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Orkish was a general term for the jumble of languages used by the Orcs, composed from corrupted borrowings from other languages of Middle-earth. The variations in Orkish between different tribes and types of Orc were so great that it was often useless for communication, and so a standard language was necessary. Sauron devised his Black Speech for this purpose in Mordor, but in practice the Common Tongue was more normally used.
- Orkish and the Black Speech by Helge Fauskanger
- Yrksk Orðabók (Neo-Orkish wordlist from The Hobbit film series) by David Salo