|Other names||Seeing Stones|
|Location||Various locations in Endor|
|Owned by||Elendil and his line, Ruling Stewards, Saruman|
|Maker||Eldar (possibly Fëanor)|
|Appearance||Smooth, round, dark stones|
- "The palantír replied to each, but all those in Gondor were ever open to the view of Osgiliath. Now it appears that, as the rock of Orthanc has withstood the storms of time, so there the palantír of that tower has remained. But alone it could do nothing but see small images of things far off and days remote. Very useful, no doubt, that was to Saruman; yet it seems that he was not content. Further and further abroad he gazed, until he cast his gaze upon Barad-dûr. Then he was caught!"
- ― Gandalf, The Palantír
The palantíri (palantír sometimes being translated as Seeing Stone but literally meaning "One that sees from afar") were stones that could be used in communication with one another, and also to see many things across the face of the world. When its master looked in it, he could communicate with other Stones and anyone who might be looking into them; people of great power can manipulate the Stones to see virtually any part of the world.
Origin and Early History
The palantíri were made by the Elves of Valinor in the Uttermost West, almost certainly by the Ñoldor and possibly by Fëanor. Many palantíri were made, but the number is not known. Some had power over other Stones. The stones had various sizes. The smallest had a diameter of about a foot, while the greatest filled a large chamber.
Some of the stones were given to the Dúnedain of Númenor as a gift during the Second Age by Gil-galad. Of these, Elendil took seven with him on his flight to Middle-earth upon the Downfall of Númenor, and in time they were distributed among seven places: four in Gondor and three in Arnor.
Third Age and beyond
One by one the stones vanished from public knowledge or were lost. The Osgiliath palantír fell into Anduin during the Kinstrife. The Elostirion palantír was locked away in its tower. When Arvedui, King of Arnor, was wrecked and his line ended, he drowned with the palantíri of Amon Sûl and Annúminas. The Minas Ithil palantír was secretly seized by Sauron after the fall of that city, and put to his own use. The Orthanc palantír was taken by Saruman, and the Minas Anor palantír was used by the Kings until the end of their line, and the Ruling Stewards kept the stone hidden until the time of Denethor II.
Several of these hidden or lost stones came to light during the War of the Ring. Previous to this, Saruman used his palantír to gain knowledge, and eventually was caught when he dared to looked toward Mordor. Thus, the above war was greatly affected by these stones. Later, upon Saruman's downfall, its rightful master Aragorn II twisted it to his will, so that it no longer had a connection with the stolen Ithil stone.
The second palantír to be revealed was that of Minas Anor. Denethor, too, had glanced toward Mordor with it, but his great hate of evil and power of will prevented him from being snared, though it taxed him greatly. Partially because of what he saw he eventually committed suicide in the darkest hour. This stone was later used by King Aragorn II, though it is said that anyone of weaker will who looked into it would see the writhing hands of Denethor in his final agony.
- The Stone of Osgiliath was the largest stone among the seven, and chief among them. It was placed in a prominent building in the capital city of the kingdom of Gondor. The ceiling was painted to resemble a starry sky, and gave its name (os-giliath, the Dome of Stars) to the city itself. This Stone was the first to be lost: during the civil war of the Kin-strife around the middle of the Third Age, it fell into the river Anduin.
- One Stone was placed in the tower of Elostirion in the Tower Hills, just west of The Shire. Until it was taken back to the West with the three Elven Rings, it could be used to look along the Straight Road to Avallonë.
- The other two Stones in Arnor were those of the watch-tower of Amon Sûl and the city of Annúminas. Both of these were lost when Arvedui Last-king was shipwrecked in the Ice-bay of Forochel, in T.A. 1975.
- One Stone was placed at Minas Ithil in the mountains that came to be known as the Ephel Dúath. When Minas Ithil fell to the Nazgûl, the Ithil-stone was taken to the Barad-dûr and used by Sauron. It was presumably destroyed at the fall of Sauron.
- One Stone was placed at Orthanc, the great tower built by the Dúnedain in the Second Age at the southern end of the Misty Mountains. It fell into the hands of the wizard Saruman, who used it to garner information on his neighbors and their activities. The stone was also partially responsible for Saruman's fall from grace, as he was using it when he came upon Sauron, and was ensnared by him, though his transformation to one of the fallen Maiar had undoubtedly begun much earlier. Saruman later used the stone to confer with Sauron through the Ithil-stone in Barad-dûr, and plan much of their mutual cooperation throughout the War of the Ring. This communication likely influenced his decision that resistance against Sauron was futile.
Later, Gríma, also called Wormtongue, cast the stone down from Orthanc, where it was recovered by Peregrin Took and turned over to Gandalf. Peregrin inadvertently contacted Sauron, after which Gandalf turned the stone over to Aragorn.
Using the stone, Aragorn declared himself as the heir of Isildur to Sauron, seeking to distract him from Frodo. Sauron was led to believe that the One Ring had fallen into the hands of Aragorn or some other Western leader, and this was partly responsible for Sauron's hasty assault against Gondor. Sauron's attack, before he was fully ready, deeply influenced the outcome of the war. The Orthanc-stone remained in the custody of the Kings of Gondor in the Fourth Age.
- One Stone was placed at Minas Anor, later renamed Minas Tirith and made the capital of Gondor. It was ultimately used by Steward Denethor to spy on Sauron. Denethor did not become corrupted, but the great effort of will that this required of him led him to age quickly. Furthermore, using the Ithil-stone, Sauron largely controlled what Denethor saw, leading to the latter's despair and insanity. Denethor was holding the stone when he committed suicide on a funeral pyre, and after this, only people of exceeding power could see in it anything other than two flaming hands.
The stones' gaze can pierce anything except darkness and shadow. A technique called shrouding was used when something was to be kept secret from the enemies' eyes. Knowledge of this technique was however lost long ago, although Sauron probably knew of it.