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Oropher

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{{sindar infobox
 
{{sindar infobox
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| image=[[File:Kimberly - Oropher.jpg|250px]]
 
| name=Oropher
 
| name=Oropher
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| titles=King of the Silvan Elves
 
| titles=King of the Silvan Elves
 
| position=
 
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| realm=[[Woodland Realm]]
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| location=[[Woodland Realm]]
 
| affiliation=[[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]
 
| affiliation=[[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]
 
| language=[[Sindarin]] and [[Silvan Elvish|Silvan]]
 
| language=[[Sindarin]] and [[Silvan Elvish|Silvan]]
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| deathlocation=[[Battle of Dagorlad]]
 
| deathlocation=[[Battle of Dagorlad]]
 
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}}'''Oropher''' was a [[Sindarin]] [[Elves|Elf]] of [[Doriath]] who became the King of the [[Nandor|Silvan Elves]] of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]] (Mirkwood) during the [[Second Age]]; he was killed during the [[Battle of Dagorlad]]. He was the father of Elvenking of ''[[The Hobbit]]'', [[Thranduil]], and grandfather of the [[Elven]] member of the [[Fellowship of the Ring]], [[Legolas]].  
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}}'''Oropher''' was a [[Sindar]]in [[Elves|Elf]] of [[Doriath]] who became the King of the [[Nandor|Silvan Elves]] of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]] (which would later come to be called Mirkwood) during the [[Second Age]]. He was killed during the [[Battle of Dagorlad]] and succeeded by his son, the Elvenking [[Thranduil]]. He was thus the grandfather of the only [[Elven]] member of the [[Fellowship of the Ring]], [[Legolas]].  
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==History==
 
==History==
Oropher was a [[Sindar|Sinda]] from [[Doriath]] who, following the destruction of [[Beleriand]] and the [[War of Wrath]], was unwilling to leave [[Middle-earth]] for [[Aman]] (as were many other [[Elves]]).<ref name="Sindarin Princes">{{UT|Galadriel}}, "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"</ref>  
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Oropher was one of the [[Iathrim]] who spent his early life in Doriath. Following the destruction of [[Beleriand]] and the [[War of Wrath]], most of the [[Noldor]]in exiles and remnants of the Sindar retreated to [[Lindon]]. The [[Valar]] reinvited these Elves to [[Aman]], but Oropher, among many others, was unwilling and remained in Lindon.<ref name="Princes">{{UT|6b}}</ref>  
  
 
===Move to Greenwood the Great===
 
===Move to Greenwood the Great===
In the [[Second Age]], Oropher - with a few other [[Sindar]] - chose to cross the [[Misty Mountains]] and mingle with [[Elves of Mirkwood|Silvan Elves]] of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]] as they were not dominated by [[Noldor]]in Exiles:<ref name="Sindarin Princes" /> the Elves of Doriath had no fondness for the Noldor with King [[Thingol]] banning the [[Quenya|Noldorin language]] and forbidding any Noldor from entering Doriath, except the children of [[Finarfin]] as they were related to Thingol (Finarfin's wife, [[Eärwen]] was Thingol's niece).<ref name="Return">{{S|Return}}</ref> The Silvan Elves shared common heritage with the Sindar as both the Silvan Elves (originally known as the ''[[Nandor]]'') and the Sindar were of the [[Teleri]] clan.<ref name="Sindar">{{S|Sindar}}</ref>
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Some of the Sindar of Lindon, not wishing to stay with the dominant Noldor under [[Gil-galad]], chose to go east and live with the [[Nandor]] with whom they shared the same [[Teleri]]n ancestry.<ref name="Sindar">{{S|Sindar}}</ref> Oropher with his people crossed the [[Misty Mountains]] and mingled with the [[Elves of Mirkwood|Silvan Elves]] of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]]. The Sindar adopted the language and wholly embraced the life of the Silvan Elves.<ref name="Princes" />  
 
   
 
   
The Sindar adopted the language of the Silvan Elves and wholly embraced the life of the Silvan Elves as the Sindar desired to experience a more "rustic" and "natural" way of life as was the case after their awakening in [[Cuiviénen]].<ref name="Sindarin Princes" /> The Silvan Elves accepted Oropher as their King.
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The Silvan Elves, who originally lived in the south of Greenwood, accepted Oropher as their King, who ruled from his capital on [[Amon Lanc]]. Over the course of the [[Second Age]] they gradually moved north to live around the [[Emyn Duir]].<ref name="Princes" />
 
+
Originally, the Silvan Elves lived in the south of [[Mirkwood|Greenwood the Great]], with [[Amon Lanc]] as Oropher's capital, but over the course of the [[Second Age]] they gradually moved north to live around the [[Emyn Duir]]. The reason for this migration is unclear, being explained with two different reason: due to the threat of [[Sauron]] from the south (who located to [[Mordor]] and started building [[Barad-dûr]] in circa {{SA|1000}});<ref name="Gladden">{{UT|Gladden}}, note 14</ref> or, due to both the increasing power of [[Dwarves]] of [[Moria]] and out of resentment towards to the intrusions of [[Galadriel]] and [[Celeborn]] into [[Lothlórien|Lórien]].<ref name="Sindarin Princes" />
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===War of the Last Alliance===
 
===War of the Last Alliance===
Despite the Silvan Elves' hostility towards the [[Dwarves]] and the Noldor - and their desire to stay away from the affairs of the rest of the world - Oropher could see the danger that [[Sauron]] posed, and whose defeat would bring about peace in [[Middle-earth]], so joined the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]]. Oropher summoned a great army which joined with [[Amdír]]'s smaller force of [[Galadhrim|Lórien Elves]] to create one large host of Silvan Elves; the Silvan Elves were strong and brave, but had poor armour and weapons in comparison with [[Noldor]]in Elves.<ref name="Sindarin Princes" />
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Despite the Silvan Elves' hostility towards the [[Dwarves]] and the Noldor - and their desire to stay away from the affairs of the rest of the world - Oropher could see the danger that [[Sauron]] posed, and that his defeat would bring about peace in [[Middle-earth]]. He thus joined the [[Last Alliance of Elves and Men]], summoning a large army which joined with [[Amdír]]'s smaller force of [[Galadhrim|Lórien Elves]] to create a singular, great host of Silvan Elves.<ref name="Princes" />
  
[[Amdír]] and Oropher were unwilling to submit to the supreme command of [[Gil-galad]], as such they suffered heavier losses in the [[War of the Last Alliance]]. Amdír, and half his forces, died in the [[Battle of Dagorlad]] as they were cut off in the [[Dead Marshes]] from the main force, whilst two-thirds of Oropher's army also perished. Oropher himself was killed in the very first assault upon the [[Mordor]] as he and other brave and hasty Elves rushed forward before Gil-galad gave the signal to charge. At the end of the war the remnants of the army returned to [[Mirkwood|Greenwood]] under the command of Oropher's son, Thranduil.<ref name="Sindarin Princes" />
+
The Silvan Elves were strong and brave, but despite having poor armour and weapons in comparison with the [[Noldor]], Amdír and Oropher were unwilling to submit to the supreme command of [[Gil-galad]] and as such they suffered heavy losses in the [[War of the Last Alliance]]. In the very first assault upon [[Mordor]] Oropher and other brave and hasty Elves rushed forward before Gil-galad gave the signal to charge. Oropher himself was killed soon afterwards, whilst two-thirds of his army perished throughout the course of the war. Upon Sauron's defeat the remnants of the army returned to Greenwood under the command of his son, Thranduil.<ref name="Princes" />
 
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==In Other Publications==
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Despite Oropher's relationship to two key characters from both ''[[The Hobbit]]'' and ''[[The Lord of the Rings]]'' ([[Thranduil]] and [[Legolas]] respectively) no mention of Oropher is made in any other [[J.R.R. Tolkien|Tolkien]] publication beyond ''[[Unfinished Tales]]''.
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==Genealogy==
 
==Genealogy==
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{{familytree/end}}
 
{{familytree/end}}
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
The [[Encyclopedia of Arda]] suggests that the etymology of ''Oropher'' is "''Uncertain, but likely 'tall beech-tree<nowiki>'</nowiki>''".<ref name="EOA">[http://www.glyphweb.com/arda The Encyclopedia of Arda], "[http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/o/oropher.html Oropher]", dated 21 April 2003 (accessed [[13 January|January 13]], [[2011]])</ref> [http://www.tuckborough.net/ The Thain's Book] is similarly unsure: "''The name '''Oropher''' may mean 'high beech' from '''oro''' meaning 'high' and '''pher''' meaning 'beech.<nowiki>'</nowiki>''"<ref name="Thains">[http://www.tuckborough.net/ The Thain's Book], "[http://www.tuckborough.net/elves.html#Oropher Elves of Middle-earth#Oropher]" (accessed [[13 January|January 13]], [[2011]])</ref> The exact language of the name is difficult to determine as Oropher came from [[Doriath]] - indicating that the name could be [[Sindarin]] or the [[Doriathrin]] dialect - but the following quote makes the situation vague:  
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Oropher came from [[Doriath]] - indicating that the name could be [[Sindarin]] or [[Doriathrin]] dialect - but:  
  
 
{{blockquote|Oropher had come among them with only a handful of Sindar, and they were soon merged with the Silvan Elves, adopting their language and taking names of Silvan form and style. This they did deliberately;|{{UT|Galadriel}}}}
 
{{blockquote|Oropher had come among them with only a handful of Sindar, and they were soon merged with the Silvan Elves, adopting their language and taking names of Silvan form and style. This they did deliberately;|{{UT|Galadriel}}}}
  
Oropher is unlisted in [[Robert Foster]]'s ''[[The Complete Guide to Middle-earth]]'', [[Ruth S. Noel]]'s ''[[The Languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth]]'' and [[Jim Allan]]'s ''[[An Introduction to Elvish]]'' as these works were written before the publication of ''[[Unfinished Tales]]'' in which Oropher is revealed. As such, etymological information from these books are unavailable for comparison.
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The name probably means 'tall beech-tree'<ref name="EOA">[http://www.glyphweb.com/arda The Encyclopedia of Arda], "[http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/o/oropher.html Oropher]", dated 21 April 2003 (accessed [[13 January|January 13]], [[2011]])</ref> from '''oro''' meaning 'high' and '''fêr''' meaning 'beech'.<ref name="Thains">[http://www.tuckborough.net/ The Thain's Book], "[http://www.tuckborough.net/elves.html#Oropher Elves of Middle-earth#Oropher]" (accessed [[13 January|January 13]], [[2011]])</ref>
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
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{{references}}
 
{{references}}
 
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All that is known about Oropher is mentioned only in the narrative of ''[[Galadriel and Celeborn]]''.
 
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Latest revision as of 00:48, 31 August 2014

Kimberly - Oropher.jpg
Oropher
Sinda
Biographical Information
TitlesKing of the Silvan Elves
LocationWoodland Realm
AffiliationLast Alliance of Elves and Men
LanguageSindarin and Silvan
BirthDuring F.A. or Y.T.
Middle-earth
Ruleunknown - S.A. 3434
DeathS.A. 3434
Battle of Dagorlad
Family
ChildrenThranduil
Physical Description
GenderMale
Oropher was a Sindarin Elf of Doriath who became the King of the Silvan Elves of Greenwood the Great (which would later come to be called Mirkwood) during the Second Age. He was killed during the Battle of Dagorlad and succeeded by his son, the Elvenking Thranduil. He was thus the grandfather of the only Elven member of the Fellowship of the Ring, Legolas.


Contents

[edit] History

Oropher was one of the Iathrim who spent his early life in Doriath. Following the destruction of Beleriand and the War of Wrath, most of the Noldorin exiles and remnants of the Sindar retreated to Lindon. The Valar reinvited these Elves to Aman, but Oropher, among many others, was unwilling and remained in Lindon.[1]

[edit] Move to Greenwood the Great

Some of the Sindar of Lindon, not wishing to stay with the dominant Noldor under Gil-galad, chose to go east and live with the Nandor with whom they shared the same Telerin ancestry.[2] Oropher with his people crossed the Misty Mountains and mingled with the Silvan Elves of Greenwood the Great. The Sindar adopted the language and wholly embraced the life of the Silvan Elves.[1]

The Silvan Elves, who originally lived in the south of Greenwood, accepted Oropher as their King, who ruled from his capital on Amon Lanc. Over the course of the Second Age they gradually moved north to live around the Emyn Duir.[1]

[edit] War of the Last Alliance

Despite the Silvan Elves' hostility towards the Dwarves and the Noldor - and their desire to stay away from the affairs of the rest of the world - Oropher could see the danger that Sauron posed, and that his defeat would bring about peace in Middle-earth. He thus joined the Last Alliance of Elves and Men, summoning a large army which joined with Amdír's smaller force of Lórien Elves to create a singular, great host of Silvan Elves.[1]

The Silvan Elves were strong and brave, but despite having poor armour and weapons in comparison with the Noldor, Amdír and Oropher were unwilling to submit to the supreme command of Gil-galad and as such they suffered heavy losses in the War of the Last Alliance. In the very first assault upon Mordor Oropher and other brave and hasty Elves rushed forward before Gil-galad gave the signal to charge. Oropher himself was killed soon afterwards, whilst two-thirds of his army perished throughout the course of the war. Upon Sauron's defeat the remnants of the army returned to Greenwood under the command of his son, Thranduil.[1]

[edit] Genealogy

OROPHER
d. S.A. 3434
 
 
 
 
Thranduil
Unknown
 
 
 
 
Legolas
Sailed West Fo.A. 120

[edit] Etymology

Oropher came from Doriath - indicating that the name could be Sindarin or Doriathrin dialect - but:

Oropher had come among them with only a handful of Sindar, and they were soon merged with the Silvan Elves, adopting their language and taking names of Silvan form and style. This they did deliberately;
J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn"

The name probably means 'tall beech-tree'[3] from oro meaning 'high' and fêr meaning 'beech'.[4]

[edit] See Also

[edit] References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Unfinished Tales, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", "Appendix B: The Sindarin Princes of the Silvan Elves"
  2. J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion, "Quenta Silmarillion: Of the Sindar"
  3. The Encyclopedia of Arda, "Oropher", dated 21 April 2003 (accessed January 13, 2011)
  4. The Thain's Book, "Elves of Middle-earth#Oropher" (accessed January 13, 2011)

All that is known about Oropher is mentioned only in the narrative of Galadriel and Celeborn.

Oropher
Preceded by:
Unknown
King of the Silvan Elves
unknown - S.A. 3434
Followed by:
Thranduil