represented [[Rohirric]], the language of the [[Rohirrim]].<ref>{{L|144}}</ref> This simulated the archaic sense the [[Hobbits]] felt with the Rohirrim; Hobbits spoke [[Hobbitish]] [[Westron]], represented in the book by English.
  
 
However the relation of Old English and English is not the same as with Rohirric and Westron, since the latter descends from [[Adûnaic]], not Rohirric.
 
However the relation of Old English and English is not the same as with Rohirric and Westron, since the latter descends from [[Adûnaic]], not Rohirric.
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==See also==
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*[[:Category:Old English names|Category:Old English names]]
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*[[English to Anglo-Saxon Dictionary]] (unpublished Tolkien manuscript)
  
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}
[[Category:Languages]]
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==External links==
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*{{WP|Old English}}
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*''[http://www.jrrvf.com/hisweloke/sindar/online/goth-saxon/bright-oe.html James W. Bright's Glossary of the Anglo-Saxon Language]'' at [http://www.jrrvf.com Jrrvf.com]
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*[[Andreas Möhn|Andreas Moehn]], [http://lalaith.vpsurf.de/Tolkien/How_to_speak_Rohirric.html How to pronounce Rohirin] (pronunciation guide)
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*[http://www.jrrvf.com/~glaemscrafu/texts/vieilanglais-a.htm Sound samples] of Old English verses related to Tolkien
 
[[de:Altenglische Sprache]]
 
[[de:Altenglische Sprache]]
 
[[fi:Muinaisenglanti]]
 
[[fi:Muinaisenglanti]]
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[[Category:Languages (real-world)]]

Revision as of 20:08, 22 August 2012

The Anglo-Saxon runes as used in The Hobbit

Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon, though J.R.R. Tolkien apparently avoided the term[1]) was the ancestor language of modern English. It was also the mother language of characters Ælfwine and Eriol.

Anglo-Saxon was typically written in a runic script before the introduction of the Latin alphabet.

Contents

History

Tolkien was a professor of Anglo-Saxon at at Pembroke College from 1925 to 1945. He favored especially the Mercian dialect and was strongly influenced by Old English literature such as Beowulf.

In earlier notes concerning the The Book of Lost Tales Part Two, Tolkien commented that Old English was the only language the Elves of Eressëa could talk to Men, and that was how they talked to Ælfwine. The Elves learned Old English while living with Men in Luthany.

Tolkien wrote in Old English several texts of his legendarium, which he (fictionally) attributed to Ælfwine such as the Earliest Annals of Valinor; they were published more recently in The Shaping of Middle-earth and are commented and edited by Christopher Tolkien. These texts have been criticized because Christopher Tolkien did not provide a translation and they remain understandable only by Anglo-Saxon students.

In those works, Eriol gave several Old English names to several elements of the legendarium; in some of them, Tolkien attempted to imitate the Elvish sound and form, but with a new meaning. For example Angband is rendered as Engbend "cruel-bond", Balrog as Bealuwearg "baleful-monster" or Silmaril as Sigelmaerels (actually referring to the Nauglamír). At least one name, Mickleburg, survived in the published Silmarillion.

Anglo-Saxon runes were used on the Thrór's Map in The Hobbit to display the Cirth as used by the Dwarves.

Tolkien devised a Tengwar mode for Old English, for texts written by Edwin Lowdham in The Strange Case of Arundel Lowdham (DTS50 and DTS51).

Rohirric

For Lord of the Rings, Tolkien used several Anglo-Saxon names and words, which represented Rohirric, the language of the Rohirrim.[2] This simulated the archaic sense the Hobbits felt with the Rohirrim; Hobbits spoke Hobbitish Westron, represented in the book by English.

However the relation of Old English and English is not the same as with Rohirric and Westron, since the latter descends from Adûnaic, not Rohirric.

See also

References

  1. T.A. Shippey (2000), J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, p. xii
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien; Humphrey Carpenter, Christopher Tolkien (eds.), The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, Letter 144, (dated 25 April 1954)

External links