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Oropher

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| name=Oropher
 
| name=Oropher
 
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| titles=King of the Silvan Elves
| birth=
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| position=
| realm=[[Lórinand]], [[Mirkwood]]
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| location=[[Woodland Realm]]
| death=[[Second Age 3434]]
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| affiliation=[[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]
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| language=[[Sindarin]] and [[Silvan Elvish|Silvan]]
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| birth=During {{FA}} or {{YT}}
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| birthlocation=[[Middle-earth]]
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| rule=unknown - {{SA|3434}}
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| death={{SA|3434}}
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| deathlocation=[[Battle of Dagorlad]]
 
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| gender=Male
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| children=[[Thranduil]]
 
| children=[[Thranduil]]
|}}
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| gender=Male
'''Oropher''' was a [[Sindarin]] lord of [[Elves]]. He was one of the Sindar of [[Doriath]], but after the [[War of Wrath]] he declined to depart Middle-earth as many others did, and instead went over the [[Ered Luin]] with his house-hold. He eventually ended up in [[Greenwood the Great]], where [[Silvan Elves]] of [[Nandor]]in descent lived, and he was taken by them as lord. His capital was at [[Amon Lanc]].
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}}'''Oropher''' was a [[Sindarin]] [[Elves|Elf]] of [[Doriath]] who became the King of the [[Nandor|Silvan Elves]] of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]] (Mirkwood) during the [[Second Age]]; he was killed during the [[Battle of Dagorlad]]. He was the father of Elvenking of ''[[The Hobbit]]'', [[Thranduil]], and grandfather of the [[Elven]] member of the [[Fellowship of the Ring]], [[Legolas]].
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==History==
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Oropher was a [[Sindar|Sinda]] from [[Doriath]] who, following the destruction of [[Beleriand]] and the [[War of Wrath]], was unwilling to leave [[Middle-earth]] for [[Aman]] (as were many other [[Elves]]).<ref name="Sindarin Princes">{{UT|Galadriel}}, "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"</ref>
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===Move to Greenwood the Great===
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In the [[Second Age]], Oropher - with a few other [[Sindar]] - chose to cross the [[Misty Mountains]] and mingle with [[Elves of Mirkwood|Silvan Elves]] of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]] as they were not dominated by [[Noldor]]in Exiles:<ref name="Sindarin Princes" /> the Elves of Doriath had no fondness for the Noldor with King [[Thingol]] banning the [[Quenya|Noldorin language]] and forbidding any Noldor from entering Doriath, except the children of [[Finarfin]] as they were related to Thingol (Finarfin's wife, [[Eärwen]] was Thingol's niece).<ref name="Return">{{S|Return}}</ref> The Silvan Elves shared common heritage with the Sindar as both the Silvan Elves (originally known as the ''[[Nandor]]'') and the Sindar were of the [[Teleri]] clan.<ref name="Sindar">{{S|Sindar}}</ref>
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The Sindar adopted the language of the Silvan Elves and wholly embraced the life of the Silvan Elves as the Sindar desired to experience a more "rustic" and "natural" way of life as was the case after their awakening in [[Cuiviénen]].<ref name="Sindarin Princes" /> The Silvan Elves accepted Oropher as their King.
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Originally, the Silvan Elves lived in the south of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]], with [[Amon Lanc]] as Oropher's capital, but over the course of the [[Second Age]] they gradually moved north to live around the [[Emyn Duir]]. The reason for this migration is unclear, being explained with two different reason: due to the threat of [[Sauron]] from the south (who located to [[Mordor]] and started building [[Barad-dûr]] in circa {{SA|1000}});<ref name="Gladden">{{UT|Gladden}}, note 14</ref> or, due to both the increasing power of [[Dwarves]] of [[Moria]] and out of resentment towards to the intrusions of [[Galadriel]] and [[Celeborn]] into [[Lothlórien|Lórien]].<ref name="Sindarin Princes" />
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===War of the Last Alliance===
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Despite the Silvan Elves' hostility towards the [[Dwarves]] and the Noldor - and their desire to stay away from the affairs of the rest of the world - Oropher could see the danger that [[Sauron]] posed, and whose defeat would bring about peace in [[Middle-earth]], so joined the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]. Oropher summoned a great army which joined with [[Amdír]]'s smaller force of [[Galadhrim|Lórien Elves]] to create one large host of Silvan Elves; the Silvan Elves were strong and brave, but had poor armour and weapons in comparison with [[Noldor]]in Elves.<ref name="Sindarin Princes" />
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[[Amdír]] and Oropher were unwilling to submit to the supreme command of [[Gil-galad]], as such they suffered heavier losses in the [[War of the Last Alliance]]. Amdír, and half his forces, died in the [[Battle of Dagorlad]] as they were cut off in the [[Dead Marshes]] from the main force, whilst two-thirds of Oropher's army also perished. Oropher himself was killed in the very first assault upon the [[Mordor]] as he and other brave and hasty Elves rushed forward before Gil-galad gave the signal to charge. At the end of the war the remnants of the army returned to [[Mirkwood|Greenwood]] under the command of Oropher's son, Thranduil.<ref name="Sindarin Princes" />
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==In Other Publications==
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Despite Oropher's relationship to two key characters from both ''[[The Hobbit]]'' and ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' ([[Thranduil]] and [[Legolas]] respectively) no mention of Oropher is made in any other [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] publication beyond ''[[Unfinished Tales]]''.
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==Genealogy==
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{{familytree/start}}
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{{familytree| ORO |ORO='''OROPHER'''<br/><small>''d. {{SA|3434}}''</small>}}
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{{familytree| |!| |}}
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{{familytree| THR |THR=[[Thranduil]]<br/><small>''Unknown''</small>}}
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{{familytree| |!| |}}
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{{familytree| LEG |LEG=[[Legolas]]<br/><small>''Sailed West {{FoA|120}}''</small>}}
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{{familytree/end}}
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==Etymology==
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Oropher came from [[Doriath]] - indicating that the name could be [[Sindarin]] or [[Doriathrin]] dialect - but:
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{{blockquote|Oropher had come among them with only a handful of Sindar, and they were soon merged with the Silvan Elves, adopting their language and taking names of Silvan form and style. This they did deliberately;|{{UT|Galadriel}}}}
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The name probably means 'tall beech-tree'<ref name="EOA">[http://www.glyphweb.com/arda The Encyclopedia of Arda], "[http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/o/oropher.html Oropher]", dated 21 April 2003 (accessed [[13 January|January 13]], [[2011]])</ref> from '''oro''' meaning 'high' and '''fêr''' meaning 'beech'.<ref name="Thains">[http://www.tuckborough.net/ The Thain's Book], "[http://www.tuckborough.net/elves.html#Oropher Elves of Middle-earth#Oropher]" (accessed [[13 January|January 13]], [[2011]])</ref>
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==See Also==
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* [[Amdír]] (and his son [[Amroth]])
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* [[Elves of Mirkwood]]
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* [[Woodland Realm]]
  
"Oropher had come among them with only a handful of Sindar, and they were soon merged with the Silvan Elves, adopting their language and taking names of Silvan form and style. This they did deliberately; for they (and other similar adventurers forgotten in the legends or only briefly named) came from Doriath after its ruin and had no desire to leave Middle-earth, nor to be merged with the other Sindar of Beleriand, dominated by the Noldorin [High-elven] Exiles for whom the folk of Doriath had no great love. They wished indeed to become Silvan folk and to return, as they said, to the simple life natural to the Elves before the invitation of the Valar had disturbed it". ''The History of Galadriel and Celeborn, UT.''
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{{references}}
  
West of Oropher's realm was the realm of [[Lórinand]] across [[Anduin]], where [[Amdír]], another Sindar ruled over Silvan Elves. When [[Sauron]] returned to [[Middle-earth]] and southern Greenwood became dangerous and was renamed [[Mirkwood]],  Oropher's folk retreated north of the old Dwarf Road, and later again north of the Mountains of Mirkwood, where they fortified themselves.
 
  
Oropher answered the summons for the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]], and joined with [[Gil-galad]]'s forces as they marched down Anduin to [[Dagorlad]]. Oropher's army was lightly armed and he and Amdír refused to accept Gil-galad as the commander-in-chief of the armies. Thus in the battle of Dagorlad, though Oropher's company fought valiantly, he was slain with the greater part of his people when he grew hasty and called an early charge, disobeying Gil-galad's orders to wait with the attack.
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{{seq
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| prev=Unknown
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| list=King of the Silvan Elves
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| dates=unknown - {{SA|3434}}
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| next=[[Thranduil]]
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}}
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{{seq-end}}
  
After Sauron was defeated, [[Thranduil]], Oropher's son and heir, returned with the remainder of his people north back to Mirkwood. While one third of them survived, their army was still large enough that the [[Orcs]] hiding in secret in the [[Hithaeglir]] did not dare attack them.
 
 
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[[de:Oropher]]
 
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Revision as of 12:33, 4 November 2012

Oropher
Sinda
Biographical Information
TitlesKing of the Silvan Elves
LocationWoodland Realm
AffiliationLast Alliance of Elves and Men
LanguageSindarin and Silvan
BirthDuring F.A. or Y.T.
Middle-earth
Ruleunknown - S.A. 3434
DeathS.A. 3434
Battle of Dagorlad
Family
ChildrenThranduil
Physical Description
GenderMale
Oropher was a Sindarin Elf of Doriath who became the King of the Silvan Elves of Greenwood the Great (Mirkwood) during the Second Age; he was killed during the Battle of Dagorlad. He was the father of Elvenking of The Hobbit, Thranduil, and grandfather of the Elven member of the Fellowship of the Ring, Legolas.

Contents

History

Oropher was a Sinda from Doriath who, following the destruction of Beleriand and the War of Wrath, was unwilling to leave Middle-earth for Aman (as were many other Elves).[1]

Move to Greenwood the Great

In the Second Age, Oropher - with a few other Sindar - chose to cross the Misty Mountains and mingle with Silvan Elves of Greenwood the Great as they were not dominated by Noldorin Exiles:[1] the Elves of Doriath had no fondness for the Noldor with King Thingol banning the Noldorin language and forbidding any Noldor from entering Doriath, except the children of Finarfin as they were related to Thingol (Finarfin's wife, Eärwen was Thingol's niece).[2] The Silvan Elves shared common heritage with the Sindar as both the Silvan Elves (originally known as the Nandor) and the Sindar were of the Teleri clan.[3]

The Sindar adopted the language of the Silvan Elves and wholly embraced the life of the Silvan Elves as the Sindar desired to experience a more "rustic" and "natural" way of life as was the case after their awakening in Cuiviénen.[1] The Silvan Elves accepted Oropher as their King.

Originally, the Silvan Elves lived in the south of Greenwood the Great, with Amon Lanc as Oropher's capital, but over the course of the Second Age they gradually moved north to live around the Emyn Duir. The reason for this migration is unclear, being explained with two different reason: due to the threat of Sauron from the south (who located to Mordor and started building Barad-dûr in circa S.A. 1000);[4] or, due to both the increasing power of Dwarves of Moria and out of resentment towards to the intrusions of Galadriel and Celeborn into Lórien.[1]

War of the Last Alliance

Despite the Silvan Elves' hostility towards the Dwarves and the Noldor - and their desire to stay away from the affairs of the rest of the world - Oropher could see the danger that Sauron posed, and whose defeat would bring about peace in Middle-earth, so joined the Last Alliance of Elves and Men. Oropher summoned a great army which joined with Amdír's smaller force of Lórien Elves to create one large host of Silvan Elves; the Silvan Elves were strong and brave, but had poor armour and weapons in comparison with Noldorin Elves.[1]

Amdír and Oropher were unwilling to submit to the supreme command of Gil-galad, as such they suffered heavier losses in the War of the Last Alliance. Amdír, and half his forces, died in the Battle of Dagorlad as they were cut off in the Dead Marshes from the main force, whilst two-thirds of Oropher's army also perished. Oropher himself was killed in the very first assault upon the Mordor as he and other brave and hasty Elves rushed forward before Gil-galad gave the signal to charge. At the end of the war the remnants of the army returned to Greenwood under the command of Oropher's son, Thranduil.[1]

In Other Publications

Despite Oropher's relationship to two key characters from both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings (Thranduil and Legolas respectively) no mention of Oropher is made in any other Tolkien publication beyond Unfinished Tales.

Genealogy

OROPHER
d. S.A. 3434
 
 
 
 
Thranduil
Unknown
 
 
 
 
Legolas
Sailed West Fo.A. 120

Etymology

Oropher came from Doriath - indicating that the name could be Sindarin or Doriathrin dialect - but:

Oropher had come among them with only a handful of Sindar, and they were soon merged with the Silvan Elves, adopting their language and taking names of Silvan form and style. This they did deliberately;
J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn"

The name probably means 'tall beech-tree'[5] from oro meaning 'high' and fêr meaning 'beech'.[6]

See Also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Return of the Noldor"
  3. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Sindar"
  4. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The Disaster of the Gladden Fields", note 14
  5. The Encyclopedia of Arda, "Oropher", dated 21 April 2003 (accessed January 13, 2011)
  6. The Thain's Book, "Elves of Middle-earth#Oropher" (accessed January 13, 2011)


Oropher
Preceded by:
Unknown
King of the Silvan Elves
unknown - S.A. 3434
Followed by:
Thranduil